Recycling of eukaryotic posttermination ribosomal complexes.
ABSTRACT: After translational termination, mRNA and P site deacylated tRNA remain associated with ribosomes in posttermination complexes (post-TCs), which must therefore be recycled by releasing mRNA and deacylated tRNA and by dissociating ribosomes into subunits. Recycling of bacterial post-TCs requires elongation factor EF-G and a ribosome recycling factor RRF. Eukaryotes do not encode a RRF homolog, and their mechanism of ribosomal recycling is unknown. We investigated eukaryotic recycling using post-TCs assembled on a model mRNA encoding a tetrapeptide followed by a UAA stop codon and report that initiation factors eIF3, eIF1, eIF1A, and eIF3j, a loosely associated subunit of eIF3, can promote recycling of eukaryotic post-TCs. eIF3 is the principal factor that promotes splitting of posttermination ribosomes into 60S subunits and tRNA- and mRNA-bound 40S subunits. Its activity is enhanced by eIFs 3j, 1, and 1A. eIF1 also mediates release of P site tRNA, whereas eIF3j ensures subsequent dissociation of mRNA.
Project description:After termination, eukaryotic 80S ribosomes remain associated with mRNA, P-site deacylated tRNA, and release factor eRF1 and must be recycled by dissociating these ligands and separating ribosomes into subunits. Although recycling of eukaryotic posttermination complexes (post-TCs) can be mediated by initiation factors eIF3, eIF1, and eIF1A (Pisarev et al., 2007), this energy-free mechanism can function only in a narrow range of low Mg(2+) concentrations. Here, we report that ABCE1, a conserved and essential member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins, promotes eukaryotic ribosomal recycling over a wide range of Mg(2+) concentrations. ABCE1 dissociates post-TCs into free 60S subunits and mRNA- and tRNA-bound 40S subunits. It can hydrolyze ATP, GTP, UTP, and CTP. NTP hydrolysis by ABCE1 is stimulated by post-TCs and is required for its recycling activity. Importantly, ABCE1 dissociates only post-TCs obtained with eRF1/eRF3 (or eRF1 alone), but not post-TCs obtained with puromycin in eRF1's absence.
Project description:During ribosome recycling, posttermination complexes are dissociated by ABCE1 and eRF1 into 60S and tRNA/mRNA-associated 40S subunits, after which tRNA and mRNA are released by eIF1/eIF1A, Ligatin, or MCT-1/DENR. Occasionally, 40S subunits remain associated with mRNA and reinitiate at nearby AUGs. We recapitulated reinitiation using a reconstituted mammalian translation system. The presence of eIF2, eIF3, eIF1, eIF1A, and Met-tRNAi(Met) was sufficient for recycled 40S subunits to remain on mRNA, scan bidirectionally, and reinitiate at upstream and downstream AUGs if mRNA regions flanking the stop codon were unstructured. Imposition of 3' directionality additionally required eIF4F. Strikingly, posttermination ribosomes were not stably anchored on mRNA and migrated bidirectionally to codons cognate to the P site tRNA. Migration depended on the mode of peptide release (puromycin > eRF1?eRF3) and nature of tRNA and was enhanced by eEF2. The mobility of posttermination ribosomes suggests that some reinitiation events could involve 80S ribosomes rather than 40S subunits.
Project description:After the termination step of protein synthesis, a deacylated tRNA and mRNA remain associated with the ribosome. The ribosome-recycling factor (RRF), together with elongation factor G (EF-G), disassembles this posttermination complex into mRNA, tRNA, and the ribosome. We have obtained a three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopic map of a complex of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome and RRF. We find that RRF interacts mainly with the segments of the large ribosomal subunit's (50S) rRNA helices that are involved in the formation of two central intersubunit bridges, B2a and B3. The binding of RRF induces considerable conformational changes in some of the functional domains of the ribosome. As compared to its binding position derived previously by hydroxyl radical probing study, we find that RRF binds further inside the intersubunit space of the ribosome such that the tip of its domain I is shifted (by approximately 13 A) toward protein L5 within the central protuberance of the 50S subunit, and domain II is oriented more toward the small ribosomal subunit (30S). Overlapping binding sites of RRF, EF-G, and the P-site tRNA suggest that the binding of EF-G would trigger the removal of deacylated tRNA from the P site by moving RRF toward the ribosomal E site, and subsequent removal of mRNA may be induced by a shift in the position of 16S rRNA helix 44, which harbors part of the mRNA.
Project description:We demonstrate that ribosomes containing a messenger RNA (mRNA) with a strong Shine-Dalgarno sequence are rapidly split into subunits by initiation factors 1 (IF1) and 3 (IF3), but slowly split by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G). Post-termination-like (PTL) ribosomes containing mRNA and a P-site-bound deacylated transfer RNA (tRNA) are split very rapidly by RRF and EF-G, but extremely slowly by IF1 and IF3. Vacant ribosomes are split by RRF/EF-G much more slowly than PTL ribosomes and by IF1/IF3 much more slowly than mRNA-containing ribosomes. These observations reveal complementary splitting of different ribosomal complexes by IF1/IF3 and RRF/EF-G, and suggest the existence of two major pathways for ribosome splitting into subunits in the living cell. We show that the identity of the deacylated tRNA in the PTL ribosome strongly affects the rate by which it is split by RRF/EF-G and that IF3 is involved in the mechanism of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 but not by RRF/EF-G. With support from our experimental data, we discuss the principally different mechanisms of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 and by RRF/EF-G.
