Adoptive cell therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma: evaluation of intensive myeloablative chemoradiation preparative regimens.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The two approved treatments for patients with metastatic melanoma, interleukin (IL)-2 and dacarbazine, mediate objective response rates of 12% to 15%. We previously reported that adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with autologous antitumor lymphocytes in lymphodepleted hosts mediated objective responses in 51% of 35 patients. Here, we update that study and evaluate the safety and efficacy of two increased-intensity myeloablative lymphodepleting regimens. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We performed two additional sequential trials of ACT with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in patients with metastatic melanoma. Increasing intensity of host preparative lymphodepletion consisting of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine with either 2 (25 patients) or 12 Gy (25 patients) of total-body irradiation (TBI) was administered before cell transfer. Objective response rates by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and survival were evaluated. Immunologic correlates of effective treatment were studied. RESULTS:Although nonmyeloablative chemotherapy alone showed an objective response rate of 49%, when 2 or 12 Gy of TBI was added, the response rates were 52% and 72% respectively. Responses were seen in all visceral sites including brain. There was one treatment-related death in the 93 patients. Host lymphodepletion was associated with increased serum levels of the lymphocyte homeostatic cytokines IL-7 and IL-15. Objective responses were correlated with the telomere length of the transferred cells. CONCLUSION:Host lymphodepletion followed by autologous TIL transfer and IL-2 results in objective response rates of 50% to 70% in patients with metastatic melanoma refractory to standard therapies.
Project description:PURPOSE:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and interleukin (IL)-2 administered following lymphodepletion can cause the durable complete regression of bulky metastatic melanoma in patients refractory to approved treatments. However, the generation of a unique tumor-reactive TIL culture for each patient may be prohibitively difficult. We therefore investigated the clinical and immunologic impact of unscreened, CD8+ enriched "young" TIL. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Methods were developed for generating TIL that minimized the time in culture and eliminated the individualized tumor-reactivity screening step. Thirty-three patients were treated with these CD8+ enriched young TIL and IL-2 following nonmyeloablative lymphodepletion (NMA). Twenty-three additional patients were treated with CD8+ enriched young TIL and IL-2 after lymphodepletion with NMA and 6 Gy of total body irradiation. RESULTS:Young TIL cultures for therapy were successfully established from 83% of 122 consecutive melanoma patients. Nineteen of 33 patients (58%) treated with CD8+ enriched young TIL and NMA had an objective response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) including 3 complete responders. Eleven of 23 patients (48%) treated with TIL and 6 Gy total body irradiation had an objective response including 2 complete responders. At 1 month after TIL infusion the absolute CD8+ cell numbers in the periphery were highly correlated with response. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that a rapid and simplified method can be used to reliably generate CD8+ enriched young TIL for administration as an individualized therapy for advanced melanoma, and may allow this potentially effective treatment to be applied at other institutions and to reach additional patients.
Project description:Adoptive cell therapy may be based on isolation of tumor-specific T cells, e.g. autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), in vitro activation and expansion and the reinfusion of these cells into patients upon chemotherapy induced lymphodepletion. Together with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 this treatment has been given to patients with advanced malignant melanoma and impressive response rates but also significant IL-2 associated toxicity have been observed. Here we present data from a feasibility study at a Danish Translational Research Center using TIL adoptive transfer in combination with low-dose subcutaneous IL-2 injections.This is a pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00937625) including patients with metastatic melanoma, PS ?1, age <70, measurable and progressive disease and no involvement of the central nervous system. Six patients were treated with lymphodepleting chemotherapy, TIL infusion, and 14?days of subcutaneous low-dose IL-2 injections, 2 MIU/day.Low-dose IL-2 considerably decreased the treatment related toxicity with no grade 3-4 IL-2 related adverse events. Objective clinical responses were seen in 2 of 6 treated patients with ongoing complete responses (30+ and 10+ months), 2 patients had stable disease (4 and 5?months) and 2 patients progressed shortly after treatment. Tumor-reactivity of the infused cells and peripheral lymphocytes before and after therapy were analyzed. Absolute number of tumor specific T cells in the infusion product tended to correlate with clinical response and also, an induction of peripheral tumor reactive T cells was observed for 1 patient in complete remission.Complete and durable responses were induced after treatment with adoptive cell therapy in combination with low-dose IL-2 which significantly decreased toxicity of this therapy.
