Changing age-specific patterns of cigarette consumption in the United States, 1992-2002: association with smoke-free homes and state-level tobacco control activity.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, both prevalence and average cigarette consumption declined in the United States, but age-specific changes have not been reported. METHOD: All four of the nationally and state representative U.S. Current Population Surveys-Tobacco Use Supplements from 1991-2002 (n = 542,470) were analyzed for trends in cigarette consumption among smokers in three age groups: 18-29, 30-44, and 45-64 years. A strength of tobacco control index ranking state of residence was added and weighted logistic regression analyses undertaken. RESULTS: Over the decade, both prevalence and average consumption declined. Moderate-heavy smoking (> or =15 cigarettes/day [CPD]) prevalence fell strongly over the period in all three age groups. For those aged > or =30 years, this reduction was accompanied by a similar drop in total smoking prevalence. For those aged 18-29 years, this reduction was associated with an increase in very light smoking (<5 CPD; 12% daily and 88% intermittent smokers) to 22.5% of current smokers with a much smaller reduction in prevalence. Smoke-free homes more than doubled in each age group and mediated the increase in very light smoking levels. Smoke-free workplaces and the strength of tobacco control in the state were also important predictors. Very light smoking was particularly prevalent among college students and graduates. DISCUSSION: The marked reduction in prevalence of moderate-heavy smoking across age groups should translate into a reduced population risk of smoking-related disease in the near term. That this reduction is offset by an increase in light and intermittent smoking in young adults suggests the effectiveness of tobacco industry marketing and needs further research.
Project description:Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1-5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies.Using logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, and education, we examined the prevalence of intermittent and light daily consumption among current smokers across racial/ethnic groups from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We also examined the association of these demographic factors with consumption within each racial/ethnic group separately.Black (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.59-2.07), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29-2.04), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.75-3.74) smokers were more likely to smoke intermittently compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Black (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27-3.18), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.13-4.19), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 3.85-5.58) smokers also were more likely to have light daily consumption compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic/Latino intermittent smokers smoked fewer days per month and fewer cigarettes per day compared with non-Hispanic White smokers. We found no significant gender differences across racial/ethnic groups in intermittent smoking, but male smokers were significantly less likely to have light daily consumption for all racial/ethnic groups.These results have implications for the understanding of the tobacco dependence, the development of prevention and cessation strategies, and the applicability of harm-reduction techniques for racial/ethnic minorities.
Project description:Among cigarette smokers, lower levels of consumption, defined as smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD) or not smoking daily, are becoming more common. The relationship between cigarette consumption and smoking frequency (daily or nondaily) is not well characterized, and the natural history of light smoking (defined here as smoking < or =10 CPD) is poorly understood.We assessed changes in CPD and smoking frequency over time among light smokers (< or =10 CPD) and very light smokers (< or =5 CPD), using a population-based longitudinal survey of 3,083 adult smokers in Massachusetts who were interviewed three times over a 4-year follow-up period (in 2000-2001, 2002-2003, and 2005-2006). We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with light smokers' progression to heavier smoking or smoking reduction/quitting.Seventy percent of very light smokers were nondaily smokers. Very light nondaily smokers differed from very light daily smokers by younger age, higher socioeconomic status, a social smoking pattern, later smoking initiation, less evidence of nicotine addiction, and more recent and planned cessation efforts. Very light nondaily smokers and smokers consuming 6-10 CPD were more likely to remain in the same smoking category and were less likely to increase consumption than were very light daily smokers. Factors independently associated with increasing consumption among very light smokers were smoking daily, nicotine dependence, White ethnicity, social smoking, and having more friends who smoked; among smokers consuming 6-10 CPD, male gender and lack of quitting self-efficacy were associated with increasing consumption.Our findings indicate that most light smoking is not a gateway to heavier smoking.
