Preservation of hand function using muscle perforator flaps.
ABSTRACT: Adequate soft tissue coverage is imperative after any interventions performed to maximize or preserve hand function. Although this can most simply be achieved by primary closure or a skin graft if possible, often a vascularized flap will be preferable, especially if a later secondary procedure is planned. Even moderately sized skin deficits of the upper extremity, and especially if involving the hand itself, can be better covered using a free tissue transfer. Many reasonable options in this regard are available. Muscle perforator flaps, as a relatively new variant of a fasciocutaneous flap, have unique attributes, including availability, diversity, accessibility, large size, and lengthy vascular pedicle, and since no muscle need be included, donor site function is preserved. As is shown here in a series of nine muscle perforator flaps in eight patients, these represent yet another alternative that should be considered if selection of a free flap is indicated to maintain hand function.
Project description:Free tissue transfer has revolutionized the management of complex head and neck defects. Perforator flaps represent the most recent advance in the development of free flap surgery. These flaps are based on perforating vessels and can be harvested without significant damage to associated muscles, thereby reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with muscle-based flaps. Elevation of perforator flaps requires meticulous technique and can be more challenging than raising muscle-based flaps. Use of a Doppler device enables reliable identification of the perforating vessels and aids in the design of free-style free flaps, where the flaps are designed purely according to the perforator located. The major advantage of free-style free flaps is that an unlimited number of flaps can potentially be designed on much shorter pedicles. The anterolateral thigh flap is the most commonly used perforator flap in head and neck reconstruction. Its use is described in detail, as is use of other less common perforator flaps. This article also describes head and neck reconstruction in a region-specific manner and gives a short-list of suitable flaps based on the location of the defect.
Project description:In this report, we present a case of successful treatment of a bowel fistula in the open abdomen by perforator flaps and an aponeurosis plug. A 70-year-old man underwent total gastrectomy and developed anastomotic leakage and dehiscence of the abdominal wound a week later. He was dependent upon extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, continuous hemodiafiltration, and a respirator. Bowel fluids contaminated the open abdomen. Two months after the gastric operation, a plastic surgery team, in consultation with general surgeons, performed perforator flaps on both sides and constructed, as it were, a bridge of skin sealing the orifice of the fistula. The aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle was elevated with the flap to be used as a plug. The perforators of the flaps were identified on preoperative and intraoperative ultrasonography. This modality allowed us to locate the perforators precisely and to evaluate the perforators by assessing their diameters and performing a waveform analysis. The contamination decreased dramatically afterwards. The bare areas were gradually covered by skin grafts. The fistula was closed completely 18 days after the perforator flap. An ultrasoundguided perforator flap with an aponeurosis plug can be an option for patients suffering from an open abdomen with a bowel fistula.
Project description:Precise perforator mapping of the epifascial and subcutaneous course of the perforator flaps, including the precise detection of the skin point, is mandatory for successful preoperative flap design and planning of supramicrosurgery. We investigated the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced B-flow (BCEUS) imaging for perforator mapping and preoperative perforator flap planning and compared it with B-flow ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and color Doppler ultrasound. Sixteen patients who received an individualized perforator flap reconstruction were included in the study. Preoperative perforator mapping includes the following structures: subfascial course of the pedicle, fascial penetration point, subcutaneous course (epifascial and subcutaneous), and perforator skin point. The precision of the preoperative perforator mapping was analyzed for color Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, B-flow ultrasound, and BCEUS. Each technique was able to precisely display the subfascial course of the vascular pedicle, including the fascial penetration point. However, only BCEUS enabled precise mapping of the epifascial and subcutaneous (suprafascial) course, including the skin point of the perforators with a clear delineation. Precise knowledge of the suprafascial course of the perforators is mandatory for successful supermicrosurgery and perforator flap planning. BCEUS imaging facilitates full perforator mapping, which improves the safety of flap harvesting. However, BCEUS is technically demanding and requires an experienced sonographer.
