Different thermal sensitivity of the repair of photodamaged photosynthetic machinery in cultured Symbiodinium species.
ABSTRACT: Coral bleaching caused by heat stress is accompanied by photoinhibition, which occurs under conditions where the rate of photodamage to photosystem II (PSII) exceeds the rate of its repair, in the symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp.) within corals. However, the mechanism of heat stress-induced photoinhibition in Symbiodinium still remains poorly understood. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of elevated temperature on the processes associated with the repair of photodamaged PSII in cultured Symbiodinium (OTcH-1 and CS-73). Severe photoinhibition was observed at temperature exceeding 32 degrees C in Symbiodinium CS-73 cells grown at 25-34 degrees C but not in cultures of the more thermally tolerant Symbiodinium OTcH-1. After photoinhibition treatment by strong light, photodamaged PSII was repaired close to initial levels under low light at 25 degrees C in both OTcH-1 and CS-73. However, the repair was strongly inhibited by increased temperature exceeding 31 degrees C in CS-73 but only weakly in OTcH-1. We found that inhibition of the repair process in CS-73 is attributed to impairment of both protein synthesis-dependent and -independent repair processes and is at least partially caused by suppression of the de novo synthesis of thylakoid membrane proteins and impairment of the generation of DeltapH across the thylakoid membrane, respectively. Our results suggest that acceleration of photoinhibition by moderate heat stress is attributed primarily to inhibition of the repair of photodamaged PSII and that the photoinhibition sensitivity of Symbiodinium to heat stress is determined by the thermal sensitivity of the PSII repair processes.
Project description:Coral bleaching, caused by heat stress, is accompanied by the light-induced loss of photosynthetic pigments in in situ symbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium spp.). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for pigment loss are poorly understood. Here, we show that moderate heat stress causes photobleaching through inhibition of the de novo synthesis of intrinsic light-harvesting antennae [chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c(2)-peridinin-protein complexes (acpPC)] in cultured Symbiodinium algae and that two Clade A Symbiodinium species showing different thermal sensitivities of photobleaching also show differential sensitivity of this key protein synthesis process. Photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) and subsequent photobleaching were observed at temperatures of >31 degrees C in cultured Symbiodinium CS-73 cells grown at 25-34 degrees C, but not in cultures of the more thermally tolerant control Symbiodinium species OTcH-1. We found that bleaching in CS-73 is associated with loss of acpPC, which is a major antennae protein in Symbiodinium. In addition, the thermally induced loss of this protein is light-dependent, but does not coincide directly with PSII photoinhibition and is not caused by stimulated degradation of acpPC. In cells treated at 34 degrees C over 24 h, the steady-state acpPC mRNA pool was modestly reduced, by approximately 30%, whereas the corresponding synthesis rate of acpPC was diminished by >80%. Our results suggest that photobleaching in Symbiodinium is consequentially linked to the relative susceptibility of PSII to photoinhibition during thermal stress and occurs, at least partially, because of the loss of acpPC via undefined mechanism(s) that hamper the de novo synthesis of acpPC primarily at the translational processing step.
Project description:In cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, exposure to HL damages the photosynthetic apparatus, especially the D1 subunit of Photosystem II. To avoid chronic photoinhibition, a PSII repair cycle operates to replace damaged PSII subunits with newly synthesised versions. To determine the sub-cellular location of this process, we examined the localisation of FtsH metalloproteases, some of which are directly involved in degrading damaged D1. We generated transformants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 expressing GFP-tagged versions of its four FtsH proteases. The ftsH2-gfp strain was functional for PSII repair under our conditions. Confocal microscopy shows that FtsH1 is mainly in the cytoplasmic membrane, while the remaining FtsH proteins are in patches either in the thylakoid or at the interface between the thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. HL exposure which increases the activity of the Photosystem II repair cycle led to no detectable changes in FtsH distribution, with the FtsH2 protease involved in D1 degradation retaining its patchy distribution in the thylakoid membrane. We discuss the possibility that the FtsH2-GFP patches represent Photosystem II 'repair zones' within the thylakoid membranes, and the possible advantages of such functionally specialised membrane zones. Anti-GFP affinity pull-downs provide the first indication of the composition of the putative repair zones.
