Intermittent and light daily smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States.
ABSTRACT: Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1-5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies.Using logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, and education, we examined the prevalence of intermittent and light daily consumption among current smokers across racial/ethnic groups from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We also examined the association of these demographic factors with consumption within each racial/ethnic group separately.Black (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.59-2.07), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29-2.04), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.75-3.74) smokers were more likely to smoke intermittently compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Black (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27-3.18), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.13-4.19), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 3.85-5.58) smokers also were more likely to have light daily consumption compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic/Latino intermittent smokers smoked fewer days per month and fewer cigarettes per day compared with non-Hispanic White smokers. We found no significant gender differences across racial/ethnic groups in intermittent smoking, but male smokers were significantly less likely to have light daily consumption for all racial/ethnic groups.These results have implications for the understanding of the tobacco dependence, the development of prevention and cessation strategies, and the applicability of harm-reduction techniques for racial/ethnic minorities.
Project description:Racial/ethnic disparities in cigarette use and cessation persist. This study compared cigarette consumption and former smoking trends in California (CA) with the rest of the United States (US) by racial/ethnic categories of non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander groups. Data were analyzed from the 1992 to 2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Consumption levels across decades were examined and adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare across CA and US. Results indicated steady declines in ever smoking prevalence for all groups with much lower magnitudes of change among US Blacks and Whites compared to their CA counterparts. After controlling for age, gender, and education, CA had significantly fewer heavy smokers (OR=0.45, 95% CI:0.38-0.54), more light and intermittent smokers (LITS; OR=1.68, 95%CI: 1.45-1.93), and a greater proportion of former smokers (OR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.24-1.48) than the rest of US. Data were stratified by race/ethnicity and the patterns shown were mostly consistent with CA performing statistically better than their US counterparts with the exception of Black LITS and Asian/Pacific Islander former smokers. California's success in reducing tobacco use disparities may serve as a prime example of tobacco control policy for the country. CA and the US will need to continue to address tobacco use and cessation in the context of the growing diversity of the population.
Project description:Introduction:Although California is home to the largest Hispanic/Latino population, few studies have compared smoking behavior trends of Hispanic/Latino nationality groups in California to the remaining United States, which may identify the impact of the states antitobacco efforts on these groups. This study compared smoking status, frequency, and intensity among Mexican Americans, Central/South Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites in California to the remaining United States in the 1990s and 2000s. Methods:Data were analyzed using the 1992-2011 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement to report the estimated prevalence of smoking status, frequency, and intensity by decade, race/ethnicity, and state residence. Weighted logistic regression explored sociodemographic factors associated with never and heavy smoking (?20 cigarettes per day). Results:There were absolute overall increases from 6.8% to 9.6% in never smoking across all groups. Compared to the remaining United States, there was a greater decrease in heavy smoking among Mexican American current smokers in California (5.1%) and a greater increase in light and intermittent smokers among Central/South American current smokers in California (9.3%) between decades. Compared to those living in the remaining United States, smokers living in California had lower odds of heavy smoking (1990s: odds ratio [OR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.66; 2000s: 0.54, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.55). Conclusions:California state residence significantly impacted smoking behaviors as indicated by significant differences in smoking intensity between California and the remaining United States among Hispanic/Latino nationality groups. Understanding smoking behaviors across Hispanic/Latino nationality groups in California and the United States can inform tobacco control and smoking prevention strategies for these groups. Implications:The present study explored the differences in smoking behaviors between Whites, Mexican Americans, and Central South/Americans living in California versus the rest of the United States in the 1990s and the 2000s. The results contribute to our current knowledge as there have been minimal efforts to provide disaggregated cigarette consumption information among Hispanic/Latino nationality groups. Additionally, by comparing cigarette consumption between those in California and the remaining United States, our data may provide insight into the impact of California's antitobacco efforts in reaching Hispanic/Latino subpopulations relative to the remaining US states, many of which have had less tobacco control policy implementation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Rates of alternative tobacco product use (ATPs; eg, cigars, cigarillos, pipes) among cigarette smokers are on the rise but little is known about the subgroups at highest risk. This study explored interactions between demographic, tobacco, and psychosocial factors to identify cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use from a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of adult smokers across the full smoking spectrum (nondaily, daily light, daily heavy). METHODS:Two-thousand three-hundred seventy-six adult cigarette smokers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Quotas ensured equal recruitment of African American (AA), white (W), Hispanic/Latino (H) as well as daily and nondaily smokers. Classification and Regression Tree modeling was used to identify subgroups of cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use. RESULTS:51.3% were Cig+ATP smokers. Alcohol for men and age, race/ethnicity, and discrimination for women increased the probability of ATP use. Strikingly, 73.5% of men screening positive for moderate to heavy drinking and 62.2% of younger (?45 years) African American/Hispanic/Latino women who experienced regular discrimination were Cig+ATP smokers. CONCLUSIONS:Screening for concurrent ATP use is necessary for the continued success of tobacco cessation efforts especially among male alcohol users and racial/ethnic minority women who are at greatest risk for ATP use.
