A conserved hydrophobic tetrad near the C terminus of the secretory Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) is required for its correct intracellular processing.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the intracellular folding and trafficking of integral membrane proteins. Here we identify a hydrophobic amino acid tetrad (ILLV) close to the C terminus of the secretory Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) that is important for the proper intracellular processing of this protein. This tetrad appears in a C-terminal sequence pattern that is conserved across species in a number of members of the NKCC1 gene family (slc12) of electroneutral salt transporters. We studied the effects of various mutations of these amino acids on NKCC1 transiently transfected into HEK-293 cells. Our results show that mutation of two of these residues to alanine leads to a >50% reduction in expression and complex glycosylation levels and that multiple mutations to alanine have cumulative effects. By contrast, scrambling of these amino acids, or mutation of other nearby conserved C-terminal residues, has little effect on these parameters. Mutation of ILLV to AAAA reduces complex glycosylation of NKCC1 by approximately 90% and results in a protein that does not form stable dimers and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum in a highly aggregated state. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that mutation of the hydrophobic tetrad ILLV to AAAA leads to the ab initio misfolding and concomitant aggregation of this NKCC1 mutant, resulting in its retention in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:Pacemaker depolarization in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is believed to be induced by Ca2+ transients and activation of anoctamin-1 (Ano1) channels in the plasma membrane. However, block of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) or the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) terminates pacemaker activity in ICC, indicating these transporters are involved in the initiation or maintenance of pacemaker activity. We hypothesized that SOCE contributes to pacemaker depolarization by maintaining [Ca2+] in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is the underlying source of Ca2+ transients for activation of Ano1. NKCC1 maintains the Cl- gradient supporting the driving force for inward current mediated by Ano1. Currently mechanisms sustaining release of Ca2+ and activation of Ano1 channels during the plateau phase of slow waves are unknown, but the reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange may contribute. We generated a mathematical model of pacemaker activity based on current empirical observations from ICC of mouse small intestine that incorporates functions of SOCE and NKCC1. This model reproduces experimental findings, suggesting roles for SOCE and Ano1 channels: blocking of either NKCC1 or SOCE in our model terminates pacemaker activity. Direct contribution of NKCC1 to pacemaker activity in a beat-to-beat manner is not predicted by our model. Instead, NKCC1 plays a maintenance role supporting the driving force for Cl- efflux. Incorporation of SOCE allows the model to drive pacemaker activity without a diastolic depolarization, as observed in cardiac pacemaking. Further biological experiments are necessary to validate and further refine the roles of NKCC1, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, and Ano1 in the pacemaker mechanism of ICC.
Project description:The bumetanide (BMT)-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) maintains cell volume homeostasis by increasing intracellular K+ and Cl- content via regulatory volume increase (RVI). Expression levels of NKCC1 positively correlate with the histological grade and severity of gliomas, the most common primary adult brain tumors, and up-regulated NKCC1 activity facilitates glioma cell migration and apoptotic resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide (TMZ). However, the cellular mechanisms underlying NKCC1 functional up-regulation in glioma and in response to TMZ administration remain unknown.Expression of NKCC1 and its upstream kinases With-No-K (Lysine) kinase 1 (WNK1) and oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1 (OSR1) in different human glioma cell lines and glioma specimens were detected by western blotting and immunostaining. Live cell imaging and microchemotaxis assay were applied to record glioma cell movements under different treatment conditions. Fluorescence indicators were utilized to measure cell volume, intracellular K+ and Cl- content to reflect the activity of NKCC1 on ion transportation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of WNK1 or OSR1 was used to explore their roles in regulation of NKCC1 activity in glioma cells. Results of different treatment groups were compared by one-way ANOVA using the Bonferroni post-hoc test in the case of multiple comparisons.We show that compared to human neural stem cells and astrocytes, human glioma cells exhibit robust increases in the activation and phosphorylation of NKCC1 and its two upstream regulatory kinases, WNK1 and OSR1. siRNA-mediated knockdown of WNK1 or OSR1 reduces intracellular K+ and Cl- content and RVI in glioma cells by abolishing NKCC1 regulatory phospho-activation. Unexpectedly, TMZ activates the WNK1/OSR1/NKCC1 signaling pathway and enhances glioma migration. Pharmacological inhibition of NKCC1 with its potent inhibitor BMT or siRNA knockdown of WNK1 or OSR1 significantly decreases glioma cell migration after TMZ treatment.Together, our data show a novel role for the WNK1/OSR1/NKCC1 pathway in basal and TMZ-induced glioma migration, and suggest that glioma treatment with TMZ might be improved by drugs that inhibit elements of the WNK1/OSR1/NKCC1 signaling pathway.