Project description:A proteome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid-associated polysome nascent chain complexes was performed to find novel proteins involved in the biogenesis, maintenance and turnover of thylakoid protein complexes, in particular the PSII (photosystem II) complex, which exhibits a high turnover rate. Four unknown proteins were identified, of which TLP18.3 (thylakoid lumen protein of 18.3 kDa) was selected for further analysis. The Arabidopsis mutants (SALK_109618 and GABI-Kat 459D12) lacking the TLP18.3 protein showed higher susceptibility of PSII to photoinhibition. The increased susceptibility of DeltaTLP18.3 plants to high light probably originates from an inefficient reassembly of PSII monomers into dimers in the grana stacks, as well as from an impaired turnover of the D1 protein in stroma exposed thylakoids. Such dual function of the TLP18.3 protein is in accordance with its even distribution between the grana and stroma thylakoids. Notably, the lack of the TLP18.3 protein does not lead to a severe collapse of the PSII complexes, suggesting a redundancy of proteins assisting these particular repair steps to assure functional PSII. The DeltaTLP18.3 plants showed no clear visual phenotype under standard growth conditions, but when challenged by fluctuating light during growth, the retarded growth of DeltaTLP18.3 plants was evident.
Project description:MAIN CONCLUSIONS:Low temperature decreases PSII damage in vivo, confirming earlier in vitro results. Susceptibility to photoinhibition differs among Arabidopsis accessions and moderately decreases after 2-week cold-treatment. Flavonols may alleviate photoinhibition. The rate of light-induced inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) at 22 and 4 °C was measured from natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Rschew, Tenela, Columbia-0, Coimbra) grown under optimal conditions (21 °C), and at 4 °C from plants shifted to 4 °C for 2 weeks. Measurements were done in the absence and presence of lincomycin (to block repair). PSII activity was assayed with the chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm and with light-saturated rate of oxygen evolution using a quinone acceptor. When grown at 21 °C, Rschew was the most tolerant to photoinhibition and Coimbra the least. Damage to PSII, judged from fitting the decrease in oxygen evolution or Fv/Fm to a first-order equation, proceeded more slowly or equally at 4 than at 22 °C. The 2-week cold-treatment decreased photoinhibition at 4 °C consistently in Columbia-0 and Coimbra, whereas in Rschew and Tenela the results depended on the method used to assay photoinhibition. The rate of singlet oxygen production by isolated thylakoid membranes, measured with histidine, stayed the same or slightly decreased with decreasing temperature. On the other hand, measurements of singlet oxygen from leaves with Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green suggest that in vivo more singlet oxygen is produced at 4 °C. Under high light, the PSII electron acceptor QA was more reduced at 4 than at 22 °C. Singlet oxygen production, in vitro or in vivo, did not decrease due to the cold-treatment. Epidermal flavonols increased during the cold-treatment and, in Columbia-0 and Coimbra, the amount correlated with photoinhibition tolerance.
Project description:Although light is the ultimate substrate in photosynthesis, it can also be harmful and lead to oxidative damage of the photosynthetic apparatus. The main target for light stress is the central oxygen-evolving photosystem II (PSII) and its D1 reaction centre protein. Degradation of the damaged D1 protein and its rapid replacement by a de novo synthesized copy represent the important repair mechanism of PSII crucial for plant survival under light stress conditions. Here we report the isolation of a single-copy nuclear gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, encoding a protease that performs GTP-dependent primary cleavage of the photodamaged D1 protein and hence catalysing the key step in the repair cycle in plants. This protease, designated DegP2, is a homologue of the prokaryotic Deg/Htr family of serine endopeptidases and is associated with the stromal side of the non-appressed region of the thylakoid membranes. Increased expression of DegP2 under high salt, desiccation and light stress conditions was measured at the protein level.
Project description:Columbia-0 (Col-0), Wassilewskija-4 (Ws-4), and Landsberg erecta-0 (Ler-0) are used as background lines for many public Arabidopsis mutant collections, and for investigation in laboratory conditions of plant processes, including photosynthesis and response to high-intensity light (HL). The photosystem II (PSII) complex is sensitive to HL and requires repair to sustain its function. PSII repair is a multistep process controlled by numerous factors, including protein phosphorylation and thylakoid membrane stacking. Here we have characterized the function and dynamics of PSII complex under growth-light and HL conditions. Ws-4 displayed 30% more thylakoid lipids per chlorophyll and 40% less chlorophyll per carotenoid than Col-0 and Ler-0. There were no large differences in thylakoid stacking, photoprotection and relative levels of photosynthetic complexes among the three accessions. An increased efficiency of PSII closure was found in Ws-4 following illumination with saturation flashes or continuous light. Phosphorylation of the PSII D1/D2 proteins was reduced by 50% in Ws-4 as compared to Col-0 and Ler-0. An increase in abundance of the responsible STN8 kinase in response to HL treatment was found in all three accessions, but Ws-4 displayed 50% lower levels than Col-0 and Ler-0. Despite this, the HL treatment caused in Ws-4 the lagest extent of PSII inactivation, disassembly, D1 protein degradation, and the largest decrease in the size of stacked thylakoids. The dilution of chlorophyll-protein complexes with additional lipids and carotenoids in Ws-4 may represent a mechanism to facilitate lateral protein traffic in the membrane, thus compensating for the lack of a full complement of STN8 kinase. Nevertheless, additional PSII damage occurs in Ws-4, which exceeds the D1 protein synthesis capacity, thus leading to enhanced photoinhibition. Our findings are valuable for selection of appropriate background line for PSII characterization in Arabidopsis mutants, and also provide the first insights into natural variation of PSII protein phosphorylation.
