Genetic profiles of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates obtained from patients with cystitis: phylogeny, virulence factors, PAIusp subtypes, and mutation patterns.
ABSTRACT: The low virulence of quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains is known, although the reasons for this remain unclear. We surveyed the mutation patterns of quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), phylogenetic distribution, prevalence of 18 urovirulence genes, and PAIusp subtypes in 89 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (FQREC) isolates obtained from patients with cystitis and compared them with those of their fluoroquinolone-susceptible counterparts (FQSEC). Phylogenetic group B2 was significantly less prevalent in FQREC than in FQSEC (49% versus 78%; P=0.0138), but it still dominated, followed by phylogroup D (35%), in FQREC. When the prevalences of virulence factor (VF) genes were compared between FQREC and FQSEC, sfa/foc, cnf1, hly, kpsMT, ompT, ibeA, usp, and iroN showed significantly lower prevalences in FQREC than in FQSEC (1.1% versus 24% [P<0.0001], 0% versus 29% [P<0.0001], 7.9% versus 33% [P<0.0001], 74% versus 90% [P=0.01], 71% versus 87% [P=0.017], 5.6% versus 37% [P<0.0001], 54% versus 82% [P<0.0001], and 7.9% versus 32% [P=0.0001], respectively), whereas aer, iha, and ETTT showed significantly higher prevalences in FQREC (85% versus 36% [P<0.0001], 66% versus 29% [P<0.0001], and 53% versus 16% [P<0.0001], respectively). Furthermore, a similar difference in prevalences of uropathogenic VF genes was seen between FQREC and FQSEC in phylogroup B2. This indicated that the low virulence in FQREC was intimately correlated with a lesser distribution of VFs in phylogroup B2, which dominated in FQREC and FQSEC. It was interesting that the mutation pattern of Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn encoded in gyrA and Ser80Ile and Glu84Val encoded in parC was frequently found in FQREC isolates that belonged to phylogroup B2 and that most of these isolates showed PAIusp subtype 2a. PAIusp subtypes 1a, 1b, and 2b, which were frequently seen in FQSEC, were rarely found in FQREC. These results suggested that the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance, e.g., mutations in QRDRs, might be a specific event in limited strains, such as those that possess PAIusp subtype 2a in phylogroup B2.
Project description:The global increase of extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is associated with the specific clonal group sequence type 131 (ST131). In order to understand the successful spread of ESBL-producing E. coli clonal groups, we characterized fluoroquinolone resistance determinants, virulence genotypes, and plasmid replicons of ST131 and another global clonal group, ST405. We investigated 41 ST131-O25b, 26 ST131-O16, 41 ST405, and 41 other ST (OST) ESBL-producing isolates, which were collected at seven acute care hospitals in Japan. The detection of ESBL types, fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations (including quinolone resistance-determining regions [QRDRs]), virulence genotypes, plasmid replicon types, and IncF replicon sequence types was performed using PCR and sequencing. blaCTX-M, specifically blaCTX-M-14, was the most common ESBL gene type among the four groups. Ciprofloxacin resistance was found in 90% of ST131-O25b, 19% of ST131-O16, 100% of ST405, and 54% of OST isolates. Multidrug resistance was more common in the ST405 group than in the ST131-O25 group (56% versus 32%; P = 0.045). All ST131-O25b isolates except one had four characteristic mutations in QRDRs, but most of the isolates from the other three groups had three mutations in common. The ST131-O25b and ST405 groups had larger numbers of virulence genes than the OST group. All of the ST131-O25b and ST405 isolates and most of the ST131-O16 and OST isolates carried IncF replicons. The most prevalent IncF replicon sequence types differed between the four clonal groups. Both the ST131-O25b and ST405 clonal groups had a fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism in QRDRs, multidrug resistance, high virulence, and IncF plasmids, suggesting the potential for further global expansion and a need for measures against these clonal groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a clinically important pathogen that causes opportunistic infections and nosocomial outbreaks. Recently, the type III secretion system (TTSS) has been shown to play an important role in the virulence of P. aeruginosa. ExoU, in particular, has the greatest impact on disease severity. We examined the relationship among the TTSS effector genotype (exoS and exoU), fluoroquinolone resistance, and target site mutations in 66 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains. METHODS: Sixty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were collected from patients in a university hospital in Daejeon, Korea, from January 2008 to May 2012. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) were determined by using the agar dilution method. We used PCR and sequencing to determine the TTSS effector genotype and quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the respective target genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. RESULTS: A higher proportion of exoU+ strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant than exoS+ strains (93.2%, 41/44 vs. 45.0%, 9/20; P?0.0001). Additionally, exoU+ strains were more likely to carry combined mutations than exoS+ strains (97.6%, 40/41 vs. 70%, 7/10; P=0.021), and MIC increased as the number of active mutations increased. CONCLUSIONS: The recent overuse of fluoroquinolone has led to both increased resistance and enhanced virulence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. These data indicate a specific relationship among exoU genotype, fluoroquinolone resistance, and resistance-conferring mutations.