Project description:Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is a promising treatment for metastatic melanoma unresponsive to conventional therapies. We report here on the results of an ongoing phase II clinical trial testing the efficacy of ACT using TIL in patients with metastatic melanoma and the association of specific patient clinical characteristics and the phenotypic attributes of the infused TIL with clinical response.Altogether, 31 transiently lymphodepleted patients were treated with their expanded TIL, followed by two cycles of high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 therapy. The effects of patient clinical features and the phenotypes of the T cells infused on the clinical response were determined.Overall, 15 of 31 (48.4%) patients had an objective clinical response using immune-related response criteria (irRC) with 2 patients (6.5%) having a complete response. Progression-free survival of more than 12 months was observed for 9 of 15 (60%) of the responding patients. Factors significantly associated with the objective tumor regression included a higher number of TIL infused, a higher proportion of CD8(+) T cells in the infusion product, a more differentiated effector phenotype of the CD8(+) population, and a higher frequency of CD8(+) T cells coexpressing the negative costimulation molecule "B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator" (BTLA). No significant difference in the telomere lengths of TIL between responders and nonresponders was identified.These results indicate that the immunotherapy with expanded autologous TIL is capable of achieving durable clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma and that CD8(+) T cells in the infused TIL, particularly differentiated effectors cells and cells expressing BTLA, are associated with tumor regression.
Project description:Adoptive Cell Transfer (ACT) of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) in combination with lymphodepletion has proven to be an effective treatment for metastatic melanoma patients, with an objective response rate in 50%-70% of the patients. It is based on the ex vivo expansion and activation of tumor-specific T lymphocytes extracted from the tumor and their administration back to the patient. Various TIL-ACT trials, which differ in their TIL generation procedures and patient preconditioning, have been reported. In the latest clinical studies, genetically engineered peripheral T cells were utilized instead of TIL. Further improvement of adoptive T cell transfer depends on new investigations which seek higher TIL quality, increased durable response rates, and aim to treat more patients. Simplifying this therapy may encourage cancer centers worldwide to adopt this promising technology. This paper focuses on the latest progress regarding adoptive T cell transfer, comparing the currently available protocols and discussing their advantages, disadvantages, and implication in the future.
Project description:Treatment of metastatic melanoma with autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is currently applied in several centers. Robust and remarkably consistent overall response rates, of around 50% of treated patients, have been observed across hospitals, including a substantial fraction of durable, complete responses. PURPOSE:Execute a phase I/II feasibility study with TIL therapy in metastatic melanoma at the Netherlands Cancer Institute, with the goal to assess feasibility and potential value of a randomized phase III trial. EXPERIMENTAL:Ten patients were treated with TIL therapy. Infusion products and peripheral blood samples were phenotypically characterized and neoantigen reactivity was assessed. Here, we present long-term clinical outcome and translational data on neoantigen reactivity of the T cell products. RESULTS:Five out of 10 patients, who were all anti-PD-1 naïve at time of treatment, showed an objective clinical response, including two patients with a complete response that are both ongoing for more than 7 years. Immune monitoring demonstrated that neoantigen-specific T cells were detectable in TIL infusion products from three out of three patients analyzed. For six out of the nine neoantigen-specific T cell responses detected in these TIL products, T cell response magnitude increased significantly in the peripheral blood compartment after therapy, and neoantigen-specific T cells were detectable for up to 3 years after TIL infusion. CONCLUSION:The clinical results from this study confirm the robustness of TIL therapy in metastatic melanoma and the potential role of neoantigen-specific T cell reactivity. In addition, the data from this study supported the rationale to initiate an ongoing multicenter phase III TIL trial.
Project description:Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is arguably the most effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. With higher response rates than ipilimumab or IL-2, and longer durations of response than vemurafenib, TIL therapy carries the potential to transform current outcomes in melanoma, while also defining the way cell-based immunotherapy gets incorporated into mainstream cancer treatment. This paper will review the current state of TIL therapy in melanoma, the strategies to improve its efficacy, the current obstacles, and future directions to expand the availability of TIL to the general patient population.