Project description:INTRODUCTION Prevalence of light daily smoking, <10 cigarettes per day (CPD), and non-daily smoking has increased in the US population. This analysis examined the heterogeneity in past-year smoking behavior, current tobacco use behaviors, and smoking cessation behaviors among light and/or non-daily smokers. METHODS Current adult (?18 years old) smokers (N=26196) participated in the 2010–2011 US Current Population Survey – Tobacco Use Supplement, which reported current (T1) and past 12-month (T0) smoking behaviors. Responses were categorized by intensity (light ?10 CPD vs heavy >10 CPD) and frequency (non-daily vs daily). Combinations of T0 and T1 smoking behaviors resulted in 15 smoking trajectories ending in light/non-daily smoking and a 16th category of heavy daily smokers at T1. Differences in demographics, tobacco use, and smoking cessation behaviors were assessed by using weighted multivariable regression models. RESULTS Overall, 46.1% of US smokers were heavy smokers, 24.6% remained light daily smokers and 12.5% remained light non-daily smokers between T0 and T1. Current cigar, smokeless tobacco, and pipe use differed by smoking trajectories (p<0.05). All light and/or non-daily smokers were more likely than heavy daily smokers to have made a quit attempt (p<0.05) but use of cessation treatments varied. Smokers in many light and/or non-daily smoking trajectories were less likely than heavy daily smokers to be aided by healthcare providers for smoking cessation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Among heavy daily smokers who became light non-daily smokers, the mismatch between intent to quit (80.9%) and receiving advice to set a quit date (33.7%) is one example of a potential opportunity for a clinical intervention.
Project description:Asian Americans, along with other ethnic minorities, have been described to be more likely than Whites to be light and intermittent smokers. Characterizing Asian American smoking behavior accurately on a population level requires oversampling groups of different national origin and including non-English-speaking participants.We analyzed the California Health Interview Survey to compare moderate/heavy (> or =10 cigarettes/day), light (0-9 cigarettes/day), and intermittent (not daily) smoking patterns in Asian Americans with those of Whites. We also examined whether social and demographic factors that had been associated with Asian American smoking prevalence also were associated with light and intermittent smoking patterns in each of the national origin groups.Most Asian American smokers were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (range = 36.6%-61.5% for men and 29.9%-81.5% for women) compared with Whites, with lower mean cigarette consumption. Asian American light and intermittent smokers were more likely than moderate/heavy smokers to be women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.94), highly educated (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.21-8.28), not Korean (compared with Chinese; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.79), and bilingual speakers with high English language proficiency compared with English-only speakers (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.21-6.84). Asian American intermittent smokers were more likely than daily smokers to be women (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08-4.72) and to have lower household income.The predominance of Asian American light and intermittent smoking patterns has important implications for developing effective tobacco control outreach. Further studies are needed to elaborate the relationship between biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors influencing Asian American smoking intensity.
Project description:Despite awareness of negative health outcomes associated with smoking, pregnant smokers might reduce their tobacco consumption thinking that a low smoking rate reduces smoking-related negative birth outcomes. We aimed to assess in a clinical sample whether there is a smoking rate that would not impact on birth weight (BW).Pregnant smokers ?18 years, gestational age of 9-20 weeks of amenorrhea, motivated to quit smoking, smoking ?5 cigarettes/day (cpd) and their newborns (381 singleton, live births) were included in this secondary analysis of a French smoking cessation trial.The mean BW when the mother quit smoking was 3417 g (95 % CI: 3098-3738 g); when smoking >0<5 cpd, 3081g (3003-3159 g); when smoking 5-9 cpd, 3043 g (2930-3157 g); and when smoking ?10 cpd, 2831 g (2596-3157 g) (p = .006). The corresponding effect sizes ranged from medium to large (Cohen's d for BW: 0.54, 0.57 and 0.85) compared to BW when the mother quit. In the multivariable analysis, adjusted for all significant confounders, when the mother smoked on average >0<5 cpd, the loss in BW was 228 g; when smoking 5-9 cpd, 251 g; and when smoking ?10 cpd, 262 g (all p ? .02) compared to newborns' BW of mothers who stopped smoking since quit date.Even low cigarette consumption during pregnancy is associated with BW loss. All efforts should be made to help pregnant smokers quit completely during their pregnancy.As an alternative to quitting smoking, pregnant smokers reduce their smoking rate thinking that this diminishes smoking-related negative health outcomes. No study has established whether low smoking rate (more than 0 but less than 5 cpd) during pregnancy impacts BW compared to abstinence from smoking. Among treatment-seeking pregnant smokers BW of newborns of mothers who smoked even less than 5 cpd was significantly lower than of those whose mothers quit; effect sizes of different consumption levels on BW ranged from moderate (>0<5 cpd) to large (?10 cpd). Even low smoking rate is associated with reduced BW compared to complete maternal smoking abstinence.
