Abnormal expression of glutamate transporter and transporter interacting molecules in prefrontal cortex in elderly patients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT: Glutamate cycling is critically important for neurotransmission, and may be altered in schizophrenia. The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) facilitate the reuptake of glutamate from the synaptic cleft and have a key role in glutamate cycling. We hypothesized that expression of the EAATs and the EAAT regulating proteins ARHGEF11, JWA, G-protein suppressor pathway 1 (GPS1), and KIAA0302 are altered in the brain in schizophrenia. To test this, we measured expression of EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3, and EAAT interacting proteins in postmortem tissue from the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia and a comparison group using in situ hybridization and Western blot analysis. We found increased EAAT1 transcripts and decreased protein expression, increased EAAT3 transcripts and protein, and elevated protein expression of both GPS1 and KIAA0302 protein. We did not find any changes in expression of EAAT2. These data indicate that proteins involved in glutamate reuptake and cycling are altered in the cortex in schizophrenia, and may provide potential targets for future treatment strategies.
Project description:Dysregulation of the glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 and their isoforms have been implicated in schizophrenia. EAAT1 and EAAT2 expression has been studied in different brain regions but the prevalence of astrocytic glutamate transporter expression masks the more subtle changes in excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) isoforms in neurons in the cortex. Using laser capture microdissection, pyramidal neurons were cut from the anterior cingulate cortex of postmortem schizophrenia (n = 20) and control (n = 20) subjects. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of EAAT1, EAAT2 and the splice variants EAAT1 exon9skipping, EAAT2 exon9skipping and EAAT2b were analyzed by real time PCR (RT-PCR) in an enriched population of neurons. Region-level expression of these transcripts was measured in postmortem schizophrenia (n = 25) and controls (n = 25). The relationship between selected EAAT polymorphisms and EAAT splice variant expression was also explored. Anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal cell expression of EAAT2b mRNA was increased (P < 0.001; 67%) in schizophrenia subjects compared with controls. There was no significant change in other EAAT variants. EAAT2 exon9skipping mRNA was increased (P < 0.05; 38%) at region level in the anterior cingulate cortex with no significant change in other EAAT variants at region level. EAAT2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with changes in EAAT2 isoform expression. Haloperidol decanoate-treated animals, acting as controls for possible antipsychotic effects, did not have significantly altered neuronal EAAT2b mRNA levels. The novel finding that EAAT2b levels are increased in populations of anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal cells further demonstrates a role for neuronal glutamate transporter splice variant expression in schizophrenia.
Project description:Glutamate transporters facilitate the buffering, clearance and cycling of glutamate and play an important role in maintaining synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamate levels. Alterations in glutamate transporter expression may lead to abnormal glutamate neurotransmission contributing to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In addition, alterations in the architecture of the superior temporal gyrus and hippocampus have been implicated in this illness, suggesting that synapses in these regions may be remodeled from a lifetime of severe mental illness and antipsychotic treatment. Thus, we hypothesize that glutamate neurotransmission may be abnormal in the superior temporal gyrus and hippocampus in schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis, we examined protein expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 1-3 and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and 2 in subjects with schizophrenia (n=23) and a comparison group (n=27). We found decreased expression of EAAT1 and EAAT2 protein in the superior temporal gyrus, and decreased EAAT2 protein in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. We didn't find any changes in expression of the neuronal transporter EAAT3 or the presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1-2. In addition, we did not detect an effect of antipsychotic medication on expression of EAAT1 and EAAT2 proteins in the temporal association cortex or hippocampus in rats treated with haloperidol for 9 months. Our findings suggest that buffering and reuptake, but not presynaptic release, of glutamate is altered in glutamate synapses in the temporal lobe in schizophrenia.
