Histone H3 Lys79 methylation is required for efficient nucleotide excision repair in a silenced locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: Methylation of specific histone lysine residues regulates gene expression and heterochromatin function, but little is known about its role in DNA repair. To examine how changes in conserved methylated residues of histone H3 affect nucleotide excision repair (NER), viable H3K4R and H3K79R mutants were generated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These mutants show decreased UV survival and impaired NER at the transcriptionally silent HML locus, while maintaining normal NER in the constitutively expressed RPB2 gene and transcriptionally repressed, nucleosome loaded GAL10 gene. Moreover, the HML chromatin in these mutants has reduced accessibility to Micrococcal nuclease (MNase). Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrates there is enhanced recruitment of the Sir complex at the HML locus of these mutants, and deletion of the SIR2 or SIR3 genes restores the MNase accessibility and DNA repair efficiency at this locus. Furthermore, following UV irradiation expression of NER genes in these mutants remains at wild type levels, with the exception of RAD16 which decreases by more than 2-fold. These results indicate that impaired NER occurs in the silenced chromatin of H3K79R and H3K4,79R mutants as a result of increased binding of Sir complexes, which may reduce DNA lesion accessibility to repair enzymes.
Project description:Single amino acid changes at specific DNA contacts of histones H3 and H4 generate SWI/SNF-independent (Sin) mutants in yeast. We have analyzed the effect of the Sin mutation at R45 of histone H4 on cell survival following UV irradiation, nucleotide excision repair (NER) and chromatin structure. We find that this mutation renders yeast cells more resistant to UV damage and enhances NER at specific chromatin loci. In the transcriptionally silent HML, repressed GAL10 and the constitutively active RPB2 loci, H4 R45 mutants exhibit enhanced repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) compared to wild-type (wt). However, the H4 R45 mutation does not increase the transcription of NER genes, disrupt transcriptional silencing of the HML locus or alter repression in the GAL10 locus. We have further shown that the H4 R45C mutation increases the accessibility of nucleosome DNA in chromatin to exogenous nucleases and may expedite nucleosome rearrangements during NER. Taken together, our results indicate that the increased repair observed in Sin mutants is a direct effect of the altered chromatin landscape caused by the mutation, suggesting that such subtle changes in the conserved histone residues can influence the accessibility of DNA repair factors in chromatin.
Project description:The highly charged histone N-terminal domains are engaged in inter- and intra-nucleosomal interactions, and contain a host of sites used for posttranslational modification. We have studied the effect of deleting residues 30-37 from the N-terminal domain of histone H2B in yeast cells, on nucleotide excision repair (NER) following UV irradiation, as these cells are quite sensitive to UV. We find that H2B Delta30-37 cells exhibit reduced NER efficiency at three specific chromatin loci: the transcriptionally active, RPB2 locus; the transcriptionally silenced, nucleosome-loaded HML locus; and the transcriptionally repressed, non-silenced, GAL10 locus. Nuclease digestion studies indicate that H2B Delta30-37 chromatin has increased nucleosome accessibility and/or nucleosome mobility. In addition, H2B Delta30-37 mutants acquire more DNA damage, compared to wt cells, following the same dose of UV radiation. Reducing the level of damage in H2B Delta30-37 cells to match that of wt cells restores the NER rate to wt levels in the RPB2 and GAL10 loci, but NER efficiency remains low in the silenced HML locus. Interestingly, recruitment of Snf5 to the HML locus is reduced in H2B Delta30-37 cells and more transient following UV irradiation. This may reflect a lower binding affinity of the SWI/SNF complex to H2B Delta30-37 nucleosomes.
Project description:Global genome nucleotide excision repair removes DNA damage from transcriptionally silent regions of the genome. Relatively little is known about the molecular events that initiate and regulate this process in the context of chromatin. We've shown that, in response to UV radiation-induced DNA damage, increased histone H3 acetylation at lysine 9 and 14 correlates with changes in chromatin structure, and these alterations are associated with efficient global genome nucleotide excision repair in yeast. These changes depend on the presence of the Rad16 protein. Remarkably, constitutive hyperacetylation of histone H3 can suppress the requirement for Rad7 and Rad16, two components of a global genome repair complex, during repair. This reveals the connection between histone H3 acetylation and DNA repair. Here, we investigate how chromatin structure is modified following UV irradiation to facilitate DNA repair in yeast. Using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation to measure histone acetylation levels, histone acetylase occupancy in chromatin, MNase digestion, or restriction enzyme endonuclease accessibility assays to analyse chromatin structure, and finally nucleotide excision repair assays to examine DNA repair, we demonstrate that global genome nucleotide excision repair drives UV-induced chromatin remodelling by controlling histone H3 acetylation levels in chromatin. The concerted action of the ATPase and C3HC4 RING domains of Rad16 combine to regulate the occupancy of the histone acetyl transferase Gcn5 on chromatin in response to UV damage. We conclude that the global genome repair complex in yeast regulates UV-induced histone H3 acetylation by controlling the accessibility of the histone acetyl transferase Gcn5 in chromatin. The resultant changes in histone H3 acetylation promote chromatin remodelling necessary for efficient repair of DNA damage. Recent evidence suggests that GCN5 plays a role in NER in human cells. Our work provides important insight into how GG-NER operates in chromatin.
Project description:We have cloned the RAD16 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determined its nucleotide sequence. The gene complements the UV sensitivity of a rad16 mutant and restores the ability to repair the transcriptionally inactive HML alpha locus that is absent in this mutant. Disruption mutants that were constructed using the cloned gene are viable and UV sensitive and show no detectable growth defect. Moreover, such a mutant is deficient for repair of the HML alpha locus. The nucleotide sequence shows that the gene codes for a protein of 790 amino acids that has two potential zinc binding domains and shares homology with two other yeast proteins: the RAD54 gene product involved in recombinational repair and SNF2, a transcription factor that possibly functions in transcription activation through an interaction with chromatin components that allows access of other factors involved in transcription. The role of RAD16 in the repair of HML alpha might be to change the chromatin structure of silenced genes to provide access for excision repair enzymes.
