Candidate genes and neuropsychological phenotypes in children with ADHD: review of association studies.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We reviewed systematically the results of genetic studies investigating associations between putative susceptibility genes for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and neuropsychological traits relevant for this disorder. METHODS: We identified papers for review through the PubMed database. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies examined 10 genes (DRD4, DAT1, COMT, DBH, MAOA, DRD5, ADRA2A, GRIN2A, BDNF and TPH2) in relation to neuropsychological traits relevant for ADHD. For DRD4, the continuous performance test (CPT) and derived tasks were the most used tests. Association of high reaction time variability with the 7-repeat allele absence appears to be the most consistent result and seems to be specific to ADHD. Speed of processing, set-shifting and cognitive impulsiveness were less frequently investigated but seem to be altered in the 7-repeat allele carriers. No effect of genotype was found on response inhibition (the stop and go/no-go tasks). For DAT1, 4 studies provide conflicting results in relation to omission and commission errors from CPT and derived tasks. High reaction time variability seems to be the most replicated cognitive marker associated with the 10-repeat homozygosity. The other genes have attracted fewer studies, and the reported findings need to be replicated. LIMITATIONS: Although we aimed to perform a formal meta-analysis, this was not possible because the number of studies using the same neurocognitive endophenotypes was limited. We referred only minimally to the various theoretical frameworks in this field of research; more detail would have been beyond the scope of our systematic review. Finally, sample sizes in most of the studies we reviewed were small. Thus, some negative findings could be attributed to a lack of statistical power, and positive results should be considered preliminary until they are replicated in extended samples. CONCLUSION: Several methodological issues, including measurement errors, developmental changes in cognitive abilities, sex, psychostimulant effects and presence of comorbid conditions, represent confounding factors and may explain conflicting results.
Project description:Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and potentially very impairing neuropsychiatric disorder of childhood. Statistical genetic studies of twins have shown ADHD to be highly heritable, with the combination of genes and gene by environment interactions accounting for around 80% of phenotypic variance. The initial molecular genetic studies where candidates were selected because of the efficacy of dopaminergic compounds in the treatment of ADHD were remarkably successful and provided strong evidence for the role of DRD4 and DAT1 variants in the pathogenesis of ADHD. However, the recent application of non-candidate gene strategies (eg, genome-wide association scans) has failed to identify additional genes with substantial genetic main effects, and the effects for DRD4 and DAT1 have not been replicated. This is the usual pattern observed for most other physical and mental disorders evaluated with current state-of-the-art methods. In this paper we discuss future strategies for genetic studies in ADHD, highlighting both the pitfalls and possible solutions relating to candidate gene studies, genome-wide studies, defining the phenotype, and statistical approaches.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Sleep problems is the most common side effect of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD youth and carry potential to negatively impact long-term self-regulatory functioning. This study aimed to examine whether applying machine learning approaches to pre-treatment demographic, clinical questionnaire, environmental, neuropsychological, genetic, and neuroimaging features can predict sleep side effects following MPH administration. METHOD:The present study included 83 ADHD subjects as a training dataset. The participants were enrolled in an 8-week, open-label trial of MPH. The Barkley Stimulant Side Effects Rating Scale was used to determine the presence/absence of sleep problems at the 2nd week of treatment. Prediction of sleep side effects were performed with step-wise addition of variables measured at baseline: demographics (age, gender, IQ, height/weight) and clinical variables (ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale) at stage 1, neuropsychological test (continuous performance test (CPT), Stroop color word test) and genetic/environmental variables (dopamine and norepinephrine receptor gene (DAT1, DRD4, ADRA2A, and SLC6A2) polymorphisms, blood lead, and urine cotinine level) at stage 2, and structural connectivities of frontostriatal circuits at stage 3. Three different machine learning algorithms ((Logistic Ridge Regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), J48) were used for data analysis. Robustness of classifier model was validated in the independent dataset of 36 ADHD subjects. RESULTS:Classification accuracy of LR was 95.5% (area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.99), followed by SVM (91.0%, AUC 0.85) and J48 (90.0%, AUC 0.87) at stage 3 for predicting sleep problems. The inattention symptoms of ADHD-RS, CPT response time variability, the DAT1, ADRA2A DraI, and SLC6A2 A-3081T polymorphisms, and the structural connectivities between frontal and striatal brain regions were identified as the most differentiating subset of features. Validation analysis achieved accuracy of 86.1% (AUC 0.92) at stage 3 with J48. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide preliminary support to the combination of multimodal classifier, in particular, neuroimaging features, as an informative method that can assist in predicting MPH side effects in ADHD.
