Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by arsenite interferes with repair of oxidative DNA damage.
ABSTRACT: Arsenic enhances skin tumor formation when combined with other carcinogens, including UV radiation (UVR). In this study we report that low micromolar concentrations of arsenite synergistically increases UVR-induced oxidative DNA damage in human keratinocytes as detected by 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) formation. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is involved in base excision repair, a process that repairs 8-OHdG lesions. Arsenite suppresses UVR-induced PARP-1 activation in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of PARP-1 activity by 3-aminobenzamide or small interfering RNA silencing of PARP-1 expression significantly increases UVR-induced 8-OHdG formation, suggesting that inhibition of PARP-1 activity by arsenite contributes to oxidative DNA damage. PARP-1 is a zinc finger protein, and mass spectrometry analysis reveals that arsenite can occupy a synthetic apopeptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1 (PARPzf). When the PARPzf peptide is preincubated with Zn(II) followed by incubation with increasing concentrations of arsenite, the ZnPARPzf signal is decreased while the AsPARPzf signal intensity is increased as a function of arsenite dose, suggesting a competition between zinc and arsenite for the same binding site. Addition of Zn(II) abolished arsenite enhancement of UVR-stimulated 8-OHdG generation and restored PARP-1 activity. Our findings demonstrate that arsenite inhibits oxidative DNA damage repair and suggest that interaction of arsenite with the PARP-1 zinc finger domain contributes to the inhibition of PARP-1 activity by arsenite. Arsenite inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is one likely mechanism for the reported co-carcinogenic activities of arsenic in UVR-induced skin carcinogenesis.
Project description:Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen, but the mechanism of carcinogenesis is not well understood. Oxidative stress and inhibition of DNA damage repair have been postulated as potential carcinogenic actions of arsenic. The present study tests the hypothesis that arsenite not only induces oxidative stress but also inhibits the activity of the DNA base excision repair protein, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), leading to exacerbation of the oxidative DNA damage induced by arsenic. HaCat cells were treated with arsenite for 24 h before measuring 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), PARP-1 activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Zinc supplementation and PARP-1 siRNA were used to increase or decrease, respectively, the PARP-1 protein's physiological function. At high concentrations (10 microM or higher), arsenite greatly induced oxidative DNA damage, as indicated by 8-OHdG formation. At lower concentrations (1 microM), arsenite did not produce detectable 8-OHdG, but was still able to effectively inhibit PARP-1 activity. Zinc supplementation reduced the formation of 8-OHdG, restored the PARP-1 activity inhibited by arsenite, but did not decrease ROS production. SiRNA knockdown of PARP-1 did not affect the 8-OHdG level induced by arsenic, while it greatly increased the 8-OHdG level produced by hydrogen peroxide indicating that PARP-1 is a molecular target of arsenite. Our findings demonstrate that in addition to inducing oxidative stress at higher concentrations, arsenite can also inhibit the function of a key DNA repair protein, PARP-1, even at very low concentrations, thus exacerbating the overall oxidative DNA damage produced by arsenite, and potentially, by other oxidants as well.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have associated arsenic exposure with many types of human cancers. Arsenic has also been shown to act as a co-carcinogen even at low concentrations. However, the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is unknown. Recent studies indicate that arsenic can interfere with DNA-repair processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is a zinc-finger DNA-repair protein, which can promptly sense DNA strand breaks and initiate DNA-repair pathways. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of arsenic could inhibit PAPR-1 activity and so exacerbate levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA strand breaks. HaCat cells were treated with arsenite and/or UVR, and then DNA strand breaks were assessed by comet assay. Low concentrations of arsenite (<or=2 microM) alone did not induce significant DNA strand breaks, but greatly enhanced the DNA strand breaks induced by UVR. Further studies showed that 2 microM arsenite effectively inhibited PARP-1 activity. Zinc supplementation of arsenite-treated cells restored PARP-1 activity and significantly diminished the exacerbating effect of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA strand breaks. Importantly, neither arsenite treatment, nor zinc supplementation changed UVR-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suggesting that their effects upon UVR-induced DNA strand breaks are not through a direct free radical mechanism. Combination treatments of arsenite with PARP-1 inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide or PARP-1 siRNA demonstrate that PARP-1 is the target of arsenite. Together, these findings show that arsenite at low concentration exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity, which may represent an important mechanism underlying the co-carcinogenicity of arsenic.
