Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII) regulates growth and patterning of the postnatal mouse cerebellum.
ABSTRACT: COUP-TFII (also known as Nr2f2), a member of the nuclear orphan receptor superfamily, is expressed in several regions of the central nervous system (CNS), including the ventral thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and spinal cord. To address the function of COUP-TFII in the CNS, we generated conditional COUP-TFII knockout mice using a tissue-specific NSE-Cre recombinase. Ablation of COUP-TFII in the brain resulted in malformation of the lobule VI in the cerebellum and a decrease in differentiation of cerebellar neurons and cerebellar growth. The decrease in cerebellar growth in NSE(Cre/+)/CII(F/F) mice is due to reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in granule cell precursors (GCPs). Additional studies demonstrated that insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) expression was reduced in the cerebellum of NSE(Cre/+)/CII(F/F) mice, thereby leading to decreased Akt1 and GSK-3beta activities, and the reduced expression of mTOR. Using ChIP assays, we demonstrated that COUP-TFII was recruited to the promoter region of IGF-1 in a Sp1-dependent manner. In addition, dendritic branching of Purkinje cells was decreased in the mutant mice. Thus, our results indicate that COUP-TFII regulates growth and maturation of the mouse postnatal cerebellum through modulation of IGF-1 expression.
Project description:Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII) plays pivotal roles in cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell fate determination. Although genome-wide studies have identified COUP-TFII binding on gene sets mainly involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development and craniofacial morphogenesis, the direct functional connection between COUP-TFII and NCCs in vivo has not been well characterized. In this study, we show that COUP-TFII is expressed in the subpopulation of NCCs and its derivatives, and targeted ablation of COUP-TFII in mouse NCCs results in markedly shortened and bifurcated tympanic rings, which in turn disturb the caudal direction of external acoustic meatus invagination. However, formation of the manubrium of the malleus (MM) in Wnt1-Cre/+;COUP-TFII flox/flox mice is not perturbed, suggesting that the rostral half of the tympanic ring is sufficient to support proper MM development. Interestingly, we found that loss of COUP-TFII up-regulates Sox9 in the tympanic ring primordium and affects the distribution of preosteoblasts before mesenchymal condensation. Together, our results demonstrate that COUP-TFII plays an essential role in regulating the patterning of the NCC-derived tympanic ring.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of the orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) in the regulation of renin gene expression. COUP-TFII colocalized with renin in the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, which are the main source of renin in vivo. Protein-DNA binding studies demonstrated that COUP-TFII binds to an imperfect direct repeat COUP-TFII recognition sequence (termed hereafter proxDR) in the proximal renin promoter. Because cAMP signaling plays a central role in the control of the renin gene expression, we suggested that COUP-TFII may modulate this cAMP effect. Accordingly, knockdown of COUP-TFII in the clonal renin-producing cell lines As4.1 and Calu-6 diminished the stimulation of the renin mRNA expression by cAMP agonists. In addition, the mutation of the proxDR element in renin promoter reporter gene constructs abrogated the inducibility by cAMP. The proxDR sequence was found to be necessary for the function of a proximal renin promoter cAMP-response element (CRE). Knockdown of COUP-TFII or cAMP-binding protein (CREB), which is the archetypal transcription factor binding to CRE, decreased the basal renin gene expression. However, the deficiency of COUP-TFII did not further diminish the renin expression when CREB was knocked down. In agreement with the cell culture studies, mutant mice deficient in COUP-TFII have lower renin expression than their control strain. Altogether our data show that COUP-TFII is involved in the control of renin gene expression.