Project description:Heterochromatin is a heritable form of gene repression, with critical roles in development and cell identity. Understanding how chromatin factors results in such repression is a fundamental question. Chromatin is assembled and disassembled during transcription, replication and repair by anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1), a highly conserved histone chaperone. Transcription and DNA replication are also affected by histone modifications that modify nucleosome dynamics, such as H2B ubiquitylation (H2Bub). We report here that H2Bub and Asf1 cooperatively promote transcriptional silencing at yeast telomeres and mating loci. Through real time monitoring of HML (Hidden MAT Left) locus silencing, we found that transcriptional repression was slowly initiated and never fully established in mutants lacking both Asf1 and H2Bub. These findings are consistent with impaired HML silencer-binding and spreading of repressor proteins, Sir2 and Sir3. In addition, mutants lacking H2Bub and Asf1 show defects in both nucleosome assembly and higher-order heterochromatin organization at the HML locus. Our findings reveal a novel role for H2Bub and Asf1 in epigenetic silencing at mating loci. Thus, the interplay between H2Hbub and Asf1 may fine-tune nucleosome dynamics and SIR protein recruitment, and represent an ongoing requirement for proper formation and maintenance of heterochromatin.
Project description:How DNA repair proteins interact with the dynamic structure of chromatin is an emerging question. Chromatin structure impedes the access of repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Several recent studies have implicated chromatin remodeling complexes in DNA repair. In this report we summarize the methods we used to investigate chromatin remodeling during nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vivo. We describe a procedure to analyze UV-induced chromatin remodeling at the silent mating-type locus HML using isolated nuclei from UV-treated yeast cells. In addition, a method to capture transient protein-protein associations in chromatin is outlined. We have used the methods described here to demonstrate that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is involved in chromatin rearrangement during NER.
Project description:Rad4p is a DNA damage recognition protein essential for global genomic nucleotide excision repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that Rad4p binds to the heterochromatic HML locus. In a yeast mutant lacking Rad4p, an increased level of SIR complex binding at the HML locus is accompanied by an altered, more compact heterochromatin structure, as revealed by a topological analysis of chromatin circles released from the locus. In addition, gene silencing at the HML locus is enhanced in the rad4? mutant. Importantly, re-expression of Rad4p in the rad4? mutant restores the altered heterochromatin structure to a conformation similar to that detected in wild-type cells. These findings reveal a novel role of Rad4p in the regulation of heterochromatin structure and gene silencing.
Project description:The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is critical for removing damage induced by ultraviolet (UV) light and other helix-distorting lesions from cellular DNA. While efficient NER is critical to avoid cell death and mutagenesis, NER activity is inhibited in chromatin due to the association of lesion-containing DNA with histone proteins. Histone acetylation has emerged as an important mechanism for facilitating NER in chromatin, particularly acetylation catalyzed by the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA); however, it is not known if other histone acetyltransferases (HATs) promote NER activity in chromatin. Here, we report that the essential Nucleosome Acetyltransferase of histone H4 (NuA4) complex is required for efficient NER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the non-essential Yng2 subunit of the NuA4 complex causes a general defect in repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in yeast; in contrast, deletion of the Sas3 catalytic subunit of the NuA3 complex does not affect repair. Rapid depletion of the essential NuA4 catalytic subunit Esa1 using the anchor-away method also causes a defect in NER, particularly at the heterochromatic HML locus. We show that disrupting the Sds3 subunit of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex rescued the repair defect associated with loss of Esa1 activity, suggesting that NuA4-catalyzed acetylation is important for efficient NER in heterochromatin.
Project description:Chromatin accessibility plays a fundamental role in gene regulation. Nucleosome placement, usually measured by quantifying protection of DNA from enzymatic digestion, can regulate accessibility. We introduce a metric that uses micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion in a novel manner to measure chromatin accessibility by combining information from several digests of increasing depths. This metric, MACC (MNase accessibility), quantifies the inherent heterogeneity of nucleosome accessibility in which some nucleosomes are seen preferentially at high MNase and some at low MNase. MACC interrogates each genomic locus, measuring both nucleosome location and accessibility in the same assay. MACC can be performed either with or without a histone immunoprecipitation step, and thereby compares histone and non-histone protection. We find that changes in accessibility at enhancers, promoters and other regulatory regions do not correlate with changes in nucleosome occupancy. Moreover, high nucleosome occupancy does not necessarily preclude high accessibility, which reveals novel principles of chromatin regulation.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcriptional silencing occurs at three classes of genomic regions: near the telomeres, at the silent mating type loci, and within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats. In all three cases, silencing depends upon several factors, including specific types of histone modifications. In this work we have investigated the roles in silencing for Spt10 and Spt21, two proteins previously shown to control transcription of particular histone genes. Building on a recent study showing that Spt10 is required for telomeric silencing, our results show that in both spt10 and spt21 mutants, silencing is reduced near telomeres and at HML?, while it is increased at the rDNA. Both spt10 and spt21 mutations cause modest effects on Sir protein recruitment and histone modifications at telomeric regions, and they cause significant changes in chromatin structure, as judged by its accessibility to dam methylase. These silencing and chromatin changes are not seen upon deletion of HTA2-HTB2, the primary histone locus regulated by Spt10 and Spt21. These results suggest that Spt10 and Spt21 control silencing in S. cerevisiae by altering chromatin structure through roles beyond the control of histone gene expression.