The Curtius rearrangement of cyclopropyl and cyclopropenoyl azides. A combined theoretical and experimental mechanistic study.
ABSTRACT: A combined experimental and theoretical study addresses the concertedness of the thermal Curtius rearrangement. The kinetics of the Curtius rearrangements of methyl 1-azidocarbonyl cycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylate and methyl 1-azidocarbonyl cyclopropane-1-carboxylate were studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and there is close agreement between calculated and experimental enthalpies and entropies of activation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)) on these same acyl azides suggest gas phase barriers of 27.8 and 25.1 kcal/mol. By comparison, gas phase activation barriers for the rearrangement of acetyl, pivaloyl, and phenyl azides are 27.6, 27.4, and 30.0 kcal/mol, respectively. The barrier for the concerted Curtius reaction of acetyl azide at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d,p) level exhibited a comparable activation energy of 26.3 kcal/mol. Intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) analyses suggest that all of the rearrangements occur by a concerted pathway with the concomitant loss of N2. The lower activation energy for the rearrangement of methyl 1-azidocarbonyl cycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylate relative to methyl 1-azidocarbonyl cyclopropane-1-carboxylate was attributed to a weaker bond between the carbonyl carbon and the three-membered ring in the former compound. Calculations on the rearrangement of cycloprop-2-ene-1-oyl azides do not support pi-stabilization of the transition state by the cyclopropene double bond. A comparison of reaction pathways at the CBS-QB3 level for the Curtius rearrangement versus the loss of N2 to form a nitrene intermediate provides strong evidence that the concerted Curtius rearrangement is the dominant process.
Project description:The free energies of reaction (DeltaG) and activation (DeltaG) were determined for the Curtius-like rearrangement of dimethylphosphinoyl, dimethylphosphinyl, and dimethylphosphoryl azides as well as the corresponding singlet and triplet nitrenes by CBS-QB3 and B3LYP computational methods. From CASSCF calculations, it was established that the closed-shell configuration was the lower energy singlet state for each of these nitrenes. The triplet states of dimethylphosphinyl- and dimethylphosphorylnitrene are the preferred ground states. However, the closed-shell singlet state is the ground state for dimethylphosphinoylnitrene. The CBS-QB3 DeltaG values for the Curtius-like rearrangements of dimethylphosphinyl and dimethylphosphoryl azides were 45.4 and 47.0 kcal mol-1, respectively. For the closed-shell singlet dimethylphosphinyl- and dimethylphosphorylnitrene, the CBS-QB3 DeltaG values for the rate-limiting step of the Curtius-like rearrangement were 22.9 and 18.0 kcal mol-1, respectively. It is unlikely that the nitrenes will undergo a Curtius-like rearrangement because of competing bimolecular reactions that have lower activation barriers. The pharmacology of weaponized organophosphorus compounds can be investigated using phosphorylnitrenes as photoaffinity labels. Dominant bimolecular reactivity is a desirable quality for a photoaffinity label to possess, and thus, the resistance of phosphorylnitrenes to intramolecular Curtius-like rearrangements increases their usefulness as photoaffinity labels.
Project description:Dianions are generated from alkyllithium reagents and cycloprop-2-ene carboxylic acids, and these dianions can be functionalized by electrophiles at the vinylic position. In a previous report, we described that such dianions could be generated and reacted with electrophiles in Et2O or THF. Upon further study, it was found that there were reproducibility issues for those reactions that were carried out in Et2O. Working under the assumption that an impurity may have promoted these reactions, a detailed study was undertaken to determine the effect of variables on the generation, stability, and reactivity of cycloprop-2-ene carboxylate dianions. It has been found that certain additives can have a substantial effect on the chemistry of cycloprop-2-ene carboxylate dianions. In particular, it was determined that amine N-oxide additives have a beneficial effect both on the stability of cycloprop-2-ene carboxylate dianions and on the rates that such dianions undergo alkylation. Conditions for reacting dianions with a broad range of electrophiles are described.
Project description:We report herein a nucleophilic carbene catalyzed redox azidation of epoxyaldehydes. The intermediate beta-hydroxy acyl azides undergo thermal Curtius rearrangement followed by trapping with excess azide to form carbamoyl azides or, in a complementary sequence, by the hydroxy group to form oxazolidinones. Both products are formed in modest to good yields and diastereoselectivities. The use of an enantioenriched triazolium catalyst leads to modest asymmetric induction.
Project description:The Curtius rearrangement is a classic, powerful method for converting carboxylic acids into protected amines, but its widespread use is impeded by safety issues (the need to handle azides). We have developed an alternative to the Curtius rearrangement that employs a copper catalyst in combination with blue-LED irradiation to achieve the decarboxylative coupling of aliphatic carboxylic acid derivatives (specifically, readily available N-hydroxyphthalimide esters) to afford protected amines under mild conditions. This C-N bond-forming process is compatible with a wide array of functional groups, including an alcohol, aldehyde, epoxide, indole, nitroalkane, and sulfide. Control reactions and mechanistic studies are consistent with the hypothesis that copper species are engaged in both the photochemistry and the key bond-forming step, which occurs through out-of-cage coupling of an alkyl radical.
