TRPA1 regulates gastrointestinal motility through serotonin release from enterochromaffin cells.
ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is abundantly present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and stored mostly in enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which are located on the mucosal surface. 5-HT released from EC cells stimulate both intrinsic and extrinsic nerves, which results in various physiological and pathophysiological responses, such as gastrointestinal contractions. EC cells are believed to have the ability to respond to the chemical composition of the luminal contents of the gut; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel TRPA1, which is activated by pungent compounds or cold temperature, is highly expressed in EC cells. We also found that TRPA1 agonists, including allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, stimulate EC cell functions, such as increasing intracellular Ca(2+) levels and 5-HT release, by using highly concentrated EC cell fractions and a model of EC cell function, the RIN14B cell line. Furthermore, we showed that allyl isothiocyanate promotes the contraction of isolated guinea pig ileum via the 5-HT(3) receptor. Taken together, our results indicate that TRPA1 acts as a sensor molecule for EC cells and may regulate gastrointestinal function.
Project description:In the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium, enterochromaffin (EC) cells are enteroendocrine cells responsible for producing >90% of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). However, the molecular mechanisms of EC cell function are poorly understood. Here, we found that EC cells in mouse primary cultures fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. We examined the repertoire of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) in fluorescence-sorted mouse EC cells and found that Scn3a was highly expressed. Scn3a-encoded NaV1.3 was specifically and densely expressed at the basal side of both human and mouse EC cells. Using electrophysiology, we found that EC cells expressed robust NaV1.3 currents, as determined by their biophysical and pharmacologic properties. NaV1.3 was not only critical for generating action potentials in EC cells, but it was also important for regulating 5-HT release by these cells. Therefore, EC cells use Scn3a-encoded voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.3 for electrical excitability and 5-HT release. NaV1.3-dependent electrical excitability and its contribution to 5-HT release is a novel mechanism of EC cell function.
Project description:5-HT storing enterochromaffin (EC) cells are believed to respond to nutrient and gut microbial components, and 5-HT receptor-expressing afferent vagal neurons have been described to be the major sensors of nutrients in the GI-tract. However, the molecular mechanism through which EC cells sense nutrients and gut microbiota is still unclear.TPH1, the 5-HT generating enzyme, and chromogranin A, an acidic protein responsible for secretory granule storage of 5-HT, were highly enriched in FACS-purified EC cells from both small intestine and colon using a 5-HT antibody-based method. Surprisingly, EC cells from the small intestine did not express GPCR sensors for lipid and protein metabolites, such as FFAR1, GPR119, GPBAR1 (TGR5), CaSR, and GPR142, in contrast to the neighboring GLP-1 storing enteroendocrine cell. However, the GLP-1 receptor was particularly highly expressed and enriched in EC cells as judged both by qPCR and by immunohistochemistry using a receptor antibody. GLP-1 receptor agonists robustly stimulated 5-HT secretion from intestinal preparations using both HPLC and a specific amperometric method. Colonic EC cells expressed many different types of known and potential GPCR sensors of microbial metabolites including three receptors for SCFAs, i.e. FFAR2, OLF78, and OLF558 and receptors for aromatic acids, GPR35; secondary bile acids GPBAR1; and acyl-amides and lactate, GPR132.Nutrient metabolites apparently do not stimulate EC cells of the small intestine directly but through a paracrine mechanism involving GLP-1 secreted from neighboring enteroendocrine cells. In contrast, colonic EC cells are able to sense a multitude of different metabolites generated by the gut microbiota as well as gut hormones, including GLP-1.