Project description:While most college students and other young adults who smoke fall into the light and intermittent smoking (LITS) category, they remain at risk for tobacco dependence and other adverse health effects from their smoking. This study examines smoking patterns, tobacco dependence, and other health variables among students at five universities to better understand how to identify and address tobacco use and related risks in a college health clinic setting.A health screening survey was completed by 2,091 college and graduate student volunteers seeking routine care at their university health centers or participating in a health class. Independent health variables were analyzed descriptively and in regression analyses with three levels of smoking (none, non-daily, and daily) and tobacco dependence to determine predictors and associated risks.Nearly a quarter of students reported any current smoking, 41% of whom reported smoking less than 1 cigarette/day (cpd). Of the daily smokers, 80% smoked less than 10 cpd but 45% met criteria for tobacco dependence. Any smoking was associated with high-risk alcohol use, risky driving, relational abuse, depression, less exercise, and utilization of emergency and mental health services. In regression analyses, students who experienced depression had more than double the odds of being dependent smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32), as did those who reported abuse (OR = 2.07) or sought mental health counseling (OR = 2.09).Student health providers should be alerted to the multiple risks and comorbidities that occur among all smokers, including LITS, and intervene concurrently to help prevent or mitigate adverse outcomes that result from these conditions and behaviors.
Project description:Racial/ethnic disparities in cigarette use and cessation persist. This study compared cigarette consumption and former smoking trends in California (CA) with the rest of the United States (US) by racial/ethnic categories of non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander groups. Data were analyzed from the 1992 to 2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Consumption levels across decades were examined and adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare across CA and US. Results indicated steady declines in ever smoking prevalence for all groups with much lower magnitudes of change among US Blacks and Whites compared to their CA counterparts. After controlling for age, gender, and education, CA had significantly fewer heavy smokers (OR=0.45, 95% CI:0.38-0.54), more light and intermittent smokers (LITS; OR=1.68, 95%CI: 1.45-1.93), and a greater proportion of former smokers (OR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.24-1.48) than the rest of US. Data were stratified by race/ethnicity and the patterns shown were mostly consistent with CA performing statistically better than their US counterparts with the exception of Black LITS and Asian/Pacific Islander former smokers. California's success in reducing tobacco use disparities may serve as a prime example of tobacco control policy for the country. CA and the US will need to continue to address tobacco use and cessation in the context of the growing diversity of the population.