Project description:A diastereoselective procedure has been developed for the Cu-catalyzed addition of diorganozinc reagents to cyclopropene derivatives. Ester and oxazolidinone functions direct the addition of a variety of organozinc reagents with excellent facial selectivity. The resulting cyclopropylzinc reagents can be captured via stereospecific reactions with electrophiles. Cycloprop-2-ene carboxylic esters, which are directly available from the transition-metal-catalyzed reactions of alkynes with alpha-diazo esters, can be utilized directly in carbozincation protocols. Both diastereoselectivity and regioselectivity are high for the carbozincation reactions of 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene carboxylate esters. The scope of the method is broadened by the ability to utilize organozinc reagents that have been generated in situ from Grignard reagents. Chiral oxazolidinone auxilaries are effective in controlling the diastereoselectivity of the carbometalation reactions.
Project description:We report a facile synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-4-quinolinyl phosphates (1a-l) starting from 2-acyl-benzoic acids (2a-l) in the presence of phosphoryl azides via a one-pot cascade reaction involving a Curtius rearrangement, an intramolecular nucleophilic addition of the enol carbon to the isocyanate intermediate, and an addition-elimination of the enol oxygen to the phosphoryl azide. During the reaction three new bonds are formed under mild conditions to yield 1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-4-quinolinyl phosphates in modest yields.
Project description:The first decarbonylative cycloaddition of less-strained cyclic ketones (isatins) with isocyanates is reported. Initiated by C-C activation, this distinct [5-2+2] transformation provides a rapid entry to access various benzimidazolidinone derivatives, through which a wide range of isocyanates can be efficiently coupled with broad functional group tolerance. A modified one-pot process, combining Curtius rearrangement and C-C activation, was also achieved by using acyl azides as the starting materials. Detailed mechanistic study revealed a surprising double-decarbonylative reaction pathway. The novel reactivity discovered in this basic research is expected to shed light on developing new heterocycle formation methods through a C-C/isocyanate coupling.
Project description:A vinyl cyclopropane rearrangement embedded in an iridium-catalyzed hydrogen borrowing reaction enabled the formation of substituted stereo-defined cyclopentanes from Ph* methyl ketone and cyclopropyl alcohols. Mechanistic studies provide evidence for the ring-expansion reaction being the result of a cascade based on oxidation of the cyclopropyl alcohols, followed by aldol condensation with the pentamethyl phenyl-substituted ketone to form an enone containing the vinyl cyclopropane. Subsequent single electron transfer (SET) to this system initiates a rearrangement, and the catalytic cycle is completed by reduction of the new enone. This process allows for the efficient formation of diversely substituted cyclopentanes as well as the construction of complex bicyclic carbon skeletons containing up to four contiguous stereocentres, all with high diastereoselectivity.
Project description:We describe a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics investigation of the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase catalyzed reaction, which shows that proton transfer from guanidinoacetate (GAA) to Asp-134 and methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to GAA are concerted. By self-consistent-charge density functional tight binding/molecular mechanics, the bond lengths in the concerted mechanism's transition state are 1.26 A for both the OD1 (Asp-134)-H(E) (GAA) and H(E) (GAA)-N(E) (GAA) bonds, and 2.47 and 2.03 A for the S8 (AdoMet)-C9 (AdoMet) and C9 (AdoMet)-N(E) (GAA) bonds, respectively. The potential-energy barrier (DeltaE++) determined by single-point B3LYP/6-31+G*//MM is 18.9 kcal/mol. The contributions of the entropy (-TDeltaS++) and zero-point energy corrections Delta(ZPE)++ by normal mode analysis are 2.3 kcal/mol and -1.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the activation enthalpy of this concerted mechanism is predicted to be DeltaH++ = DeltaE++ plus Delta(ZPE)++ = 17.2 kcal/mol. The calculated free-energy barrier for the concerted mechanism is DeltaG++ = 19.5 kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with the value of 19.0 kcal/mol calculated from the experimental rate constant (3.8 +/- 0.2.min(-1)).
Project description:Electronic structure calculations have been used for the effective triage of substituent effects on difluorinated vinylcyclopropane precursors and their ability to undergo vinyl cyclopropane rearrangements (VCPR). Groups which effectively stabilised radicals, specifically heteroarenes, were found to result in the lowest energy barriers. Ten novel precursors were synthesised to test the accuracy of computational predictions; the most reactive species which contained heteroarenes underwent thermal rearrangements at room temperature to afford novel difluorocyclopentenes and fluorinated benzocycloheptadienes through competing VCPR and [3,3]-rearrangement pathways, respectively. More controlled rearrangement of ethyl 3-(1'(2'2'-difluoro-3'-benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl)propenoate (22) allowed these competing pathways to be monitored at the same time and activation energies for both reactions were determined; Ea(VCPR) = (23.4 ± 0.2) kcal mol-1 and Ea([3,3]) = (24.9 ± 0.3) kcal mol-1. Comparing our calculated activation energies with these parameters showed that no single method stood out as the most accurate for predicting barrier heights; (U)M05-2X/6-31+G* methodology remained the best for VCPR but M06-2X/6-31G* was better for the [3,3]-rearrangement. The consistency observed with (U)B3LYP/6-31G* calculations meant that it came closest to a universal method for dealing with these systems. The developed computational design model correctly predicted the observed selectivity of rearrangement pathways for both our system and literature compounds.