Project description:Gut microbiota alterations have been described in several diseases with altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility, and awareness is increasing regarding the role of the gut microbiome in modulating GI function. Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a key regulator of GI motility and secretion. To determine the relationship among gut microbes, colonic contractility, and host serotonergic gene expression, we evaluated mice that were germ-free (GF) or humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota). 5-HT reduced contractile duration in both GF and HM colons. Microbiota from HM and conventionally raised (CR) mice significantly increased colonic mRNAs Tph1 [(tryptophan hydroxylase) 1, rate limiting for mucosal 5-HT synthesis; P < 0.01] and chromogranin A (neuroendocrine secretion; P < 0.01), with no effect on monoamine oxidase A (serotonin catabolism), serotonin receptor 5-HT4, or mouse serotonin transporter. HM and CR mice also had increased colonic Tph1 protein (P < 0.05) and 5-HT concentrations (GF, 17 ± 3 ng/mg; HM, 25 ± 2 ng/mg; and CR, 35 ± 3 ng/mg; P < 0.05). Enterochromaffin (EC) cell numbers (cells producing 5-HT) were unchanged. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) promoted TPH1 transcription in BON cells (human EC cell model). Thus, gut microbiota acting through SCFAs are important determinants of enteric 5-HT production and homeostasis.
Project description:Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. A virus-encoded enterotoxin, NSP4 is proposed to play a major role in causing RV diarrhoea but how RV can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. In this study we have addressed the hypothesis that RV-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) by enterochromaffin (EC) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during RV infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves connected to nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema in the brain stem, structures associated with nausea and vomiting. Our experiments revealed that RV can infect and replicate in human EC tumor cells ex vivo and in vitro and are localized to both EC cells and infected enterocytes in the close vicinity of EC cells in the jejunum of infected mice. Purified NSP4, but not purified virus particles, evoked release of 5-HT within 60 minutes and increased the intracellular Ca²? concentration in a human midgut carcinoid EC cell line (GOT1) and ex vivo in human primary carcinoid EC cells concomitant with the release of 5-HT. Furthermore, NSP4 stimulated a modest production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP?), but not of cAMP. RV infection in mice induced Fos expression in the NTS, as seen in animals which vomit after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs. The demonstration that RV can stimulate EC cells leads us to propose that RV disease includes participation of 5-HT, EC cells, the enteric nervous system and activation of vagal afferent nerves to brain structures associated with nausea and vomiting. This hypothesis is supported by treating vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis with 5-HT? receptor antagonists.
Project description:Gut-derived serotonin (5-HT) is released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in response to nutrient cues, and acts to slow gastric emptying and modulate gastric motility. Rodent studies also evidence a role for gut-derived 5-HT in the control of hepatic glucose production, lipolysis and thermogenesis, and in mediating diet-induced obesity. EC cell number and 5-HT content is increased in the small intestine of obese rodents and human, however, it is unknown whether EC cells respond directly to glucose in humans, and whether their capacity to release 5-HT is perturbed in obesity. We therefore investigated 5-HT release from human duodenal and colonic EC cells in response to glucose, sucrose, fructose and α-glucoside (αMG) in relation to body mass index (BMI). EC cells released 5-HT only in response to 100 and 300 mM glucose (duodenum) and 300 mM glucose (colon), independently of osmolarity. Duodenal, but not colonic, EC cells also released 5-HT in response to sucrose and αMG, but did not respond to fructose. 5-HT content was similar in all EC cells in males, and colonic EC cells in females, but 3 to 4-fold higher in duodenal EC cells from overweight females (p < 0.05 compared to lean, obese). Glucose-evoked 5-HT release was 3-fold higher in the duodenum of overweight females (p < 0.05, compared to obese), but absent here in overweight males. Our data demonstrate that primary human EC cells respond directly to dietary glucose cues, with regional differences in selectivity for other sugars. Augmented glucose-evoked 5-HT release from duodenal EC is a feature of overweight females, and may be an early determinant of obesity.