Project description:Arsenic inhibits DNA repair and enhances the genotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents such as benzo[a]pyrene and ultraviolet radiation. Arsenic interaction with DNA repair proteins containing functional zinc finger motifs is one proposed mechanism to account for these observations. Here, we report that arsenite binds to both CCHC DNA-binding zinc fingers of the DNA repair protein PARP-1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1). Furthermore, trivalent arsenite coordinated with all three cysteine residues as demonstrated by MS/MS. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of peptides harboring site-directed substitutions of cysteine with histidine residues within the PARP-1 zinc finger revealed that arsenite bound to peptides containing three or four cysteine residues, but not to peptides with two cysteines, demonstrating arsenite binding selectivity. This finding was not unique to PARP-1; arsenite did not bind to a peptide representing the CCHH zinc finger of the DNA repair protein aprataxin, but did bind to an aprataxin peptide mutated to a CCHC zinc finger. To investigate the impact of arsenite on PARP-1 zinc finger function, we measured the zinc content and DNA-binding capacity of PARP-1 immunoprecipitated from arsenite-exposed cells. PARP-1 zinc content and DNA binding were decreased by 76 and 80%, respectively, compared with protein isolated from untreated cells. We observed comparable decreases in zinc content for XPA (xeroderma pigmentosum group A) protein (CCCC zinc finger), but not SP-1 (specificity protein-1) or aprataxin (CCHH zinc finger). These findings demonstrate that PARP-1 is a direct molecular target of arsenite and that arsenite interacts selectively with zinc finger motifs containing three or more cysteine residues.
Project description:Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) promotes the formation of UVR-induced, DNA helix distorting photolesions such as (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Effective repair of such lesions by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is required to prevent DNA mutations and chromosome aberrations. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a zinc finger protein with well documented involvement in base excision repair. PARP-1 is activated in response to DNA damage and catalyzes the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) subunits that assist in the assembly of DNA repair proteins at sites of damage. In this study, we present evidence for PARP-1 contributions to NER, extending the knowledge of PARP-1 function in DNA repair beyond the established role in base excision repair. Silencing the PARP-1 protein or inhibiting PARP activity leads to retention of UVR-induced photolesions. PARP activation following UVR exposure promotes association between PARP-1 and XPA, a central protein in NER. Administration of PARP inhibitors confirms that poly(ADP-ribose) facilitates PARP-1 association with XPA in whole cell extracts, in isolated chromatin complexes, and in vitro. Furthermore, inhibition of PARP activity decreases UVR-stimulated XPA chromatin association, illustrating that these relationships occur in a meaningful context for NER. These results provide a mechanistic link for PARP activity in the repair of UVR-induced photoproducts.
Project description:Arsenic is an environmental toxin that enhances the carcinogenic effect of DNA-damaging agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Interaction with zinc finger proteins has been shown to be an important molecular mechanism for arsenic toxicity and cocarcinogenesis. Arsenicals such as arsenite, arsenic trioxide (ATO), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) have been reported to interact with cysteine residues of zinc finger domains, but little is known about potential differences in their selectivity of interaction. Herein we analyzed the interaction of arsenite, MMA(III), and ATO with C2H2, C3H1, and C4 configurations of zinc fingers using UV-vis, cobalt, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. We observed that arsenite and ATO both selectively bound to C3H1 and C4 zinc fingers, while MMA(III) interacted with all three configurations of zinc finger peptides. Structurally and functionally, arsenite and ATO caused conformational changes and zinc loss on C3H1 and C4 zinc finger peptide and protein, respectively, whereas MMA(III) changed conformation and displaced zinc on all three types of zinc fingers. The differential selectivity was also demonstrated in zinc finger proteins isolated from cells treated with these arsenicals. Our results show that trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds, arsenite and ATO, have the same selectivity and behavior when interacting with zinc finger proteins, while methylation removes the selectivity. These findings provide insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential effects of inorganic versus methylated arsenicals, as well as the role of in vivo arsenic methylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis.
Project description:Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with widespread public health concern. Epidemiological studies have revealed that chronic human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with the prevalence of skin, lung, and bladder cancers. Aberrant histone modifications (e.g., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) were previously found to be accompanied by arsenic exposure; thus, perturbation of epigenetic pathways is thought to contribute to arsenic carcinogenesis. Arsenite is known to interact with zinc finger motifs of proteins, and zinc finger motif is present in and indispensable for the enzymatic activities of crucial histone-modifying enzymes especially the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases (e.g., TIP60). Hence, we reasoned that trivalent arsenic may target the zinc finger motif of these enzymes, disturb their enzymatic activities, and alter histone acetylation. Herein, we found that As3+ could bind directly to the zinc-finger motif of TIP60 in vitro and in cells. In addition, exposure to As3+ could lead to a dose-dependent decrease in TIP60 protein level via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Thus, the results from the present study revealed, for the first time, that arsenite may target cysteine residues in the zinc-finger motif of the TIP60 histone acetyltransferase, thereby altering the H4K16Ac histone epigenetic mark. Our results also shed some new light on the mechanisms underlying the arsenic-induced epigenotoxicity and carcinogenesis in humans.