Project description:Upon encountering a stop codon on mRNA, polypeptide synthesis on the ribosome is terminated by release factors, and the ribosome complex, still bound with mRNA and P-site-bound tRNA (post-termination complex, PostTC), is split into ribosomal subunits, ready for a new round of translational initiation. Separation of post-termination ribosomes into subunits, or "ribosome recycling," is promoted by the joint action of ribosome-recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G) in a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis-dependent manner. Here we used a mixing-spraying-based method of time-resolved cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to visualize the short-lived intermediates of the recycling process. The two complexes that contain (1) both RRF and EF-G bound to the PostTC or (2) deacylated tRNA bound to the 30S subunit are of particular interest. Our observations of the native form of these complexes demonstrate the strong potential of time-resolved cryo-EM for visualizing previously unobservable transient structures.
Project description:Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) is required for disassembly of the posttermination complex of the ribosome after release of polypeptides. The crystal structure of RRF resembles a tRNA shape, with an architecturally different flexibility compared with tRNA, but its structure-and-function relationships are unknown. We here found that an RRF variant defective in ribosome binding regains the binding capacity through 20 independent secondary changes occurring in three topologically distinct regions of RRF. Because two of these regions are equivalent to the tip of the anticodon stem and the upper surface of the acceptor stem of tRNA, RRF may interact with the ribosome in a way similar to tRNA, spanning 30S and 50S subunits, to exert its action for splitting the ribosome.
Project description:Ribosomes are recycled for a new round of translation initiation by dissociation of ribosomal subunits, messenger RNA and transfer RNA from their translational post-termination complex. Here we present cryo-EM structures of the human 55S mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) and the mitoribosomal large 39S subunit in complex with mitoribosome recycling factor (RRF<sub>mt</sub>) and a recycling-specific homolog of elongation factor G (EF-G2<sub>mt</sub>). These structures clarify an unusual role of a mitochondria-specific segment of RRF<sub>mt</sub>, identify the structural distinctions that confer functional specificity to EF-G2<sub>mt</sub>, and show that the deacylated tRNA remains with the dissociated 39S subunit, suggesting a distinct sequence of events in mitoribosome recycling. Furthermore, biochemical and structural analyses reveal that the molecular mechanism of antibiotic fusidic acid resistance for EF-G2<sub>mt</sub> is markedly different from that of mitochondrial elongation factor EF-G1<sub>mt</sub>, suggesting that the two human EF-G<sub>mt</sub>s have evolved diversely to negate the effect of a bacterial antibiotic.
Project description:Hcr1/eIF3j is a sub-stoichiometric subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) that can dissociate the post-termination 40S ribosomal subunit from mRNA in vitro. We examine this ribosome recycling role in vivo by ribosome profiling and reporter assays and find that loss of Hcr1 leads to reinitiation of translation in 3' UTRs, consistent with a defect in recycling. However, the defect appears to be in the recycling of the 60S subunit, rather than the 40S subunit, because reinitiation does not require an AUG codon and is suppressed by overexpression of the 60S dissociation factor Rli1/ABCE1. Consistent with a 60S recycling role, overexpression of Hcr1 cannot compensate for loss of 40S recycling factors Tma64/eIF2D and Tma20/MCT-1. Intriguingly, loss of Hcr1 triggers greater expression of RLI1 via an apparent feedback loop. These findings suggest Hcr1/eIF3j is recruited to ribosomes at stop codons and may coordinate the transition to a new round of translation.
Project description:In eukaryotic translation, termination and ribosome recycling phases are linked to subsequent initiation of a new round of translation by persistence of several factors at ribosomal sub-complexes. These comprise/include the large eIF3 complex, eIF3j (Hcr1 in yeast) and the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCE1 (Rli1 in yeast). The ATPase is mainly active as a recycling factor, but it can remain bound to the dissociated 40S subunit until formation of the next 43S pre-initiation complexes. However, its functional role and native architectural context remains largely enigmatic. Here, we present an architectural inventory of native yeast and human ABCE1-containing pre-initiation complexes by cryo-EM. We found that ABCE1 was mostly associated with early 43S, but also with later 48S phases of initiation. It adopted a novel hybrid conformation of its nucleotide-binding domains, while interacting with the N-terminus of eIF3j. Further, eIF3j occupied the mRNA entry channel via its ultimate C-terminus providing a structural explanation for its antagonistic role with respect to mRNA binding. Overall, the native human samples provide a near-complete molecular picture of the architecture and sophisticated interaction network of the 43S-bound eIF3 complex and the eIF2 ternary complex containing the initiator tRNA.
Project description:In eukaryotic translation, termination and ribosome recycling phases are linked to subsequent initiation of a new round of translation by persistence of several factors at ribosomal sub-complexes. These comprise/include the large eIF3 complex, eIF3j (Hcr1 in yeast) and the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCE1 (Rli1 in yeast). The ATPase is mainly active as a recycling factor, but it can remain bound to the dissociated 40S subunit until formation of the next 43S pre-initiation complexes. However, its functional role and native architectural context remains largely enigmatic. Here, we present an architectural inventory of native yeast and human ABCE1-containing pre-initiation complexes by cryo-EM. We found that ABCE1 was mostly associated with early 43S, but also with later 48S phases of initiation. It adopted a novel hybrid conformation of its nucleotide binding domains, while interacting with the N-terminus of eIF3j. Further, eIF3j occupied the mRNA entry channel via its ultimate C-terminus providing a structural explanation for its antagonistic role with respect to mRNA binding. Overall, the native human samples provide a near-complete molecular picture of the architecture and sophisticated interaction network of the 43S-bound eIF3 complex and the eIF2 ternary complex containing the initiator tRNA.