Project description:Aspartate (Asp) derivatives are privileged compounds for investigating the roles governed by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in glutamatergic neurotransmission. Here, we report the synthesis of various Asp derivatives with (cyclo)alkyloxy and (hetero)aryloxy substituents at C-3. Their pharmacological properties were characterized at the EAAT1-4 subtypes. The l- threo-3-substituted Asp derivatives 13a-e and 13g-k were nonsubstrate inhibitors, exhibiting pan activity at EAAT1-4 with IC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 15 ?M. Comparisons between (dl- threo)-19a-c and (dl- erythro)-19a-c Asp analogues confirmed that the threo configuration is crucial for the EAAT1-4 inhibitory activities. Analogues (3b-e) of l-TFB-TBOA (3a) were shown to be potent EAAT1-4 inhibitors, with IC50 values ranging from 5 to 530 nM. Hybridization of the nonselective EAAT inhibitor l-TBOA with EAAT2-selective inhibitor WAY-213613 or EAAT3-preferring inhibitor NBI-59159 yielded compounds 8 and 9, respectively, which were nonselective EAAT inhibitors displaying considerably lower IC50 values at EAAT1-4 (11-140 nM) than those displayed by the respective parent molecules.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The carotid body (CB) plays a critical role in cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced chemosensitivity; however, the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple inotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in CB, and that CIH exposure alters the level of some iGluRs in CB. This result implicates glutamatergic signaling in the CB response to hypoxia. The glutamatergic neurotransmission is not only dependent on glutamate and glutamate receptors, but is also dependent on glutamate transporters, including vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluTs) and excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). Here, we have further assessed the expression and distribution of VGluTs and EAATs in human and rat CB and the effect of CIH exposure on glutamate transporters expression. METHODS:The mRNA of VGluTs and EAATs in the human CB were detected by RT-PCR. The protein expression of VGluTs and EAATs in the human and rat CB were detected by Western blot. The distribution of VGluT3, EAAT2 and EAAT3 were observed by immunohistochemistry staining and immunofluorescence staining. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to CIH (FIO2 10-21%, 3?min/3?min for 8?h per day) for 2?weeks. The unpaired Student's t-test was performed. RESULTS:Here, we report on the presence of mRNAs for VGluT1-3 and EAAT1-3 in human CB, which is consistent with our previous results in rat CB. The proteins of VGluT1 and 3, EAAT2 and 3, but not VGluT2 and EAAT1, were detected with diverse levels in human and rat CB. Immunostaining showed that VGluT3, the major type of VGluTs in CB, was co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in type I cells. EAAT2 and EAAT3 were distributed not only in type I cells, but also in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive type II cells. Moreover, we found that exposure of SD rats to CIH enhanced the protein level of EAAT3 as well as TH, but attenuated the levels of VGluT3 and EAAT2 in CB. CONCLUSIONS:Our study suggests that glutamate transporters are expressed in the CB, and that glutamate transporters may contribute to glutamatergic signaling-dependent carotid chemoreflex to CIH.
Project description:L-Glutamate (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS and five types of high-affinity Glu transporters (EAAT1-5) have been identified. The transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 in glial cells are responsible for the majority of Glu uptake while neuronal EAATs appear to have specialized roles at particular types of synapses. Dysfunction of EAATs is specifically implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke injury, and thus treatments that can modulate EAAT function may prove beneficial in these conditions. Recent advances have been made in our understanding of the regulation of EAATs, including their trafficking, splicing and post-translational modification. This article summarises some recent developments that improve our understanding of the roles and regulation of EAATs.
Project description:Glutamate transporters play a major role in maintaining brain homeostasis and the astrocytic transporters, EAAT1 and EAAT2, are functionally dominant. Astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play important roles in various neuropathologies wherein astrocytes undergo cytoskeletal changes. Astrocytic plasticity is well documented, but the interface between EAAT function, actin and the astrocytic cytoskeleton is poorly understood. Because Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key determinant of actin polymerization, we investigated the effects of ROCK inhibitors on EAAT activity and astrocytic morphology.The functional activity of glutamate transport was determined in murine cultured astrocytes after exposure to the ROCK inhibitors Fasudil (HA-1077) and Y27632 using biochemical, molecular and morphological approaches. Cytochemical analyses assessed changes in astrocytic morphology, F-/G-actin, and localizations of EAAT1/2.Fasudil and Y27632 increased [(3)H]-D-aspartate (D-Asp) uptake into astrocytes, and the action of Fasudil was time-dependent and concentration-related. The rapid stellation of astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein immunocytochemistry) induced by Fasudil was accompanied by reduced phalloidin staining of F-actin and increased V(max) for [(3)H]-D-Asp uptake. Immunoblotting after biotinylation demonstrated that Fasudil increased the expression of EAAT1 and EAAT2 on the cell surface. Immunocytochemistry indicated that Fasudil induced prominent labelling of astrocytic processes by EAAT1/2.These data show for the first time that ROCK plays a major role in determining the cell surface expression of EAAT1/2, providing new evidence for an association between transporter function and astrocytic phenotype. ROCK inhibitors, via the actin cytoskeleton, effect a consequent elevation of glutamate transporter function - this activity profile may contribute to their beneficial actions in neuropathologies.
