Transitions into and out of light and intermittent smoking during emerging adulthood.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in smoking from adolescence into emerging adulthood and to identify factors that might influence these transitions, specifically, movement into and out of light and intermittent smoking.This study used Markov models to examine movement across three stages of smoking (nonsmoking, light and intermittent smoking, and heavy smoking) from adolescence into emerging adulthood. Biannual data were collected from 990 young men and women from the 12th grade until 2 years after high school.At each timepoint, most youth were nonsmokers. Those who were heavy smokers in 12th grade had a 79% chance of also being heavy smokers 2 years after high school. Between 17% and 21% of participants were light and intermittent smokers at each timepoint, and the likelihood of remaining so at the next timepoint ranged from 56% to 72%. Less than one-half of the 12th-grade light and intermittent smokers were light and intermittent smokers 2 years later, and 3% of the sample were light and intermittent smokers across all assessments. Prevalence and transition rates did not differ by gender. College attendees reported less smoking than nonattendees before and after their transition to college, and attendees compared with nonattendees who smoked were less likely to transition from light and intermittent to heavy smoking and remain heavy smokers. Binge drinking was significantly related to 12th-grade smoking stage and to transitions from nonsmoking to smoking. Overall, few emerging adults maintained light and intermittent smoking consistently over time.Light and intermittent smoking during emerging adulthood may not be the same phenomenon as light and intermittent smoking in adulthood.
Project description:We examined population-based data to assess potential differences between light and intermittent smokers as compared with moderate to heavy tobacco users in health information-seeking behavior and attitudes and media exposure.Data from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Surveys were combined to examine the information-seeking characteristics of light daily smokers (n = 594), intermittent smokers (n = 532), and moderate to heavy daily smokers (n = 1,131).Compared with moderate to heavy daily smokers, intermittent smokers reported less exposure to television, greater trust in doctors as a source of health information, and greater intention to quit smoking. No differences in information-seeking experiences and preferences were observed between light daily smokers and moderate to heavy daily smokers. Intermittent smokers were distinct from moderate to heavy smokers in their information-seeking experiences and preferences.The insight into the media use and information preferences of different smoking populations lays the groundwork for conducting further research to examine the information needs and preferences of smoking groups and to more effectively develop and deliver smoking cessation interventions.
Project description:Asian Americans, along with other ethnic minorities, have been described to be more likely than Whites to be light and intermittent smokers. Characterizing Asian American smoking behavior accurately on a population level requires oversampling groups of different national origin and including non-English-speaking participants.We analyzed the California Health Interview Survey to compare moderate/heavy (> or =10 cigarettes/day), light (0-9 cigarettes/day), and intermittent (not daily) smoking patterns in Asian Americans with those of Whites. We also examined whether social and demographic factors that had been associated with Asian American smoking prevalence also were associated with light and intermittent smoking patterns in each of the national origin groups.Most Asian American smokers were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (range = 36.6%-61.5% for men and 29.9%-81.5% for women) compared with Whites, with lower mean cigarette consumption. Asian American light and intermittent smokers were more likely than moderate/heavy smokers to be women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.94), highly educated (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.21-8.28), not Korean (compared with Chinese; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.79), and bilingual speakers with high English language proficiency compared with English-only speakers (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.21-6.84). Asian American intermittent smokers were more likely than daily smokers to be women (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08-4.72) and to have lower household income.The predominance of Asian American light and intermittent smoking patterns has important implications for developing effective tobacco control outreach. Further studies are needed to elaborate the relationship between biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors influencing Asian American smoking intensity.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, both prevalence and average cigarette consumption declined in the United States, but age-specific changes have not been reported. METHOD: All four of the nationally and state representative U.S. Current Population Surveys-Tobacco Use Supplements from 1991-2002 (n = 542,470) were analyzed for trends in cigarette consumption among smokers in three age groups: 18-29, 30-44, and 45-64 years. A strength of tobacco control index ranking state of residence was added and weighted logistic regression analyses undertaken. RESULTS: Over the decade, both prevalence and average consumption declined. Moderate-heavy smoking (> or =15 cigarettes/day [CPD]) prevalence fell strongly over the period in all three age groups. For those aged > or =30 years, this reduction was accompanied by a similar drop in total smoking prevalence. For those aged 18-29 years, this reduction was associated with an increase in very light smoking (<5 CPD; 12% daily and 88% intermittent smokers) to 22.5% of current smokers with a much smaller reduction in prevalence. Smoke-free homes more than doubled in each age group and mediated the increase in very light smoking levels. Smoke-free workplaces and the strength of tobacco control in the state were also important predictors. Very light smoking was particularly prevalent among college students and graduates. DISCUSSION: The marked reduction in prevalence of moderate-heavy smoking across age groups should translate into a reduced population risk of smoking-related disease in the near term. That this reduction is offset by an increase in light and intermittent smoking in young adults suggests the effectiveness of tobacco industry marketing and needs further research.