Project description:Asian Americans, along with other ethnic minorities, have been described to be more likely than Whites to be light and intermittent smokers. Characterizing Asian American smoking behavior accurately on a population level requires oversampling groups of different national origin and including non-English-speaking participants.We analyzed the California Health Interview Survey to compare moderate/heavy (> or =10 cigarettes/day), light (0-9 cigarettes/day), and intermittent (not daily) smoking patterns in Asian Americans with those of Whites. We also examined whether social and demographic factors that had been associated with Asian American smoking prevalence also were associated with light and intermittent smoking patterns in each of the national origin groups.Most Asian American smokers were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (range = 36.6%-61.5% for men and 29.9%-81.5% for women) compared with Whites, with lower mean cigarette consumption. Asian American light and intermittent smokers were more likely than moderate/heavy smokers to be women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.94), highly educated (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.21-8.28), not Korean (compared with Chinese; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.79), and bilingual speakers with high English language proficiency compared with English-only speakers (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.21-6.84). Asian American intermittent smokers were more likely than daily smokers to be women (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08-4.72) and to have lower household income.The predominance of Asian American light and intermittent smoking patterns has important implications for developing effective tobacco control outreach. Further studies are needed to elaborate the relationship between biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors influencing Asian American smoking intensity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although Asian Americans are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, it is not known whether they are appropriately screened for this disease. OBJECTIVE:To assess racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes screening between Asian Americans and other adults. DESIGN:Analysis of pooled cross-sectional data from 45 U.S. states and territories using the 2012-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated the weighted proportions of adults in each racial and ethnic group who received recommended diabetes screening. To assess for racial and ethnic disparities, we used multivariable logistic regression to model receipt of recommended diabetes screening as a function of race and ethnicity, adjusting for demographics, healthcare access, survey year, and state. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 526,000 adults who were eligible to receive diabetes screening according to American Diabetes Association guidelines from 2012 to 2014 (age???45 years or age?<?45 years with a body mass index [BMI]???25 kg/m2). MAIN MEASURES:Self-reported receipt of diabetes screening (defined as a test for high blood sugar or diabetes within the past 3 years) and self-reported race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic or Latino, and non-Hispanic multiracial or other). KEY RESULTS:Asian Americans were the least likely racial and ethnic group to receive recommended diabetes screening. Overall, Asian Americans had 34% lower adjusted odds of receiving recommended diabetes screening compared to non-Hispanic whites (95 % CI: 0.60, 0.73). In subgroup analyses by age and weight status, disparities were widest among obese Asian Americans???45 years (AOR?=?0.56; 95 % CI: 0.39, 0.81). Disparities persisted among Asian Americans who completed other types of preventive cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS:Despite their high risk of diabetes, Asian Americans were the least likely racial and ethnic group to receive recommended diabetes screening.