Project description:Background: Enterochromaffin cells (EC) synthesize and release 5-HT and ATP to trigger or modulate gut neural reflexes and transmit information about visceral/pain sensation. Alterations in 5-HT signaling mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD or IBS, but the pharmacologic or molecular mechanisms modulating Ca2+-dependent 5-HT release are not understood. Previous studies indicated that purinergic signaling via ATP and ADP is an important mechanism in modulation of 5-HT release. However, EC cells also respond to UTP and UDP suggesting uridine triphosphate receptor and signaling pathways are involved as well. We tested the hypothesis that UTP is a regulator of 5-HT release in human EC cells. Methods: UTP signaling mechanisms were studied in BON cells, a human EC model, using Fluo-4/Ca2+imaging, patch-clamp, pharmacological analysis, immunohistochemistry, western blots and qPCR. 5-HT release was monitored in BON or EC isolated from human gut surgical specimens (hEC). Results: UTP, UTP?S, UDP or ATP induced Ca2+oscillations in BON. UTP evoked a biphasic concentration-dependent Ca2+response. Cells responded in the order of UTP, ATP > UTP?S > UDP >> MRS2768, BzATP, ?,?-MeATP > MRS2365, MRS2690, and NF546. Different proportions of cells activated by UTP and ATP also responded to UTP?S (P2Y4, 50% cells), UDP (P2Y6, 30%), UTP?S and UDP (14%) or MRS2768 (<3%). UTP Ca2+responses were blocked with inhibitors of PLC, IP3R, SERCA Ca2+pump, La3+sensitive Ca2+channels or chelation of intracellular free Ca2+ by BAPTA/AM. Inhibitors of L-type, TRPC, ryanodine-Ca2+pools, PI3-Kinase, PKC or SRC-Kinase had no effect. UTP stimulated voltage-sensitive Ca2+currents (ICa), Vm-depolarization and inhibited IK (not IA) currents. An IKv7.2/7.3 K+ channel blocker XE-991 mimicked UTP-induced Vm-depolarization and blocked UTP-responses. XE-991 blocked IK and UTP caused further reduction. La3+ or PLC inhibitors blocked UTP depolarization; PKC inhibitors, thapsigargin or zero Ca2+buffer did not. UTP stimulated 5-HT release in hEC expressing TPH1, 5-HT, P2Y4/P2Y6R. Zero-Ca2+buffer augmented Ca2+responses and 5-HT release. Conclusion: UTP activates a predominant P2Y4R pathway to trigger Ca2+oscillations via internal Ca2+mobilization through a PLC/IP3/IP3R/SERCA Ca2+signaling pathway to stimulate 5-HT release; Ca2+influx is inhibitory. UTP-induced Vm-depolarization depends on PLC signaling and an unidentified K channel (which appears independent of Ca2+oscillations or Ica/VOCC). UTP-gated signaling pathways triggered by activation of P2Y4R stimulate 5-HT release.
Project description:Peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) synthesized in the intestine by enterochromaffin cells (ECs), plays an important role in the regulation of peristaltic of the gut, epithelial secretion and promotes the development and maintenance of the enteric neurons. Recent studies showed that the indigenous gut microbiota modulates 5-HT signalling and that ECs use sensory receptors to detect dietary and microbiota-derived signals from the lumen to subsequently transduce the information to the nervous system. We hypothesized that Clostridium ramosum by increasing gut 5-HT availability consequently contributes to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Using germ-free mice and mice monoassociated with C. ramosum, intestinal cell lines and mouse organoids, we demonstrated that bacterial cell components stimulate host 5-HT secretion and program the differentiation of colonic intestinal stem progenitors toward the secretory 5-HT-producing lineage. An elevated 5-HT level regulates the expression of major proteins involved in intestinal fatty acid absorption in vitro, suggesting that the presence of C. ramosum in the gut promotes 5-HT secretion and thereby could facilitates intestinal lipid absorption and the development of obesity.