Project description:Most Escherichia coli resistant to quinolones are not haemolytic. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogroup, clonal relationship, mechanism of quinolone resistance and virulence factors in 70 haemolytic E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid. Sixty-six isolates contained the hlyA gene, belonged to phylogroup B2, and 61 of them presented low-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. Four isolates presented high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones, contained the clyA gene and were included in phylogroup D. One single isolate (phylogroup D, with low level resistance to fluoroquinolones) contained both cytotoxins.
Project description:The high frequency of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli is a feature of clinical bacteriology in China, where the molecular epidemiology and genetic characteristics of this resistance in county hospitals remain unclear. A total of 590 nonduplicate E. coli isolates from 30 county hospitals located across seven Chinese regions were examined for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic analysis of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were used to determine their genetic relatedness. The ciprofloxacin resistance rate of community-onset E. coli was 51.2%, and at least one PMQR gene was carried by 220 (37.3%) isolates. These included qnr (3.7%), aac(6')-Ib-cr (19.7%), qepA (14.4%), and oqxAB (3.8%). Two novel oqxB mutants were identified and named oqxB20 and oqxB29. From 60 sequence types (STs) isolated, 5 novel STs (ST4499 to ST4503) were identified. ST1193 (7.9%) was the second most abundant ST among fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (ST131 was the most common, with 14.6%), and this is the first report of it in China. This is also the first report of ST2115 and ST3014 isolates from human samples. Ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates fell mainly into phylogroups B2 and D. The rates of fluoroquinolone resistance and the prevalence of PMQR genes in community-onset E. coli isolates from Chinese county hospitals were high. The wide-ranging molecular epidemiology of E. coli isolates from scattered locations across China indicates that fluoroquinolone resistance evolved from different sources.
Project description:Infection from fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is an increasing health problem worldwide. In the present study, we developed a pyrosequencing-based high-throughput method for analyzing the nucleotide sequence of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC. By using this method, we successfully determined the QRDR sequences of 139 out of 140 clinical Escherichia coli isolates, 28% of which were nonsusceptible to ciprofloxacin. Sequence results obtained by the pyrosequencing method were in complete agreement with those obtained by the Sanger method. All fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (n = 35; 25%) contained mutations leading to three or four amino acid substitutions in the QRDRs. In contrast, all isolates lacking a mutation in the QRDR (n = 81; 57%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. The qnr determinants, namely, the qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes, were not detected in the isolates, and the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was detected in 2 (1.4%) of the isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of 34 randomly selected isolates revealed that sequence type 131 (ST131) (n = 7; 20%) is the most prevalent lineage and is significantly resistant to quinolones (P < 0.01). The genetic background of quinolone-susceptible isolates seemed more diverse, and interestingly, neighboring STs of ST131 in the phylogenetic tree were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, our investigation reveals the relationship between fluoroquinolone resistance caused by mutations of QRDRs and the population structure of clinical extraintestinal E. coli isolates. This high-throughput method for analyzing QRDR mutations by pyrosequencing is a powerful tool for epidemiological studies of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria.
Project description:Objectives: Sequence type 1193 is emerging as a new, virulent and resistant lineage among fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli (FQrE. coli). In this study, we investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of this clone isolated from a Chinese university hospital. Methods: 73 phylogenetic group B2-FQr-non-ST131 isolates were collected from August 2014 and August 2015 at a Chinese university hospital. Isolates were screened for ST1193 by multilocus sequence typing. E. coli ST1193 then underwent lactose fermentation determination, susceptibility testing, virulence genotyping, PCR-based O typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and FQr mechanism analysis. Results: Of 73 B2-FQr-non ST131 E. coli isolates, 69.9% (n = 51) were ST1193. 90.2% (46/51) of ST1193 isolates were O75 serotype and 96.1% (49/51) of the ST1193 isolates were lactose non-fermenters. 35 clusters were identified by PFGE. ST1193 isolates exhibited a set of 3 conserved mutations defining quinolone-resistance determining region substitutions (gyrA S83L, D87N, and parC S80I). The most frequent VF genes detected in these E. coli ST1193 isolates were fyuA (yersiniabactin, 96.1%), fimH (type 1 fimbriae, 94.1%), iutA (iron uptake gene, 90.2%), kpsMT II (group II capsule, 90.2%), kpsK1 (K1 capsule, 86.3%) and PAI. Conclusion: ST1193 lineage accounts for the majority of group B2-FQr-non-ST131 E. coli clinical isolates. Most of the ST1193 are serotype O75 and lactose non-fermenting. Strategic surveillance and control schemes are needed in the future for this newly emerging clone of E. coli: B2-FQr-ST1193.