Project description:It is difficult to completely resect huge anterior chest wall keloids and then close the wound directly. We report here our retrospective analysis of our case series of patients with such keloids who underwent reconstruction with internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP) pedicled propeller flaps and then received postoperative high-dose-rate superficial brachytherapy.All consecutive patients with large/severe keloids on the anterior chest wall who underwent keloid resection followed by reconstruction with IMAP-pedicled propeller flaps and then high-dose-rate superficial brachytherapy in our academic hospital were identified. All cases were followed for >18 months. Donor site position, perforator pedicle, flap size, angle of flap rotation, complications, and recurrence were documented.There were nine men and one woman. The average age was 37.9 years. The average follow-up duration was 28.7 months. The largest flap was 16?×?4?cm. The dominant perforators of the internal mammary artery were located in the sixth (n = 2), seventh (n = 5), eighth (n = 1), and ninth (n = 2) intercostal spaces. Twelve months after surgery, patients reported marked relief from keloid-associated pain and itching, except in two patients who underwent partial keloid resection; their remaining keloids were still troublesome but after conservative therapies, including steroid ointments/plasters, the keloids gradually ameliorated. Eighteen months after surgery, there was no keloid recurrence or new development of keloids on the donor site.IMAP-pedicled propeller flaps transfer skin tension from the anterior chest wall to the abdomen. Our series suggests that this approach combined with radiation therapy can control keloid recurrence.
Project description:Reconstruction of a complex defect around the knee, particularly involving a large soft-tissue defect or disruption of the extensor mechanism, is always a challenging problem. The purpose of this study was to introduce the use of a customized free perforator flap for complex soft-tissue reconstruction around the knee. Between June 2010 and March 2017, 16 patients underwent this procedure. The choice of flap design is based on the location of the wound, the required pedicle length, the missing tissue components and their volumes, and the risk of donor-site morbidity. The reconstruction was performed using anterolateral thigh perforator (ALTP) flaps in five cases, modified ALTP flaps in two cases, chimeric ALTP flaps in four cases, dual-skin paddle ALTP flaps in two cases, and chimeric thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps in two cases. Multiple perforator flaps and vascularized fascia lata were used in one case. All flaps survived postoperatively. No vascular congestion was observed, and partial necrosis was observed in only one case. Primary closure of the donor site was performed for all patients. At a mean follow-up time of 16.5 months, most cases showed satisfactory flap contours and acceptable functional outcomes. A free perforator flap is a reliable option for repairing complex soft-tissue defects in the knee region, especially when local and pedicled flaps are unavailable. Various flap designs allow for more individualized treatment approaches and can achieve better results.
Project description:Although the success rate of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps has increased, late flap failures still occur and have a low salvage rate. The present article describes a case of salvage of a case of late flap failure using the pedicle vein as a vein graft source. A 50-year-old woman underwent a bilateral DIEP free flap procedure. On postoperative day 6, she experienced flap compromise and underwent emergency flap revision. In the flap revision, flap venous drainage and the superficial inferior epigastric vein were completely obstructed. A Fogarty catheter was used to remove a thrombus from the completely obstructed pedicle vein, and this pedicle vein was used as a graft source and was ligated in retrograde fashion to the flap vein stump. After injection of urokinase into the arterial branch, venous flow to the flap was restored. At a 6-month follow-up visit in the outpatient clinic, only partial fat necrosis at the flap was noted. By dissecting various perforators in the initial operation, decisions regarding immediate revision can be made with more confidence. Additionally, the combined procedures performed in this case may be helpful even for practitioners treating cases of late flap compromise.