Project description:This study describes a 13-yr-old girl with orthostatic intolerance, respiratory weakness, multiple endocrine abnormalities, pancreatic insufficiency, and multiorgan failure involving the gut and bladder. Exome sequencing revealed a de novo, loss-of-function allele in SLC12A2, the gene encoding the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1. The 11-bp deletion in exon 22 results in frameshift (p.Val1026Phefs*2) and truncation of the carboxy-terminal tail of the cotransporter. Preliminary studies in heterologous expression systems demonstrate that the mutation leads to a nonfunctional transporter, which is expressed and trafficked to the plasma membrane alongside wild-type NKCC1. The truncated protein, visible at higher molecular sizes, indicates either enhanced dimerization or misfolded aggregate. No significant dominant-negative effect was observed. K+ transport experiments performed in fibroblasts from the patient showed reduced total and NKCC1-mediated K+ influx. The absence of a bumetanide effect on K+ influx in patient fibroblasts only under hypertonic conditions suggests a deficit in NKCC1 regulation. We propose that disruption in NKCC1 function might affect sensory afferents and/or smooth muscle cells, as their functions depend on NKCC1 creating a Cl- gradient across the plasma membrane. This Cl- gradient allows the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor or other Cl- channels to depolarize the membrane affecting processes such as neurotransmission or cell contraction. Under this hypothesis, disrupted sensory and smooth muscle function in a diverse set of tissues could explain the patient's phenotype.
Project description:Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCCs), including NKCC1 and renal-specific NKCC2, and the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) play pivotal roles in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and renal NaCl reabsorption. Oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1 (OSR1) is a known upstream regulator of N(K)CCs. We generated and analyzed global and kidney tubule-specific (KSP) OSR1 KO mice to elucidate the physiological role of OSR1 in vivo, particularly on BP and kidney function. Although global OSR1(-/-) mice were embryonically lethal, OSR1(+/-) mice had low BP associated with reduced phosphorylated (p) STE20 (sterile 20)/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and p-NKCC1 abundance in aortic tissue and attenuated p-NKCC2 abundance with increased total and p-NCC expression in the kidney. KSP-OSR1(-/-) mice had normal BP and hypercalciuria and maintained significant hypokalemia on a low-K(+) diet. KSP-OSR1(-/-) mice exhibited impaired Na(+) reabsorption in the thick ascending loop on a low-Na(+) diet accompanied by remarkably decreased expression of p-NKCC2 and a blunted response to furosemide, an NKCC2 inhibitor. The expression of total SPAK and p-SPAK was significantly increased in parallel to that of total NCC and p-NCC despite unchanged total NKCC2 expression. These results suggest that, globally, OSR1 is involved in the regulation of BP and renal tubular Na(+) reabsorption mainly via the activation of NKCC1 and NKCC2. In the kidneys, NKCC2 but not NCC is the main target of OSR1 and the reduced p-NKCC2 in KSP-OSR1(-/-) mice may lead to a Bartter-like syndrome.
Project description:Acute administration of loop diuretics like furosemide leads to a stimulation of renin secretion, an effect thought to result from inhibition of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2)-mediated salt transport at the luminal surface of the macula densa (MD). However, loop diuretics also inhibit NKCC1, the second isoform of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, with similar potency. In the present study, we examined the influence of furosemide on renin secretion in NKCC1-deficient mice to distinguish between effects of the loop diuretic involving NKCC2 and, by implication, the MD pathway, and effects that might occur via inhibition of NKCC1. Baseline plasma renin concentration (PRC) was 1,212 +/- 211 in NKCC1+/+ (n = 13) and 3,851 +/- 579 ng ANG I.ml(-1).h(-1) in NKCC1-/- mice (n = 14; P = 0.00024). Acute administration of furosemide (50 mg/kg i.p.) increased PRC significantly to 9,324 +/- 1,018 ng ANG I.ml(-1).h(-1) in NKCC1+/+ (n = 13; P < 0.0001 compared with basal) and to 14,188 +/- 2,274 ng ANG I.ml(-1).h(-1) in NKCC1-/- mice [n = 14; P = 0.0002 compared with basal; P = 0.034 compared with wild-type (WT) plus furosemide]. Renin mRNA expression was about threefold higher in NKCC1-/- compared with WT mice. There was considerable recruitment of granular cells to upstream regions of afferent arterioles in NKCC1-/- mice. Patch-clamp studies in single juxtaglomerular granular (JG) cells from WT mice showed an approximately 10% increase in membrane capacitance during incubation with furosemide (10(-4) M), indicating a direct effect of the loop diuretic on renin secretion. No effect of furosemide on membrane capacitance was observed in JG cells from NKCC1-deficient mice. Furosemide (10(-3) M) significantly stimulated renin release from primary cultures of JG cells from WT mice, whereas no response was observed in NKCC1-/- mice. Our data suggest that a functional NKCC1 suppresses basal renin release, at least in part, through a direct effect on JG cells.