Project description:Activation of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPA1 by cinnamaldehyde has been shown to stimulate serotonin release in enterochromaffin QGP-1 cells. However, the impact of cinnamaldehyde on serotonin release in enterocytes is less well understood. In addition, since the neurotransmitter serotonin plays a regulatory role in a large variety of gastrointestinal and metabolic functions, it is of interest to study which structural characteristics determine cinnamaldehyde-induced serotonin release by enterocytes. Thus, the present study analyzed serotonin release in differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model for enterocytes in comparison to enterochromaffin QGP-1 cells after stimulation with cinnamaldehyde and 17 naturally occurring structurally related compounds by means of a serotonin ELISA. Stimulation with cinnamaldehyde induced a dose-dependent increase in serotonin release starting from 0.5 mM in both cell lines, with a larger effect size in Caco-2 enterocytes compared to that in QGP-1 enterochromaffin cells. Serotonin release in Caco-2 cells induced by additional 17 structurally related compounds correlated with serotonin release in QGP-1 cells, showing the highest effects for coniferylaldehyde with a 15.84 ± 3.23-fold increase in Caco-2 cells, followed by the parent compound cinnamaldehyde (13.45 ± 2.15), cinnamyl alcohol (6.68 ± 1.08), and ?-methyl-cinnamaldehyde (6.59 ± 0.93). Analysis of structural and molecular characteristics that modulate serotonin release in Caco-2 enterocytes revealed that the ability of a compound to activate TRPA1, demonstrated by means of HEK293 cells transiently expressing hTRPA1, is a decisive factor to stimulate serotonin release in Caco-2 enterocytes, preferring small, electrophilic compounds with a lower polar surface area. In addition, blocking of TRPA1 using 30 ?M AP-18 significantly reduced the cinnamaldehyde-induced serotonin release by 30.0 ± 5.24%, confirming a TRPA1-dependent component in serotonin release by Caco-2 cells.
Project description:CRH and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) are expressed in human colonic enterochromaffin (EC) cells, but their interactions at the cellular level remain largely unknown. The mechanistic and functional relationship between CRH and 5-HT systems in EC cells was investigated in a human carcinoid cloned BON cell line (BON-1N), widely used as an in vitro model of EC cell function. First, we identified multiple CRH(1) splice variants, including CRH(1a), CRH(1c), CRH(1f), and a novel form lacking exon 4, designated here as CRH(1i), in the BON-1N cells. The expression of CRH(1i) was also confirmed in human brain cortex, pituitary gland, and ileum. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis confirmed that BON-1N cells were CRH(1) and 5-HT positive. CRH, urocortin (Ucn)-1, and cortagine, a selective CRH(1) agonist, all increased intracellular cAMP, and this concentration-dependent response was inhibited by CRH(1)-selective antagonist NBI-35965. CRH and Ucn-1, but not Ucn-2, stimulated significant ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells, CRH(1i) isoforms produced a significant increase in pERK1/2 in response to CRH(1) agonists that was sensitive to NBI-35965. CRH and Ucn-1 stimulated 5-HT release that reached a maximal increase of 3.3- and 4-fold at 10(-8) m over the basal level, respectively. In addition, exposure to CRH for 24-h up-regulated tryptophan hydroxylase-1 mRNA levels in the BON-1N cells. These findings define the expression of EC cell-specific CRH(1) isoforms and activation of CRH(1)-dependent pathways leading to 5-HT release and synthesis; thus, providing functional evidence of a link exists between CRH and 5-HT systems, which have implications in stress-induced CRH(1) and 5-HT-mediated stimulation of lower intestinal function.
Project description:Brazilian green propolis is a popular health supplement because of its various biological properties. The ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis (EEBP) is characteristic for its herb-like smell and unique pungent taste. However, the ingredients responsible for its pungency have not yet been identified. This study provides the first evidence that artepillin C is the main pungent ingredient in EEBP and that it potently activates human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels. EEBP was fractionated using column chromatography with a step gradient elution of an ethanol-water solution, and the fractions having the pungent taste were determined by sensory tests. HPLC analysis revealed that the pungent fraction was composed primarily of artepillin C, a prenylated derivative of cinnamic acid. Artepillin C was also identified as the pungent compound of EEBP by organoleptic examiners. Furthermore, the effects of artepillin C and other cinnamic acids found in EEBP on TRPA1 channels were examined by calcium imaging and plate reader-based assays in human TRPA1-expressing cells to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying their pungent tastes. Artepillin C and baccharin activated the TRPA1 channel strongly, whereas drupanin caused a slight activation and p-coumaric acid showed no activation. Because the EC(50) values of artepillin C, baccharin, and allyl isothiocyanate were 1.8 µM, 15.5 µM, and 6.2 µM, respectively, artepillin C was more potent than the typical TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate. These findings strongly indicate that artepillin C is the main pungent ingredient in EEBP and stimulates a pungent taste by activating TRPA1 channels.