Oxysterol binding protein-related Protein 9 (ORP9) is a cholesterol transfer protein that regulates Golgi structure and function.
ABSTRACT: Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a large gene family that differentially localize to organellar membranes, reflecting a functional role in sterol signaling and/or transport. OSBP partitions between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus where it imparts sterol-dependent regulation of ceramide transport and sphingomyelin synthesis. ORP9L also is localized to the ER-Golgi, but its role in secretion and lipid transport is unknown. Here we demonstrate that ORP9L partitioning between the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN), and the ER is mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P)-specific PH domain and VAMP-associated protein (VAP), respectively. In vitro, both OSBP and ORP9L mediated PI-4P-dependent cholesterol transport between liposomes, suggesting their primary in vivo function is sterol transfer between the Golgi and ER. Depletion of ORP9L by RNAi caused Golgi fragmentation, inhibition of vesicular somatitus virus glycoprotein transport from the ER and accumulation of cholesterol in endosomes/lysosomes. Complete cessation of protein transport and cell growth inhibition was achieved by inducible overexpression of ORP9S, a dominant negative variant lacking the PH domain. We conclude that ORP9 maintains the integrity of the early secretory pathway by mediating transport of sterols between the ER and trans-Golgi/TGN.
Project description:Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident integral membrane protein that controls a nonvesicular mode of ceramide and cholesterol transfer from the ER to the Golgi complex by interacting with ceramide transfer protein and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), respectively. We report that VAP and its interacting proteins are required for the processing and secretion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor, whose transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface is mediated by transport carriers called "carriers of the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface" (CARTS). In VAP-depleted cells, diacylglycerol level at the TGN was decreased and CARTS formation was impaired. We found that VAP forms a complex with not only OSBP but also Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase at specialized ER subdomains that are closely apposed to the trans-Golgi/TGN, most likely reflecting membrane contact sites. Immobilization of ER-Golgi contacts dramatically reduced CARTS production, indicating that association-dissociation dynamics of the two membranes are important. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the ER-Golgi contacts play a pivotal role in lipid metabolism to control the biogenesis of transport carriers from the TGN.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi sterol transfer activity of oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) regulates sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis, as well as post-Golgi cholesterol efflux pathways. The phosphorylation and ER-Golgi localization of OSBP are correlated, suggesting this modification regulates the directionality and/or specificity of transfer activity. In this paper, we report that phosphorylation on two serine-rich motifs, S381-S391 (site 1) and S192, S195, S200 (site 2), specifically controls OSBP activity at the ER. A phosphomimetic of the SM/cholesterol-sensitive phosphorylation site 1 (OSBP-S5E) had increased in vitro cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol-binding capacity, and cholesterol extraction from liposomes, but reduced transfer activity. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) and cholesterol competed for a common binding site on OSBP; however, direct binding of PI(4)P was not affected by site 1 phosphorylation. Individual site 1 and site 2 phosphomutants supported oxysterol activation of SM synthesis in OSBP-deficient CHO cells. However, a double site1/2 mutant (OSBP-S381A/S3D) was deficient in this activity and was constitutively colocalized with vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A (VAP-A) in a collapsed ER network. This study identifies phosphorylation regulation of sterol and VAP-A binding by OSBP in the ER, and PI(4)P as an alternate ligand that could be exchanged for sterol in the Golgi apparatus.
Project description:Cholesterol, which is endocytosed to the late endosome (LE)/lysosome, is delivered to other organelles through vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism of cholesterol transport from recycling endosomes (REs) to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) through RELCH/KIAA1468, which is newly identified in this study as a Rab11-GTP- and OSBP-binding protein. After treating cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol to induce OSBP relocation from the cytoplasm to the TGN, REs accumulated around the TGN area, but this accumulation was diminished in RELCH- or OSBP-depleted cells. Cholesterol content in the TGN was decreased in Rab11-, RELCH-, and OSBP-depleted cells and increased in the LE/lysosome. According to in vitro reconstitution experiments, RELCH tethers Rab11-bound RE-like and OSBP-bound TGN-like liposomes and promotes OSBP-dependent cholesterol transfer from RE-like to TGN-like liposomes. These data suggest that RELCH promotes nonvesicular cholesterol transport from REs to the TGN through membrane tethering.