Project description:Local perforator flaps are used as immediate volume replacement techniques in breast conserving surgery. Here, we describe a case series of local perforator flaps used in the delayed setting to correct defects following previous breast surgery, including previous breast conservation surgery or mastectomy with reconstruction. All cases were performed in a tertiary referral breast unit between 2014 and 2020. Cases were identified using a prospectively maintained database. Indications, type of perforator flap used, immediate post-operative complications, and longer term outcomes were recorded. Fifteen cases were identified: 8 following previous breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy, 6 following mastectomy and reconstruction, and 1 for developmental breast asymmetry following childhood radiotherapy. Indications included volume deficit, contour defect, asymmetry, and capsular contracture. One patient a major complication requiring return to theater due to implant-related infection. There were no flap losses. Longer term, 2 patients underwent lipomodeling to further augment breast volume as part of a planned, staged revision. One patient subsequently elected to have bilateral breast implant exchange to increase volume. Our series shows the versatility of local perforator flaps in the correction of complex breast defects that can occur following previous breast surgery. Delayed local perforator flaps are associated with low morbidity, and further revision surgery is not commonly required.
Project description:The ideal reconstruction of lower limb defects should replace like with like and minimize morbidity to the donor site, achieving the best possible esthetic and functional outcome. The goal is to obtain stable healing and to resume daily life in an efficient manner. Although the classical local flaps such as gastrocnemius, soleus muscle flap, and the reverse sural flap have allowed to achieve those goals, perforator flaps are now added on to the armamentarium in lower extremity reconstruction using local flaps. A perforator-based local flap, such as a propeller or keystone flap, has made reconstruction efficient while further reducing donor-site morbidity. This article aims to provide a useful review of the best available local flaps for lower limb defects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Distal flap necrosis is a frequent complication of perforator flaps. Advances in nanotechnology offer exciting new therapeutic approaches. Anti-inflammatory and neo-angiogenic properties of certain metal oxides within the nanoparticles, including bioglass and ceria, may promote flap survival. Here, we explore the ability of various nanoparticle formulations to increase flap survival in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A 9 x 3 cm dorsal flap based on the posterior thigh perforator was raised in 32 Lewis rats. They were divided in 4 groups and treated with different nanoparticle suspensions: I-saline (control), II-Bioglass, III-Bioglass/ceria and IV-Zinc-doped strontium-substituted bioglass/ceria. On post-operative day 7, planimetry and laser Doppler analysis were performed to assess flap survival and various samples were collected to investigate angiogenesis, inflammation and toxicity. RESULTS:All nanoparticle-treated groups showed a larger flap survival area as compared to the control group (69.9%), with groups IV (77,3%) and II (76%) achieving statistical significance. Blood flow measurements by laser Doppler analysis showed higher perfusion in the nanoparticle-treated flaps. Tissue analysis revealed higher number of blood vessels and increased VEGF expression in groups II and III. The cytokines CD31 and MCP-1 were decreased in groups II and IV. CONCLUSIONS:Bioglass-based nanoparticles exert local anti-inflammatory and neo-angiogenic effects on the distal part of a perforator flap, increasing therefore its survival. Substitutions in the bioglass matrix and trace metal doping allow for further tuning of regenerative activity. These results showcase the potential utility of these nanoparticles in the clinical setting.
Project description:Covering soft tissue defects remains challenging for orthopaedic surgeons, especially those in resource-challenged facilities. Covering tissue defects follow a plan from simple to complex: primary closure, local flap, area flap, pedicle flap, and free flap. I will limit my discussion to the role of latter two. At the district-level hospital in Vietnam, pedicle flaps are generally more useful, so I will discuss free flaps only briefly. The choices of pedicle flaps include: kite flap, posterior interosseous flap, radial flap (Chinese flap), neurocutaneous flap, anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous flap, gastrocnemius flap, sural flap, posterior leg flaps; we typically use a free flap with the latissimus dorsi. Soft tissue coverage with pedicle flaps has many advantages: reliability, relatively easy harvest, and good blood supply. Free flaps with microanastomosis have an important place in covering difficult medium- or large-sized soft tissue defects but also require more instruments and more highly trained surgeons.