Project description:The xanthophyll zeaxanthin is synthesized in chloroplasts upon high light exposure of plants and serves central photoprotective functions. The reconversion of zeaxanthin to violaxanthin is catalyzed by the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). ZEP shows highest activity after short and moderate high light periods, but becomes gradually down-regulated in response to increasing high light stress along with down-regulation of photosystem II (PSII) activity. ZEP activity and ZEP protein levels were studied in response to high light stress in four plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Pisum sativum, Nicotiana benthamiana and Spinacia oleracea. In all species, ZEP protein was degraded during photoinhibition of PSII in parallel with the D1 protein of PSII. In the presence of streptomycin, an inhibitor of chloroplast protein synthesis, photoinhibition of PSII and ZEP activity as well as degradation of D1 and ZEP protein was strongly increased, indicating a close correlation of ZEP regulation with PSII photoinhibition and repair. The concomitant high light-induced inactivation/degradation of ZEP and D1 prevents the reconversion of zeaxanthin during photoinhibition and repair of PSII. This regulation of ZEP activity supports a coordinated degradation of D1 and ZEP during photoinhibition/repair of PSII and an essential photoprotective function of zeaxanthin during the PSII repair cycle.
Project description:Degradation of the D1 protein of photosystem II (PSII) reaction center is a pre-requisite for the repair cycle from photoinhibition. Two types of thylakoid proteases, FtsH and Deg, have been demonstrated to participate in this process. However, the location of the proteolytic sites of the lumenal Deg1 protease within its internal sphere raised the question whether the lumenal-exposed regions of D1 are indeed long enough to reach these sites. Implanting these regions into the stable GFP rendered it sensitive to the presence of Deg1 in vitro, demonstrating that the flexible regions of D1 that protrude into the lumen can penetrate through the three side-openings of Deg1 and reach its internal proteolytic sites. This mode of action, facilitating cooperation between proteases on both sides of the thylakoid membranes, should be applicable to the degradation of other integral thylakoid membrane proteins as well.
Project description:Plants experience low ambient temperature and low red to far-red ratios (L-R/FR) of light due to vegetative shading and longer twilight durations in cool seasons. Low temperature induce photoinhibition through inactivation of the photosynthetic apparatus, however, the role of light quality on photoprotection during cold stress remains poorly understood. Here, we report that L-R/FR significantly prevents the overreduction of the entire intersystem electron transfer chain and the limitation of photosystem I (PSI) acceptor side, eventually alleviating the cold-induced photoinhibition. During cold stress, L-R/FR activated cyclic electron flow (CEF), enhanced protonation of PSII subunit S (PsbS) and de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, and promoted energy-dependent quenching (qE) component of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), enzyme activity of Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle and D1 proteins accumulation. However, L-R/FR -induced photoprotection pathways were compromised in tomato PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5 (PGR5) and PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE1A (PGRL1A) co-silenced plants and NADH DEHYDROGENASE-LIKE COMPLEX M (NDHM) -silenced plants during cold stress. Our results demonstrate that both PGR5/PGRL1- and NDH-dependent CEF mediate L-R/FR -induced cold tolerance by enhancing the thermal dissipation and the repair of photodamaged PSII, thereby mitigating the overreduction of electron carriers and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The study indicates that there is an anterograde link between photoreception and photoprotection in tomato plants during cold stress.
Project description:Photoinhibition, exacerbated by elevated temperatures, underlies coral bleaching, but sensitivity to photosynthetic loss differs among various phylotypes of Symbiodinium, their dinoflagellate symbionts. Symbiodinium is a common symbiont in many cnidarian species including corals, jellyfish, anemones, and giant clams. Here, we provide evidence that most members of clade A Symbiodinium, but not clades B-D or F, exhibit enhanced capabilities for alternative photosynthetic electron-transport pathways including cyclic electron transport (CET). Unlike other clades, clade A Symbiodinium also undergo pronounced light-induced dissociation of antenna complexes from photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers. We propose these attributes promote survival of most cnidarians with clade A symbionts at high light intensities and confer resistance to bleaching conditions that conspicuously impact deeper dwelling corals that harbor non-clade A Symbiodinium.