Project description:Protein kinase D (PKD) plays a critical role at the trans-Golgi network by regulating the fission of transport carriers destined for the plasma membrane. Two known Golgi-localized PKD substrates, PI4-kinase IIIbeta and the ceramide transfer protein CERT, mediate PKD signaling to influence vesicle trafficking to the plasma membrane and sphingomyelin synthesis, respectively. PKD is recruited and activated at the Golgi through interaction with diacylglycerol, a pool of which is generated as a by-product of sphingomyelin synthesis from ceramide. Here we identify a novel substrate of PKD at the Golgi, the oxysterol-binding protein OSBP. Using a substrate-directed phospho-specific antibody that recognizes the optimal PKD consensus motif, we show that PKD phosphorylates OSBP at Ser240 in vitro and in cells. We further show that OSBP phosphorylation occurs at the Golgi. Phosphorylation of OSBP by PKD does not modulate dimerization, sterol binding, or affinity for PI(4)P. Instead, phosphorylation attenuates OSBP Golgi localization in response to 25-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol depletion, impairs CERT Golgi localization, and promotes Golgi fragmentation.
Project description:Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol are coregulated metabolically and associate physically in membrane microdomains involved in cargo sorting and signaling. One mechanism for regulation of this metabolic interface involves oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) via high-affinity binding to oxysterol regulators of cholesterol homeostasis and activation of SM synthesis at the Golgi apparatus. Here, we show that OSBP regulation of SM synthesis involves the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi ceramide transport protein (CERT). RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells revealed that OSBP and vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP) were required for stimulation of CERT-dependent ceramide transport and SM synthesis by 25-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol depletion in response to cyclodextrin. Additional RNAi experiments in human embryonic kidney 293 cells supported OSBP involvement in oxysterol-activated SM synthesis and also revealed a role for OSBP in basal SM synthesis. Activation of ER-to-Golgi ceramide transport in CHO-K1 cells required interaction of OSBP with the ER and Golgi apparatus, OSBP-dependent Golgi translocation of CERT, and enhanced CERT-VAP interaction. Regulation of CERT by OSBP, sterols, and VAP reveals a novel mechanism for integrating sterol regulatory signals with ceramide transport and SM synthesis in the Golgi apparatus.
Project description:The network of proteins that orchestrate the distribution of cholesterol among cellular organelles is not fully characterized. We previously proposed that oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) drives cholesterol/PI4P exchange at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Using the inhibitor OSW-1, we report here that the sole activity of endogenous OSBP makes a major contribution to cholesterol distribution, lipid order, and PI4P turnover in living cells. Blocking OSBP causes accumulation of sterols at ER/lipid droplets at the expense of TGN, thereby reducing the gradient of lipid order along the secretory pathway. OSBP consumes about half of the total cellular pool of PI4P, a consumption that depends on the amount of cholesterol to be transported. Inhibiting the spatially restricted PI4-kinase PI4KIII? triggers large periodic traveling waves of PI4P across the TGN These waves are cadenced by long-range PI4P production by PI4KII? and PI4P consumption by OSBP Collectively, these data indicate a massive spatiotemporal coupling between cholesterol transport and PI4P turnover via OSBP and PI4-kinases to control the lipid composition of subcellular membranes.