Project description:Uranium has radiological and non-radiological effects within biological systems and there is increasing evidence for genotoxic and carcinogenic properties attributable to uranium through its heavy metal properties. In this study, we report that low concentrations of uranium (as uranyl acetate; <10 ?M) is not cytotoxic to human embryonic kidney cells or normal human keratinocytes; however, uranium exacerbates DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that uranium may inhibit DNA repair processes. Concentrations of uranyl acetate in the low micromolar range inhibited the zinc finger DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and caused zinc loss from PARP-1 protein. Uranyl acetate exposure also led to zinc loss from the zinc finger DNA repair proteins Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A (XPA) and aprataxin (APTX). In keeping with the observed inhibition of zinc finger function of DNA repair proteins, exposure to uranyl acetate enhanced retention of induced DNA damage. Co-incubation of uranyl acetate with zinc largely overcame the impact of uranium on PARP-1 activity and DNA damage. These findings present evidence that low concentrations of uranium can inhibit DNA repair through disruption of zinc finger domains of specific target DNA repair proteins. This may provide a mechanistic basis to account for the published observations that uranium exposure is associated with DNA repair deficiency in exposed human populations.
Project description:Chronic exposure of inorganic arsenic compounds is responsible for the manifestation of various tumours as well as other diseases. The principal mechanism behind arsenic toxicity is the induction of a strong oxidative stress with production of free radicals in cells. The present study was aimed to explore the shielding effect of anethole against oxidative damage induced by arsenic in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes and the effect of GSTO1 polymorphism. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency, comet tail moment and lipid peroxidation levels were used as biomarkers to assess the oxidative damage. Heparinised venous blood was collected from healthy individuals and treated with sodium arsenite (50 µM) in the presence of anethole (25 and 50 µM) for the analysis of shielding effect of anethole. For the genotyping of GSTO1, PCR RFLP method was adopted. A significant dose-dependent increase in the frequency of SCEs, tail moment and lipid peroxidation levels, was observed when lymphocytes were treated with sodium arsenite. Anethole in combination with sodium arsenite has shown a dose-dependent significant decrease in the frequency of SCEs, tail moment and lipid peroxidation levels. Genetic polymorphism of GSTO1 was found to effect individual susceptibility towards arsenic-mediated genotoxicity and was found insignificant when antigenotoxic effect of anethole was considered. GSTO1 mutant genotypes were found to have significant higher genotoxicity of sodium arsenite as compared to wild-type genotype. The results of the present study suggest ameliorative effects of anethole against arsenic-mediated genotoxic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. A significant effect of GSTO1 polymorphism was observed on genotoxicity of sodium arsenite.
Project description:Arsenic is a widespread environmental toxicant with a diverse array of molecular targets and associated diseases, making the identification of the critical mechanisms and pathways of arsenic-induced cytotoxicity a challenge. In a variety of experimental models, over a range of arsenic exposure levels, apoptosis is a commonly identified arsenic-induced cytotoxic pathway. Human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) have been used as a model system in arsenic toxicology for many years, but the exact mechanism of arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in LCL is still unknown. We investigated the cytotoxicity of sodium arsenite in LCL 18564 using a set of complementary markers for cell death pathways. Markers indicative of apoptosis (phosphatidylserine externalization, PARP cleavage, and sensitivity to caspase inhibition) were uniformly negative in arsenite exposed cells. Interestingly, electron microscopy, acidic vesicle fluorescence, and expression of LC3 in LCL 18564 identified autophagy as an arsenite-induced process that was associated with cytotoxicity. Autophagy, a cellular programmed response that is associated with both cellular stress adaptation as well as cell death appears to be the predominant process in LCL cytotoxicity induced by arsenite. It is unclear, however, whether LCL autophagy is an effector mechanism of arsenite cytotoxicity or alternatively a cellular compensatory mechanism. The ability of arsenite to induce autophagy in lymphoblastoid cell lines introduces a potentially novel mechanistic explanation of the well-characterized in vitro and in vivo toxicity of arsenic to lymphoid cells.
Project description:Arsenic is a well-recognized human carcinogen, yet the mechanism by which it causes human cancer has not been elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a big family of small noncoding RNAs and negatively regulate the expression of a large number of protein-coding genes. We investigated the role of miRNAs in arsenic-induced human bronchial epithelial cell malignant transformation and tumor formation. We found that prolonged exposure of immortalized p53-knocked down human bronchial epithelial cells (p53(low)HBECs) to low levels of arsenite (NaAsO?, 2.5 ?M) caused malignant transformation that was accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduction in the levels of miR-200 family members. Stably reexpressing miR-200b in arsenite-transformed cells (As-p53(low)HBECs) completely reversed their transformed phenotypes, as evidenced by inhibition of colony formation in soft agar and prevention of xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Moreover, stably expressing miR-200b alone in parental nontransformed p53(low)HBECs was sufficient to completely prevent arsenite exposure from inducing EMT and malignant transformation. Further mechanistic studies showed that depletion of miR-200 in arsenite-transformed cells involved induction of the EMT-inducing transcription factors zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox factor 1 (ZEB1) and ZEB2 and increased methylation of miR-200 promoters. Stably expressing ZEB1 alone in parental nontransformed p53(low)HBECs was sufficient to deplete miR-200, induce EMT and cause cell transformation, phenocopying the oncogenic effect of 16-week arsenite exposure. These findings establish for the first time a causal role for depletion of miR-200b expression in human cell malignant transformation and tumor formation resulting from arsenic exposure.