Project description:Nuclear receptors and coregulators orchestrate diverse aspects of biological functions and inappropriate expression of these factors often associates with human diseases. The present study describes a conditional overexpression system consisting of a minigene located at the Rosa26 locus in the genome of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Before activation, the minigene is silent due to a floxed STOP cassette inserted between the promoter and the transgene. Upon cre-mediated excision of the STOP cassette, the minigene constitutively expresses the tagged transgene driven by the ubiquitous CAGGS promoter. Thus, this system can be used to express target gene in any tissue in a spatial and/or temporal manner if respective cre mouse lines are available. Serving as proof of principle, the CAG-S-hCOUP-TFI allele was generated in ES cells and subsequently in mice. This allele was capable of conditionally overexpressing human chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) in all tissues tested upon activation by cre drivers. This allele was further subjected to address functionality of expressed COUP-TFI and the functional similarity between COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII. Expression of COUP-TFI in COUP-TFII-ablated uterus suppressed aberrant estrogen receptor-alpha activities and rescued implantation and decidualization defects of COUP-TFII mutants, suggesting that COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII are able to functionally compensate for each other in the uterus. A toolbox currently under construction will contain ES cell lines for overexpressing all 48 nuclear receptors and selected 10 coregulators. Upon completion, it will be a very valuable resource for the scientific community. Several ES cells are currently available for distribution.
Project description:COUP-TFII, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily plays a critical role in angiogenesis and organogenesis during embryonic development. Our results indicate that COUP-TFII expression is profoundly upregulated in prostate cancer patients and might serves as biomarker for recurrence prediction. Thus we conduct transcriptome comparison of control and COUP-TFII depleted PC3 cells to gain genomic insights on the biological processes that COUP-TFII is involved in prostate cancer cells. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) shows that the most prominent altered pathways in the COUP-TFII depleted cells are related to cell growth; cell cycle progression and DNA damage response. Indeed many growth related genes including E2F1, p21, CDC25A, Cyclin A and Cyclin B are changed in COUP-TFII knockdown cells, suggesting that COUP-TFII might be an important regulator for prostate cancer cell growth. Further functional assays from cells and mice genetic studies confirm the hypothesis that COUP-TFII serve as the major regulator to control prostrate cancer growth. Together, results provide insight into the role of COUP-TFII in prostate tumorigenesis. PC3 Cells were transfected with siRNA (Control or COUP-TFII siRNA) duplexes (40 nM) and total RNA was isolated 48 hours later.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The control of the functional pancreatic ?-cell mass serves the key homeostatic function of releasing the right amount of insulin to keep blood sugar in the normal range. It is not fully understood though how ?-cell mass is determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Conditional chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII)-deficient mice were generated and crossed with mice expressing Cre under the control of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (pdx1) gene promoter. Ablation of COUP-TFII in pancreas resulted in glucose intolerance. Beta-cell number was reduced at 1 day and 3 weeks postnatal. Together with a reduced number of insulin-containing cells in the ductal epithelium and normal ?-cell proliferation and apoptosis, this suggests decreased ?-cell differentiation in the neonatal period. By testing islets isolated from these mice and cultured ?-cells with loss and gain of COUP-TFII function, we found that COUP-TFII induces the expression of the ?-catenin gene and its target genes such as cyclin D1 and axin 2. Moreover, induction of these genes by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) via ?-catenin was impaired in absence of COUP-TFII. The expression of two other target genes of GLP-1 signaling, GLP-1R and PDX-1 was significantly lower in mutant islets compared to control islets, possibly contributing to reduced ?-cell mass. Finally, we demonstrated that COUP-TFII expression was activated by the Wnt signaling-associated transcription factor TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2) in human islets and rat ?-cells providing a feedback loop. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our findings show that COUP-TFII is a novel component of the GLP-1 signaling cascade that increases ?-cell number during the neonatal period. COUP-TFII is required for GLP-1 activation of the ?-catenin-dependent pathway and its expression is under the control of TCF7L2.
Project description:Tumor growth depends on nutrients and oxygen supplied by the vasculature through angiogenesis. Here, we show that the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII), a member of the nuclear receptor family, is a major angiogenesis regulator within the tumor microenvironment. Conditional ablation of COUP-TFII in adults severely compromised neoangiogenesis and suppressed tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. In addition, tumor growth and tumor metastasis were also impaired in a spontaneous mammary-gland tumor model in the absence of COUP-TFII. We showed that COUP-TFII directly regulates the transcription of Angiopoietin-1 in pericytes to enhance neoangiogenesis. Importantly, provision of Angiopoietin-1 partially restores the angiogenic defects exhibited by the COUP-TFII-deficient mice, which supports the notion that COUP-TFII controls Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 signaling to regulate tumor angiogenesis. Because COUP-TFII has little impact on normal adult physiological function, our results raise an interesting possibility that inhibition of COUP-TFII may offer a therapeutic approach for anticancer intervention.