Project description:The oxysterol binding protein homologue Kes1p has been implicated in nonvesicular sterol transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kes1p also represses formation of protein transport vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that potential phospholipid translocases in the Drs2/Dnf family (type IV P-type ATPases [P4-ATPases]) are downstream targets of Kes1p repression. Disruption of KES1 suppresses the cold-sensitive (cs) growth defect of drs2Delta, which correlates with an enhanced ability of Dnf P4-ATPases to functionally substitute for Drs2p. Loss of Kes1p also suppresses a drs2-ts allele in a strain deficient for Dnf P4-ATPases, suggesting that Kes1p antagonizes Drs2p activity in vivo. Indeed, Drs2-dependent phosphatidylserine translocase (flippase) activity is hyperactive in TGN membranes from kes1Delta cells and is potently attenuated by addition of recombinant Kes1p. Surprisingly, Drs2p also antagonizes Kes1p activity in vivo. Drs2p deficiency causes a markedly increased rate of cholesterol transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and redistribution of endogenous ergosterol to intracellular membranes, phenotypes that are Kes1p dependent. These data suggest a homeostatic feedback mechanism in which appropriately regulated flippase activity in the Golgi complex helps establish a plasma membrane phospholipid organization that resists sterol extraction by a sterol binding protein.
Project description:Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) have been implicated in the distribution of sterols among intracellular organelles. OSBP regulates the Golgi cholesterol level, but how it relates to Golgi function is elusive. Here we report that OSBP is essential for the localization of intra-Golgi soluble vesicle N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptors (v-SNAREs). Depletion of OSBP by small interfering RNA causes mislocalization of intra-Golgi v-SNAREs GS28 and GS15 throughout the cytoplasm without affecting the perinuclear localization of Golgi target-SNARE syntaxin5 and reduces the abundance of a Golgi enzyme, mannosidase II (Man II). GS28 mislocalization and Man II reduction are also induced by cellular cholesterol depletion. Three domains of OSBP-an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting domain, a Golgi-targeting domain, and a sterol-binding domain-are all required for Golgi localization of GS28. Finally, GS28 mislocalization and Man II reduction in OSBP-depleted cells are largely restored by depletion of ArfGAP1, a regulator of the budding of coat protein complex (COP)-I vesicles. From these results, we postulate that Golgi cholesterol level, which is controlled by OSBP, is essential for Golgi localization of intra-Golgi v-SNAREs by ensuring proper COP-I vesicle transport.
Project description:Rab31, a protein that we cloned from an oligodendrocyte cDNA library, is required for transport of mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes and for Golgi/TGN organization. Here we extend the knowledge of the mechanism of action of Rab31 by demonstrating its interaction with OCRL-1, a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate 5-phosphatase (PI(4,5)P(2) 5-phosphatase) that regulates the levels of PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(4)P, molecules involved in transport and Golgi/TGN organization. We show that Rab31 interacts with OCRL-1 in a yeast two-hybrid system, GST-Rab31 pull-down experiments, and coimmunoprecipitation of OCRL-1 using oligodendrocyte culture lysates. Rab31 and OCRL-1 colocalize in the TGN, post-TGN carriers, and endosomes. Cation-dependent MPR (CD-MPR) is sorted to OCRL-1-containing carriers, but CD63 and vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSVG) are not. siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous Rab31 causes collapse of the TGN apparatus and markedly decreases the levels of OCRL-1 in the TGN and endosomes. Our observations indicate that the role of Rab31 in the Golgi/TGN structure and transport of MPRs depends on its capability to recruit OCRL-1 to domains of the TGN where the formation of carriers occurs. The importance of our observations is highlighted by the fact that mutation of OCRL-1 causes demyelination in humans.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) is a key regulator of membrane transport required for the formation of transport carriers from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The molecular mechanisms of PI(4)P signaling in this process are still poorly understood. In a search for PI(4)P effector molecules, we performed a screen for synthetic lethals in a background of reduced PI(4)P and found the gene GGA2. Our analysis uncovered a PI(4)P-dependent recruitment of the clathrin adaptor Gga2p to the TGN during Golgi-to-endosome trafficking. Gga2p recruitment to liposomes is stimulated both by PI(4)P and the small GTPase Arf1p in its active conformation, implicating these two molecules in the recruitment of Gga2p to the TGN, which ultimately controls the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles. PI(4)P binding occurs through a phosphoinositide-binding signature within the N-terminal VHS domain of Gga2p resembling a motif found in other clathrin interacting proteins. These data provide an explanation for the TGN-specific membrane recruitment of Gga2p.