Project description:To assess the implication of the genetic background of Escherichia coli strains in the emergence of extended-spectrum-Beta -lactamases (ESBL), 55 TEM-, 52 CTX-M-, and 22 SHV-type ESBL-producing clinical isolates involved in various extraintestinal infections or colonization were studied in terms of phylogenetic group, virulence factor (VF) content (pap, sfa/foc, hly, and aer genes), and fluoroquinolone resistance. A factorial analysis of correspondence showed that SHV type, and to a lesser extent TEM type, were preferentially observed in B2 phylogenetic group strains that exhibited numerous VFs but were fluoroquinolone-susceptible, whereas the newly emerged CTX-M type was associated with the D phylogenetic group strains that lacked VF but were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Thus, the emergence of ESBL-producing E. coli seems to be the result of complex interactions between the type of ESBL, genetic background of the strain, and selective pressures in ecologic niches.
Project description:Quinolone antibiotics constitute a clinically successful and widely used class of broad-spectrum antibiotics; however, the emergence and spread of resistance increasingly limits the use of fluoroquinolones in the treatment and management of microbial disease. In this study, we evaluated the quantitative contributions of quinolone target alteration and efflux pump expression to fluoroquinolone resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We generated isogenic mutations in hot spots of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, and parC and inactivated the efflux regulator genes so as to overexpress the corresponding multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps. We then introduced the respective mutations into the reference strain PA14 singly and in various combinations. Whereas the combined inactivation of two efflux regulator-encoding genes did not lead to resistance levels higher than those obtained by inactivation of only one efflux regulator-encoding gene, the combination of mutations leading to increased efflux and target alteration clearly exhibited an additive effect. This combination of target alteration and overexpression of efflux pumps was commonly observed in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates; however, these two mechanisms were frequently found not to be sufficient to explain the level of fluoroquinolone resistance. Our results suggest that there are additional mechanisms, independent of the expression of the MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN, and/or MexXY-OprM efflux pump, that increase ciprofloxacin resistance in isolates with mutations in the QRDRs.
Project description:We have identified and sequenced the genes encoding the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDR) of ParC and GyrA in fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus suis clinical isolates. Resistance is the consequence of single point mutations in the QRDRs of ParC and GyrA and is not due to clonal spread of resistant strains or horizontal gene transfer with other bacteria.
Project description:Background:Escherichia coli biofilm formation has mostly been assessed in specific pathogenic E. coli groups. Here, we assessed the early biofilm formation (EBF), i.e., adhesion stage, using the BioFilm Ring Test® on 394 E. coli clinical isolates (EC) [196 consecutively isolated (CEC) in 2016 and 198 ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBLEC) isolated in 2015]. Then, biofilm-forming ability was contrasted with phylogroups, clonotypes (fumC-fimH), and sequence types (STs), all being used to define clones, virulence factors (VF), and FimB. Result:According to both biofilm production levels at 2, 3, and 5 h, and EBF kinetics over 5 h, CEC and ESBLEC isolates segregated into three EBF groups: strong (G1), moderate (G2), and weak (G3) producers. At 2 h, strong producers were more frequent among CEC (n = 28; 14.3%) than among ESBLEC (n = 8; 4%) (P = 0.0004). As CEC and ESBLEC isolates showed similar individual EBF kinetics in each group, a comparison of isolate features between each group was applied to gathered CEC and ESBLEC isolates after 2 h of incubation, 2 h being the most representative time point of the CEC and ESBLEC isolate segregation into the three groups. Phylogroup B2 displayed by 51.3% of the 394 isolates was more frequent in G1 (77.8%) than in G3 (47.6%) (P = 0.0006). The 394 isolates displayed 153 clones, of which 31 included at least three isolates. B2-CH14-2-ST127, B2-CH40-22-ST131, B2-CH52-5/14-ST141, and E-CH100-96-ST362 clones were associated with G1 (P < 0.03) and accounted for 41.7% of G1 isolates. B2-CH40-30-ST131 clone was associated with G3 (P < 0.0001) and accounted for 25.5% of G3 isolates. VF mean was higher among G1 than among G3 isolates (P < 0.001). FimB-P2 variant was associated with G1 (P = 0.0011) and FimB-P1 variant was associated with G3 (P = 0.0023). Clone, some VF, and FimB were associated with EBF, with clonal lineage being able to explain 72% of the variability of EBF. Conclusion:Among our 394 isolates, <10% are able to quickly and persistently produce high biofilm levels over 5 h. These isolates belong to a few clones previously described in various studies as dominant gut colonizers in mammalians and birds and comprised the B2-CH40-22-ST131 clone, i.e., the ancestor of the globally disseminated B2-CH40-30-ST131 clone that is the dominant clone among the weak biofilm producers.