Project description:Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.
Project description:Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inattention, poor impulse control, and motor restlessness. Risk factors include familial stressors, anxiety disorders, learning disabilities, abnormal brain development, heritability, and dopamine polymorphisms. Children with an orofacial clefting (OFC) history are at increased risk of familial stressors, anxiety disorders, learning disabilities, and abnormal brain development. Given this overlap, we present a conceptual model proposing that children with OFC may be more likely to exhibit ADHD symptoms than children without and explore this relationship using pilot data.This cross-sectional pilot study included 29 children with OFC or a first-degree relative with OFC recruited through a cleft research registry.The Disruptive Behavior Disorder Scale was used to collect data on children's ADHD symptoms. Saliva or whole blood samples were collected from children and parents for DNA analyses. ADHD-associated dopamine polymorphisms within the DRD4, DRD2, and DAT1 genes were genotyped. We tested for associations between presence of OFC and dopamine polymorphisms. Mixed-effects models tested whether children with OFC and dopamine polymorphisms had more ADHD symptoms.The DRD4 4-repeat allele was associated with increased inattentive ADHD symptoms (p = .03). Having the DRD2 Taq1A1 allele and OFC predicted fewer (p = .02) inattentive ADHD symptoms. Children with OFC were significantly less likely to have the DAT1 10-repeat allele (p = .04).Results indicate that further investigation among a larger sample of children with OFC is warranted, particularly for relationships with inattentive ADHD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lead is known to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) even at low concentrations. We aimed to evaluate neurocognitive functions associated with lead in the blood and the interactions between lead and dopaminergic or noradrenergic pathway-related genotypes in youths with ADHD. METHODS:A total of 259 youths with ADHD and 96 healthy controls (aged 5-18?years) enrolled in this study. The Korean Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version was conducted for psychiatric diagnostic evaluation. Blood lead levels were measured, and their interaction with dopaminergic or noradrenergic genotypes for ADHD; namely, the dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and alpha-2A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) genotypes were investigated. All participants were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS). Participants also completed the continuous performance test (CPT) and Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT). Analysis of covariance was used for comparison of blood lead levels between ADHD and control groups. A multivariable linear regression model was used to evaluate the associations of blood lead levels with the results of ADHD-RS, CPT, and SCWT; adjusted for intelligence quotient (IQ), age, and sex. A path analysis model was used to identify the mediating effects of neurocognitive functions on the effects of blood lead on ADHD symptoms. To evaluate the effect of the interaction between blood lead and genes on neuropsychological functions, hierarchical regression analyses were performed. RESULTS:There was a significant difference in blood lead levels between the ADHD and control groups (1.4?±?0.5 vs. 1.3?±?0.5??g/dL, p?=?.005). Blood lead levels showed a positive correlation with scores on omission errors(r?=?.158, p?=?.003) and response time variability (r?=?.136, p?=?.010) of CPT. In the multivariable linear regression model, blood lead levels were associated with omission errors (B?=?3.748, p?=?.045). Regarding the effects of lead on ADHD symptoms, hyperactivity-impulsivity was mediated by omission errors. An interaction effect was detected between ADRA2A DraI genotype and lead levels on omission errors (B?=?5.066, p?=?.041). CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that neurocognitive functions at least partly mediate the association between blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms, and that neurocognitive functions are affected by the interaction between blood lead levels and noradrenergic genotype.
Project description:The G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1 gene (GIT1) has been proposed to be a risk gene for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and it regulates the endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors like dopamine receptors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of GIT1 and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene variants on variables of the continuous performance test (CPT).This study recruited 255 ADHD patients and 98 healthy controls (HC) who underwent CPT and genetic analyses. The genotypes were classified into two groups (the C/C and C/T genotype groups for GIT1, 4R homozygotes and others for DRD4) and the genotype × genotype effects were examined using hierarchical multivariable linear regression analyses.There were significant GIT1 × DRD4 effects for commission errors on the CPT in the ADHD group (p = .006). In contrast, there were no significant GIT1 × DRD4 effects on any CPT variables in the HC.The present findings demonstrated that there were significant interaction effects of the GIT1 and DRD4 gene variants on impulsivity in ADHD. Replication studies with larger sample sizes that include patients from various ethnic backgrounds are warranted to confirm these findings.