Project description:Glutamate transport activities have been identified not only in the brain, but also in the liver, kidney, and intestine. Although glutamate transporter distributions in the central nervous system are fairly well known, there are still uncertainties with respect to the distribution of these transporters in peripheral organs. Quantitative information is mostly lacking, and few of the studies have included genetically modified animals as specificity controls. The present study provides validated qualitative and semi-quantitative data on the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)1-3 subtypes in the mouse liver, kidney, and intestine. In agreement with the current view, we found high EAAT3 protein levels in the brush borders of both the distal small intestine and the renal proximal tubules. Neither EAAT1 nor EAAT2 was detected at significant levels in murine kidney or intestine. In contrast, the liver only expressed EAAT2 (but 2 C-terminal splice variants). EAAT2 was detected in the plasma membranes of perivenous hepatocytes. These cells also expressed glutamine synthetase. Conditional deletion of hepatic EAAT2 did neither lead to overt neurological disturbances nor development of fatty liver.
Project description:A prominent aqueous cavity is formed by the junction of three identical subunits in the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) family. To investigate the effect of this structure on the interaction of ligands with the transporter, we recorded currents in voltage-clamped Xenopus oocytes expressing EAATs and used concentration jumps to measure binding and unbinding rates of a high-affinity aspartate analog that competitively blocks transport (?-2-fluorenyl-aspartylamide; 2-FAA). The binding rates of the blocker were approximately one order of magnitude slower than l-Glu and were not significantly different for EAAT1, EAAT2, or EAAT3, but 2-FAA exhibited higher affinity for the neuronal transporter EAAT3 as a result of a slower dissociation rate. Unexpectedly, the rate of recovery from block was increased by l-Glu in a saturable and concentration-dependent manner, ruling out a first-order mechanism and suggesting that following unbinding, there is a significant probability of ligand rebinding to the same or neighboring subunits within a trimer. Consistent with such a mechanism, coexpression of wild-type subunits with mutant (R447C) subunits that do not bind glutamate or 2-FAA also increased the unblocking rate. The data suggest that electrostatic and steric factors result in an effective dissociation rate that is approximately sevenfold slower than the microscopic subunit unbinding rate. The quaternary structure, which has been conserved through evolution, is expected to increase the transporters' capture efficiency by increasing the probability that following unbinding, a ligand will rebind as opposed to being lost to diffusion.
Project description:Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and it has been shown that prolonged activation of the glutamatergic system leads to nerve damage and cell death. Following release from the pre-synaptic neuron and synaptic transmission, glutamate is either taken up into the pre-synaptic neuron or neighbouring glia by transmembrane glutamate transporters. Excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1 and EAAT2 are Na+-dependant glutamate transporters expressed predominantly in glia cells of the central nervous system. As the most abundant glutamate transporters, their primary role is to modulate levels of glutamatergic excitability and prevent spill over of glutamate beyond the synapse. This role is facilitated through the binding and transportation of glutamate into astrocytes and microglia. The function of EAAT1 and EAAT2 is heavily regulated at the levels of gene expression, post-transcriptional splicing, glycosylation states and cell-surface trafficking of the protein. Both glutamatergic dysfunction and glial dysfunction have been proposed to be involved in psychiatric disorder. This review will present an overview of the roles that EAAT1 and EAAT2 play in modulating glutamatergic activity in the human brain, and mount an argument that these two transporters could be involved in the aetiologies of schizophrenia and affective disorders as well as represent potential drug targets for novel therapies for those disorders.
Project description:In the present study, the mechanism of action and molecular basis for the activity of the first class of selective inhibitors of the human excitatory amino acid transporter subtype 1 (EAAT1) and its rodent ortholog GLAST are elucidated. The previously reported specificity of UCPH-101 and UCPH-102 for EAAT1 over EAAT2 and EAAT3 is demonstrated to extend to the EAAT4 and EAAT5 subtypes as well. Interestingly, brief exposure to UCPH-101 induces a long-lasting inactive state of EAAT1, whereas the inhibition exerted by closely related analogs is substantially more reversible in nature. In agreement with this, the kinetic properties of UCPH-101 unblocking of the transporter are considerably slower than those of UCPH-102. UCPH-101 exhibits noncompetitive inhibition of EAAT1, and its binding site in GLAST has been delineated in an elaborate mutagenesis study. Substitutions of several residues in TM3, TM4c, and TM7a of GLAST have detrimental effects on the inhibitory potency and/or efficacy of UCPH-101 while not affecting the pharmacological properties of (S)-glutamate or the competitive EAAT inhibitor TBOA significantly. Hence, UCPH-101 is proposed to target a predominantly hydrophobic crevice in the "trimerization domain" of the GLAST monomer, and the inhibitor is demonstrated to inhibit the uptake through the monomer that it binds to exclusively and not to affect substrate translocation through the other monomers in the GLAST trimer. The allosteric mode of UCPH-101 inhibition underlines the functional importance of the trimerization domain of the EAAT and demonstrates the feasibility of modulating transporter function through ligand binding to regions distant from its "transport domain."