Project description:Airway epithelial Na-K-2Cl (NKCC1) cotransport is activated through hormonal stimulation and hyperosmotic stress via a protein kinase C (PKC) delta-mediated intracellular signaling pathway. Down-regulation of PKCdelta prevents activation of NKCC1 expressed in Calu-3 cells. Previous studies of this signaling pathway identified coimmunoprecipitation of PKCdelta with SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase). We hypothesize that endogenous PKCdelta activates SPAK, which subsequently activates NKCC1 through phosphorylation. Double-stranded silencing RNA directed against SPAK reduced SPAK protein expression by 65.8% and prevented increased phosphorylation of NKCC1 and functional activation of NKCC1 during hyperosmotic stress, measured as bumetanide-sensitive basolateral to apical (86)Rb flux. Using recombinant proteins, we demonstrate direct binding of PKCdelta to SPAK, PKCdelta-mediated activation of SPAK, binding of SPAK to the amino terminus of NKCC1 (NT-NKCC1, amino acids 1-286), and competitive inhibition of SPAK-NKCC1 binding by a peptide encoding a SPAK binding site on NT-NKCC1. The carboxyl terminus of SPAK (amino acids 316-548) pulls down endogenous NKCC1 from Calu-3 total cell lysates and glutathione S-transferase-tagged NT-NKCC1 pulls down endogenous SPAK. In intact cells, hyperosmotic stress increased phosphorylated PKCdelta, indicating activation of PKCdelta, and activity of endogenous SPAK kinase. Inhibition of PKCdelta activity with rottlerin blocked the increase in SPAK kinase activity. The results indicate that PKCdelta acts upstream of SPAK to increase activity of NKCC1 during hyperosmotic stress.
Project description:Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g(-1) and 2.7 µmol g(-1) after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l(-1) NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance.
Project description:Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It can survive in brackish water but not seawater. In brackish water, it becomes partially ureosmotic, but how it maintains its plasma hypoionic to the external medium is enigmatic because of the lack of a rectal gland. Here, we report for the first time the expression of Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (nkcc1) in the gills of freshwaterH. signifer, and its moderate up-regulation (~2-fold) in response to brackish water (salinity 20) acclimation. The absence of the Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidation stress response kinase 1 interaction site from the N-terminus of H. signifer Nkcc1 suggested that it might not be effectively activated by stress kinases in response to salinity changes as in more euryhaline teleosts. The increased activity of Nkcc1 during salt excretion in brackish water would lead to an influx of Na(+) into ionocytes, and the maintenance of intracellular Na(+) homeostasis would need the cooperation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Nka). We demonstrated for the first time the expression of nka?1, nka?2 and nka?3 in the gills of H. signifer, and the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of nka?3 and the overall protein abundance of Nka? in response to acclimation to brackish water. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of a sub-type of ionocyte, co-expressing Nkcc1 and Nka?, near the base of the secondary lamellae in the gills of H. signifer acclimated to brackish water, but this type of ionocyte was absent from the gills of fish kept in fresh water. Hence, there could be a change in the function of the gills of H. signifer from salt absorption to salt excretion during brackish water acclimation in the absence of a functioning rectal gland.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the role of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in the regulation of genes involved in cell cycle progression and the clinicopathological significance of its expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS:An immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 68 primary tumor samples obtained from ESCC patients that underwent esophagectomy. NKCC1 expression in human ESCC cell lines was analyzed by Western blotting. Knockdown experiments were conducted using NKCC1 small interfering RNA, and the effects on cell cycle progression were analyzed. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray analysis. RESULTS:Immunohistochemical staining showed that NKCC1 was primarily found in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells and that its expression was related to the histological degree of differentiation of SCC. NKCC1 was highly expressed in KYSE170 cells. Depletion of NKCC1 in these cells inhibited cell proliferation via G2/M phase arrest. Microarray analysis identified 2527 genes with altered expression levels in NKCC1depleted KYSE170. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked canonical pathway was the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation pathway, which involves MAD2L1, DTL, BLM, CDC20, BRCA1, and E2F5. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that the expression of NKCC1 in ESCC may affect the G2/M checkpoint and may be related to the degree of histological differentiation of SCCs. We have provided a deeper understanding of the role of NKCC1 as a mediator and/or a biomarker in ESCC.
Project description:The K-Cl cotransporter (KCC) functions in maintaining chloride and volume homeostasis in a variety of cells. In the process of cloning the mouse KCC3 cDNA, we came across a cloning mutation (E289G) that rendered the cotransporter inactive in functional assays in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Through biochemical studies, we demonstrate that the mutant E289G cotransporter is glycosylation-deficient, does not move beyond the endoplasmic reticulum or the early Golgi, and thus fails to reach the plasma membrane. We establish through co-immunoprecipitation experiments that both wild-type and mutant KCC3 with KCC2 results in the formation of hetero-dimers. We further demonstrate that formation of these hetero-dimers prevents the proper trafficking of the cotransporter to the plasma membrane, resulting in a significant decrease in cotransporter function. This effect is due to interaction between the K-Cl cotransporter isoforms, as this was not observed when KCC3-E289G was co-expressed with NKCC1. Our studies also reveal that the glutamic acid residue is essential to K-Cl cotransporter function, as the corresponding mutation in KCC2 also leads to an absence of function. Interestingly, mutation of this conserved glutamic acid residue in the Na(+)-dependent cation-chloride cotransporters had no effect on NKCC1 function in isosmotic conditions, but diminished cotransporter activity under hypertonicity. Together, our data show that the glutamic acid residue (E289) is essential for proper trafficking and function of KCCs and that expression of a non-functional but full-length K-Cl cotransporter might results in dominant-negative effects on other K-Cl cotransporters.