Project description:Importance:Little is known about the distribution of life-saving trauma resources by racial/ethnic composition in US cities, and if racial/ethnic minority populations disproportionately live in US urban trauma deserts. Objective:To examine racial/ethnic differences in geographic access to trauma care in the 3 largest US cities, considering the role of residential segregation and neighborhood poverty. Design, Setting, and Participants:A cross-sectional, multiple-methods study evaluated census tract data from the 2015 American Community Survey in Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles (LA), California; and New York City (NYC), New York (N = 3932). These data were paired to geographic coordinates of all adult level I and II trauma centers within an 8.0-km buffer of each city. Between February and September 2018, small-area analyses were conducted to assess trauma desert status as a function of neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and geospatial analyses were conducted to examine statistically significant trauma desert hot spots. Main Outcomes and Measures:In small-area analyses, a trauma desert was defined as travel distance greater than 8.0 km to the nearest adult level I or level II trauma center. In geospatial analyses, relative trauma deserts were identified using travel distance as a continuous measure. Census tracts were classified into (1) racial/ethnic composition categories, based on patterns of residential segregation, including white majority, black majority, Hispanic/Latino majority, and other or integrated; and (2) poverty categories, including nonpoor and poor. Results:Chicago, LA, and NYC contained 798, 1006, and 2128 census tracts, respectively. A large proportion comprised a black majority population in Chicago (35.1%) and NYC (21.4%), compared with LA (2.7%). In primary analyses, black majority census tracts were more likely than white majority census tracts to be located in a trauma desert in Chicago (odds ratio [OR], 8.48; 95% CI, 5.71-12.59) and LA (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 1.50-17.39). In NYC, racial/ethnic disparities were not significant in unadjusted models, but were significant in models adjusting for poverty and race-poverty interaction effects (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.27-2.74). In comparison, Hispanic/Latino majority census tracts were less likely to be located in a trauma desert in NYC (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.11) and LA (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.22-0.40), but slightly more likely in Chicago (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56-3.64). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, black majority census tracts were the only racial/ethnic group that appeared to be associated with disparities in geographic access to trauma centers.
Project description:Despite near universal health coverage under Medicare, racial disparities persist in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) among older patients in the United States. Studies evaluating DLBCL outcomes often treat socioeconomic status (SES) measures as confounders, potentially introducing biases when SES factors are mediators of disparities in cancer treatment.To examine differences in DLBCL treatment, we performed causal mediation analyses of SES measures, including: metropolitan statistical area (MSA) of residence; census-tract poverty level; and private Medicare supplementation using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database between 2001 and 2011. In this retrospective cohort study of DLBCL patients ages 66+ years, we conducted a series of multivariable logistic regression analyses estimating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating chemo- and/or immuno-therapy treatment and each SES measure, comparing non-Hispanic (NH)-black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) to NH-white patients.Compared to NH-white patients, racial/ethnic minority patients had lower odds of receiving chemo- and/or immuno-therapy treatment (NH-black: OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65, 1.08; API: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64, 1.01; Hispanic/Latino: OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64, 0.96) and higher odds of lacking private Medicare supplementation and residence within an urban MSA and poor census tracts. Adjustment for SES measures as confounders nullified observed racial differences. In causal mediation analyses, between 31% and 38% of race/ethnicity differences were mediated by having private Medicare supplementation.Providing equitable access to Medicare supplementation may reduce disparities in receipt of chemo- and/or immuno-therapy treatment in older DLBCL patients.