Project description:Adipose tissue development and function play a central role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of metabolic syndromes. Here, we show that chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) plays a pivotal role in adipogenesis and energy homeostasis. COUP-TFII is expressed in the early stages of white adipocyte development. COUP-TFII heterozygous mice (COUP-TFII(+/-)) have much less white adipose tissue (WAT) than wild-type mice (COUP-TFII(+/+)). COUP-TFII(+/-) mice display a decreased expression of key regulators for WAT development. Knockdown COUP-TFII in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in an increased expression of Wnt10b, while chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Wnt10b is a direct target of COUP-TFII. Moreover, COUP-TFII(+/-) mice have increased mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT, and COUP-TFII(+/-) mice have improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. Thus, COUP-TFII regulates adipogenesis by regulating the key molecules in adipocyte development and can serve as a target for regulating energy metabolism.
Project description:We created an Nse-CreERT2 mouse line expressing the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of the neuron-specific enolase (Nse) promoter. By using Cre reporter lines we could show that this Nse-CreERT2 line has recombination activity in the granule cells of all cerebellar lobules as well as in postmitotic granule cell precursors in the external granular layer of the developing cerebellum. A few hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells showed Cre-mediated recombination as well. Cre activity could be induced in both the developing and adult mouse brain. The established mouse line constitutes a valuable tool to study the function of genes expressed by cerebellar granule cells in the developing and adult brain. In combination with reporter lines it is a useful model to analyze the development and maintenance of the cerebellar architecture including granule cell distribution, migration, and the extension of granule cell fibers in vivo.
Project description:The paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus plays important roles in the regulation of energy balance and fetal growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its formation and function have not been clearly elucidated. Various mutations in the human COUP-TFII gene, which encodes a nuclear receptor, result in growth retardation, congenital diaphragmatic hernia and congenital heart defects. Here, we show that COUP-TFII gene is expressed in the developing hypothalamus in mouse. The ventral forebrain-specific RXCre/+; COUP-TFII <sup>F/F</sup> mutant mice display growth retardation. The development of the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus is compromised in the COUP-TFII mutant mainly because of increased apoptosis and mis-migration of the Brn2<sup>+</sup> neurons. Moreover, hypoplastic anterior pituitary with blood cell clusters and shrunken posterior pituitary lacking AVP/OT neuron innervations are observed in the mutant, indicating the failure of formation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Mechanistic studies show that the expression of Bdnf and Nrp1 genes is reduced in the mutant embryo, and that Bdnf is a direct downstream target of the COUP-TFII protein. Thus, our findings provide a novel functional validation that COUP-TFII gene promotes the expression of Bdnf and Nrp1 genes to ensure the appropriate morphogenesis of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, especially the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, and to prevent growth retardation.
Project description:Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII; NR2F2) is an orphan nuclear receptor involved in cell-fate specification, organogenesis, angiogenesis, and metabolism. Ablation of COUP-TFII in the mouse uterus causes infertility due to defects in embryo attachment and impaired uterine stromal cell decidualization. Although the function of COUP-TFII in uterine decidualization has been described in mice, its role in the human uterus remains unknown. We observed that, as in mice, COUP-TFII is robustly expressed in the endometrial stroma of healthy women, and its expression is reduced in the ectopic lesions of women with endometriosis. To interrogate the role of COUP-TFII in human endometrial function, we used a small interfering RNA-mediated loss of function approach in primary human endometrial stromal cells. Attenuation of COUP-TFII expression did not completely block decidualization; rather it had a selective effect on gene expression. To better elucidate the role of COUP-TFII in endometrial stroma cell biology, the COUP-TFII transcriptome was defined by pairing microarray comparison with chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that COUP-TFII regulates a subset of genes in endometrial stroma cell decidualization such as those involved in cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Importantly this analysis shows that COUP-TFII plays a role in controlling the expression of inflammatory cytokines. The determination that COUP-TFII plays a role in inflammation may add insight into the role of COUP-TFII in embryo implantation and in endometrial diseases such as endometriosis.