Project description:Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) administered to lymphodepleted patients with melanoma can cause durable tumor regressions. The optimal TIL product for ACT is unknown.Patients with metastatic melanoma were prospectively assigned to receive unselected young TILs versus CD8(+)-enriched TILs. All patients received lymphodepleting chemotherapy and high-dose IL-2 therapy and were assessed for response, toxicity, survival, and immunologic end points.Thirty-four patients received unselected young TILs with a median of 8.0% CD4(+) lymphocytes, and 35 patients received CD8(+)-enriched TILs with a median of 0.3% CD4(+) lymphocytes. One month after TIL infusion, patients who received CD8(+)-enriched TILs had significantly fewer CD4(+) peripheral blood lymphocytes (P = .01). Twelve patients responded to therapy with unselected young TILs (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST]), and seven patients responded to CD8(+)-enriched TILs (35% v 20%; not significant). Retrospective studies showed a significant association between response to treatment and interferon gamma secretion by the infused TILs in response to autologous tumor (P = .04), and in the subgroup of patients who received TILs from subcutaneous tumors, eight of 15 patients receiving unselected young TILs responded but none of eight patients receiving CD8(+)-enriched TILs responded.A randomized selection design trial was feasible for improving individualized TIL therapy. Since the evidence indicates that CD8(+)-enriched TILs are not more potent therapeutically and they are more laborious to prepare, future studies should focus on unselected young TILs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Uveal melanoma is a rare tumour with no established treatments once metastases develop. Although a variety of immune-based therapies have shown efficacy in metastatic cutaneous melanoma, their use in ocular variants has been disappointing. Recently, adoptive T-cell therapy has shown salvage responses in multiple refractory solid tumours. Thus, we sought to determine if adoptive transfer of autologous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) could mediate regression of metastatic uveal melanoma. METHODS:In this ongoing single-centre, two-stage, phase 2, single-arm trial, patients (aged ?16 years) with histologically confirmed metastatic ocular melanoma were enrolled. Key eligibility criteria were an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, progressive metastatic disease, and adequate haematological, renal, and hepatic function. Metastasectomies were done to procure tumour tissue to generate autologous TIL cultures, which then underwent large scale ex-vivo expansion. Patients were treated with lymphodepleting conditioning chemotherapy (intravenous cyclophosphamide [60 mg/kg] daily for 2 days followed by fludarabine [25 mg/m2] daily for 5 days, followed by a single intravenous infusion of autologous TILs and high-dose interleukin-2 [720?000 IU/kg] every 8 h). The primary endpoint was objective tumour response in evaluable patients per protocol using Response to Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.0. An interim analysis of this trial is reported here. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01814046. FINDINGS:From the completed first stage and ongoing expansion stage of this trial, a total of 21 consecutive patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were enrolled between June 7, 2013, and Sept 9, 2016, and received TIL therapy. Seven (35%, 95% CI 16-59) of 20 evaluable patients had objective tumour regression. Among the responders, six patients achieved a partial response, two of which are ongoing and have not reached maximum response. One patient achieved complete response of numerous hepatic metastases, currently ongoing at 21 months post therapy. Three of the responders were refractory to previous immune checkpoint blockade. Common grade 3 or worse toxic effects were related to the lymphodepleting chemotherapy regimen and included lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia (21 [100%] patients for each toxicity); anaemia (14 [67%] patients); and infection (six [29%] patients). There was one treatment-related death secondary to sepsis-induced multiorgan failure. INTERPRETATION:To our knowledge, this is the first report describing adoptive transfer of autologous TILs to mediate objective tumour regression in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. These initial results challenge the belief that metastatic uveal melanoma is immunotherapy resistant and support the further investigation of immune-based therapies for this cancer. Refinement of this T-cell therapy is crucial to improve the frequency of clinical responses and the general applicability of this treatment modality. FUNDING:Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research.
Project description:During the last decade, the field of cancer immunotherapy has been entirely transformed by the development of new and more effective treatment modalities with impressive response rates and the prospect of long survival. One of the major breakthroughs is adoptive cell transfer (ACT) based on autologous T cells derived from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). TIL-based ACT is a highly personalized cancer treatment. T cells are harvested from autologous fresh tumor tissues, and after ex vivo activation and extensive expansion, are reinfused to patients. TIL-based therapies have only been offered in small phase I/II studies in a few centers given the highly specialized care required, the complexity of TIL production and the very intensive nature of the three-step treatment protocol. The treatment includes high-dose lymphodepleting chemotherapy, the infusion of the expanded and activated T cells and interleukin-2 (IL-2) injections to increase survival of the T cells. Despite the limited data on ACT, the small published studies consistently confirm an impressive clinical response rate of up to 50% in metastatic melanoma patients, including a significant proportion of patients with durable complete response. These remarkable results justify the need for larger clinical trials in other solid tumors, including gynecologic malignancies. In this review we provide an overview of the current clinical results, future applications of TIL-based ACT in gynecologic malignancies, and on risks and challenges associated with modern T cell therapy.