Project description:Importance:There is a genetic predisposition to early-onset atrial fibrillation (EOAF) in European American individuals. However, the role of family history in the pathogenesis of EOAF in racial and ethnic minorities remains unclear. Objective:To determine whether probands with EOAF across racial and ethnic groups have a higher rate of AF in first-degree family members than racially and ethnically matched control patients with non-early-onset AF (non-EOAF). Design, Setting, and Participants:In this cohort study, patients prospectively enrolled in a clinical and genetic biorepository were administered baseline questionnaires that included questions about family history of AF. Early-onset AF was defined as AF occurring in probands aged 60 years or younger in the absence of structural heart disease. All other forms were categorized as non-EOAF. Recruitment took place from July 2015 to December 2017. Analysis was performed in January 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary analysis of reported family history of AF in first-degree relatives with sensitivity analysis restricted to those in whom a family history was confirmed by medical record review and electrocardiogram. Results:Of 664 patients enrolled (mean [SD] age, 62  years; 407 [61%] male), 267 (40%) were European American; 258 (39%), African American; and 139 (21%), Hispanic/Latino. There was a family history of AF in 36 probands with EOAF (49%) compared with 128 patients with non-EOAF (22%) (difference, 27%; 95% CI, 14%-40%; P?<?.001). On multivariable analysis, the adjusted odds of a proband with EOAF who was of African descent (odds ratio [OR], 2.69; 95% CI, 1.06-6.91; P?<?.001) or Hispanic descent (OR, 9.25; 95% CI, 2.37-36.23; P?=?.002) having a first-degree relative with AF were greater than those of European descent (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.29-4.87; P?=?.006). Overall, probands with EOAF were more likely to have a first-degree relative with AF compared with patients with non-EOAF (adjusted OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.82-4.95; P?<?.001) across the 3 racial and ethnic groups. Atrial fibrillation in a first-degree family member was confirmed in 32% of probands with EOAF vs 11% of those with non-EOAF (difference, 21%; 95% CI, 11%-33%; P?<?.001). Furthermore, African American (28% vs 5%; difference, 23%; 95% CI, 4%-43%; P?=?.001), European American (35% vs 20%; difference, 15%; 95% CI, 1%-30%; P?=?.03), and Hispanic/Latino (30% vs 5%; difference, 25%; 95% CI, 4%-54%; P?=?.02) probands with EOAF were more likely to have a first-degree relative with confirmed AF vs racially and ethnically matched control patients with non-EOAF. The positive and negative predictive values for a family history of confirmed AF were both 89%. Conclusions and Relevance:Probands of African or Hispanic/Latino descent with EOAF were more likely to have a first-degree relative with AF when compared with European American individuals. These findings support genetic predisposition to EOAF across all 3 races.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Medical research has not equitably included members of racial/ethnic minority groups or female and older individuals. There are limited data on participant demographic characteristics in vaccine trials despite the importance of these data to current trials aimed at preventing coronavirus disease 2019.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate whether racial/ethnic minority groups and female and older adults are underrepresented among participants in vaccine clinical trials.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This cross-sectional study examined data from completed US-based vaccine trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2020. The terms vaccine, vaccination, immunization, and inoculation were used to identify trials. Only those addressing vaccine immunogenicity or efficacy of preventative vaccines were included.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The numbers and percentages of racial/ethnic minority, female, and older individuals compared with US census data from 2011 and 2018. Secondary outcome measures were inclusion by trial phase and year of completion.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 230 US-based trials with 219?555 participants were included in the study. Most trials were randomized (180 [78.3%]), included viral vaccinations (159 [69.1%]), and represented all trial phases. Every trial reported age and sex; 134 (58.3%) reported race and 79 (34.3%) reported ethnicity. Overall, among adult study participants, White individuals were overrepresented (77.9%; 95% CI, 77.4%-78.4%), and Black or African American individuals (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.2%-11.0%) and American Indian or Alaska Native individuals (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.5%) were underrepresented compared with US census data; enrollment of Asian individuals was similar (5.7%; 95% CI, 5.5%-6.0%). Enrollment of Hispanic or Latino individuals (11.6%; 95% CI, 11.1%-12.0%) was also low even among the limited number of adult trials reporting ethnicity. Adult trials were composed of more female participants (75?325 [56.0%]), but among those reporting age as a percentage, enrollment of participants who were aged 65 years or older was low (12.1%; 95% CI, 12.0%-12.3%). Black or African American participants (10.1%; 95% CI, 9.7%-10.6%) and Hispanic or Latino participants (22.5%; 95% CI, 21.6%-23.4%) were also underrepresented in pediatric trials. Among trials reporting race/ethnicity, 65 (48.5%) did not include American Indian or Alaska Native participants and 81 (60.4%) did not include Hawaiian or Pacific Islander participants.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>This cross-sectional study found that among US-based vaccine clinical trials, members of racial/ethnic minority groups and older adults were underrepresented, whereas female adults were overrepresented. These findings suggest that diversity enrollment targets should be included for all vaccine trials targeting epidemiologically important infections.