Project description:Little is known about the causes of individual differences in reward sensitivity. We investigated gene-environment interactions (GxE) on behavioral and neural measures of reward sensitivity, in light of the differential susceptibility theory. This theory states that individuals carrying plasticity gene variants will be more disadvantaged in negative, but more advantaged in positive environments. Reward responses were assessed during a monetary incentive delay task in 178 participants with and 265 without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from N=261 families. We examined interactions between variants in candidate plasticity genes (DAT1, 5-HTT and DRD4) and social environments (maternal expressed emotion and peer affiliation). HTTLPR short allele carriers showed the least reward speeding when exposed to high positive peer affiliation, but the most when faced with low positive peer affiliation or low maternal warmth. DAT1 10-repeat homozygotes displayed similar GxE patterns toward maternal warmth on general task performance. At the neural level, DRD4 7-repeat carriers showed the least striatal activation during reward anticipation when exposed to high maternal warmth, but the most when exposed to low warmth. Findings were independent of ADHD severity. Our results partially confirm the differential susceptibility theory and indicate the importance of positive social environments in reward sensitivity and general task performance for persons with specific genotypes.
Project description:As heritability is high in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), genetic factors must play a significant role in the development and course of this disorder. In recent years a large number of studies on different candidate genes for ADHD have been published, most have focused on genes involved in the dopaminergic neurotransmission system, such as DRD4, DRD5, DAT1/SLC6A3, DBH, DDC. Genes associated with the noradrenergic (such as NET1/SLC6A2, ADRA2A, ADRA2C) and serotonergic systems (such as 5-HTT/SLC6A4, HTR1B, HTR2A, TPH2) have also received considerable interest. Additional candidate genes related to neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity that have been studied less intensively include SNAP25, CHRNA4, NMDA, BDNF, NGF, NTF3, NTF4/5, GDNF. This review article provides an overview of these candidate gene studies, and summarizes findings from recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWAS is a relatively new tool that enables the identification of new ADHD genes in a hypothesis-free manner. Although these latter studies could be improved and need to be replicated they are starting to implicate processes like neuronal migration and cell adhesion and cell division as potentially important in the aetiology of ADHD and have suggested several new directions for future ADHD genetics studies.
Project description:Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable, heterogeneous disorder of early onset, consisting of a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The disorder has a significant genetic component, and theories of etiology include abnormalities in the dopaminergic system, with DRD4, DAT1, SNAP25, and DRD5 being implicated as major susceptibility genes. An initial report of association between ADHD and the common 148-bp allele of a microsatellite marker located 18.5 kb from the DRD5 gene has been followed by several studies showing nonsignificant trends toward association with the same allele. To establish the postulated association of the (CA)(n) repeat with ADHD, we collected genotypic information from 14 independent samples of probands and their parents, analyzed them individually and, in the absence of heterogeneity, analyzed them as a joint sample. The joint analysis showed association with the DRD5 locus (P=.00005; odds ratio 1.24; 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.38). This association appears to be confined to the predominantly inattentive and combined clinical subtypes.
Project description:Case control studies suggest a relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy and childhood ADHD. However, maternal smoking, parenting style and parental psychiatric disorder are possible confounding factors. Our objective was to control for these factors by using an intra-familial design, and investigate gene-environment interactions.One hundred forty two children, ages 6 to 12, (71 with ADHD, and their 71 non-ADHD siblings) participated in the intra-familial study design. A larger sample of ADHD children (N=305) was genotyped for DAT1 and DRD4 to examine gene-environment interactions. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Conners' Global Index for Parents (CGI-P). The Kinney Medical and Gynecological Questionnaire was used to report stressful events during pregnancies.LOGISTIC REGRESSION INDICATED THAT MOTHERS WERE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE EXPERIENCED HIGH STRESS DURING PREGNANCY OF THEIR ADHD CHILD COMPARED TO THAT OF THE UNAFFECTED SIBLING (OR: 6.3, p=.01). In the larger sample, DRD4 7/7 genotype was associated with increased symptom severity in the high stress pregnancy (p=.01).Maternal stress during pregnancy was associated with the development of ADHD symptomatology after controlling for family history of ADHD and other environmental factors. This association could partly be mediated through the DRD4 genotype.