Project description:Introduction:Smoking prevalence, cigarettes per day (CPD), and lung cancer incidence differ between Northern Plains (NP) and Southwest (SW) American Indian populations. We used cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure to biochemically characterize NP and SW smokers and nonsmokers and to investigate factors associated with variation in tobacco exposure. Methods:American Indians (N = 636) were recruited from two different tribal populations (NP and SW) as part of a study conducted as part of the Collaborative to Improve Native Cancer Outcomes P50 project. For each participant, a questionnaire assessed smoking status, CPD, second-hand smoke exposure, and traditional ceremonial tobacco use; plasma and/or salivary cotinine was measured. Results:Cotinine levels were (mean ± 95% confidence interval [CI]) 81.6 ± 14.1 and 21.3 ± 7.3 ng/ml among NP smokers and non-mokers, respectively, and 44.8 ± 14.4 and 9.8 ± 5.8 ng/ml among SW smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Cotinine levels correlated with CPD in both populations (p < .0001). Cotinine ≥15 ng/ml was measured in 73.4% of NP smokers and 47.8% of SW smokers and in 19.0% of NP nonsmokers and 10.9% of SW nonsmokers. Ceremonial traditional tobacco use was associated with higher cotinine among NP smokers only (p = 0.004). Second-hand smoke exposure was associated with higher cotinine among NP non-smokers (P < 0.02). More secondhand smoke exposure was associated with smoking more CPD in both populations (p = 0.03-0.29). Linear regression modeling mirrored these findings. Conclusions:High prevalence of smoking in the Northern Plains and high cotinine levels among nonsmokers in both regions highlights the tribal populations' risk for tobacco-related disease. Implications:There is a high prevalence of smoking in Northern Plains American Indians. Among Northern Plains and Southwest nonsmokers, relatively high cotinine levels, representative of high tobacco exposure, suggest considerable exposure to second-hand smoke. It is critical to highlight the extent of second-hand smoke exposure among the Northern Plains and Southwest American Indians and to enhance efforts to initiate smoke-free policies in tribal communities, which are not subject to state-level polices.
Project description:An increasing proportion of US smokers smoke ?10 cigarettes per day (CPD) or do not smoke every day, yet the health effects of low-intensity smoking are poorly understood. We identified lifelong smokers of <1 or 1-10 CPD and evaluated risk of incident cancer among 238,525 cancer-free adults, aged 59-82, in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. A questionnaire administered in 2004-2005 assessed CPD during nine age-periods (<15 to ?70). We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the underlying time metric. Of the 18,233 current smokers, (7.6%), 137 and 1,243 reported consistently smoking <1 CPD and 1-10 CPD, respectively. Relative to never smokers, current smokers who reported consistently smoking 1-10 CPD over their lifetime were 2.34 (95% CI?=?1.86-2.93) times more likely to develop smoking-related cancer. Current lifetime smokers of <1 CPD were 1.89 (95% CI?=?0.90-3.96) times more likely to develop tobacco-related cancer, although the association did not reach statistical significance. Associations were observed for lifelong smoking of ?10 CPD with lung cancer (HR?=?9.65, 95% CI?=?6.93-13.43); bladder cancer (HR?=?2.22, 95% CI?=?1.22-4.05); and pancreatic cancer (HR?=?2.03, 95%CI: 1.05-3.95). Among lifelong ?10 CPD smokers, former smokers had lower risks of smoking-related cancer with longer time since cessation and longer smoking duration. Lifelong <1 and 1-10 CPD smokers are at increased risk of incident cancer relative to never smokers and would benefit from cessation, providing further evidence that even low-levels of cigarette smoking cause cancer.
Project description:Cigarette smoking is influenced by nicotine's effects on dopaminergic activity, which appear to be moderated by genetic variation, particularly a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR, 48 bp) polymorphism in the third exon of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD4). Smokers with the VNTR ?7 repeats (long, L allele) report markedly increased participation in some smoking behaviors; hence, our aim was to evaluate the association of the L allele in Mexican Mestizo smokers with and without COPD. The DRD4 VNTR 48 bp was genotyped in 492 Mexican Mestizo smokers: 164 COPD patients (?20 cigarettes per day, cpd), 164 heavy smokers without COPD (HS, ?20 cpd) and 164 light smokers without COPD (LS, 1-10 cpd). In the dominant model analysis (SL + LL vs. SS), men in the COPD and HS groups showed a statistical difference compared to LS (p = 0.01, OR = 2.06, CI 95% 1.17-3.64 and p = 0.05, OR = 1.88, CI 95% 1.03-3.45, respectively). In addition, by clustering smokers >20 cpd (COPD + HS) and comparing with the LS group, we found an association with increased risk of higher tobacco smoking p = 0.01, OR = 1.99, CI 95% 1.18-3.34. In conclusion, the long allele (L) in the VNTR of the DRD4 gene is associated with the risk of presenting higher tobacco smoking in male Mexican Mestizo smokers.