Project description:CONTEXT:Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. DATA SOURCES:Primary data. STUDY SELECTION:Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. DATA EXTRACTION:Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94,050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ?10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33,348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ?16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. DATA SYNTHESIS:Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.36-1.55; n = 13,843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33, n = 19,505) (P = .01). CONCLUSION:These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.
Project description:Little is known about alteration of the global gene expression by cigarette smoke (CS) and few biomarkers for smoking-related harm are available. We used Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChips to measure the transcriptomes in lymphocytes of 23 current healthy smokers. When heavy smokers were compared with light smokers, 311 genes demonstrated a significant difference in mRNA expression of their blood lymphocytes. Keywords: dose response Overall design: The goals of this study were to evaluate novel gene expression profiles and pathways affected by cigarette smoking, and to identify potential biomarkers for cigarette smoke exposure and harm. To this end, we isolated the PBMC from 10 heavy and 13 light smokers, determined their gene expression profiles with Affymetrix microarray and analyzed their relationship with cigarette smoking.
Project description:INTRODUCTION Prevalence of light daily smoking, <10 cigarettes per day (CPD), and non-daily smoking has increased in the US population. This analysis examined the heterogeneity in past-year smoking behavior, current tobacco use behaviors, and smoking cessation behaviors among light and/or non-daily smokers. METHODS Current adult (?18 years old) smokers (N=26196) participated in the 2010–2011 US Current Population Survey – Tobacco Use Supplement, which reported current (T1) and past 12-month (T0) smoking behaviors. Responses were categorized by intensity (light ?10 CPD vs heavy >10 CPD) and frequency (non-daily vs daily). Combinations of T0 and T1 smoking behaviors resulted in 15 smoking trajectories ending in light/non-daily smoking and a 16th category of heavy daily smokers at T1. Differences in demographics, tobacco use, and smoking cessation behaviors were assessed by using weighted multivariable regression models. RESULTS Overall, 46.1% of US smokers were heavy smokers, 24.6% remained light daily smokers and 12.5% remained light non-daily smokers between T0 and T1. Current cigar, smokeless tobacco, and pipe use differed by smoking trajectories (p<0.05). All light and/or non-daily smokers were more likely than heavy daily smokers to have made a quit attempt (p<0.05) but use of cessation treatments varied. Smokers in many light and/or non-daily smoking trajectories were less likely than heavy daily smokers to be aided by healthcare providers for smoking cessation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Among heavy daily smokers who became light non-daily smokers, the mismatch between intent to quit (80.9%) and receiving advice to set a quit date (33.7%) is one example of a potential opportunity for a clinical intervention.
Project description:A chemopreventive effect of aspirin (ASA) on lung cancer risk is supported by epidemiologic and preclinical studies. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study in current heavy smokers to compare modulating effects of intermittent versus continuous low dose ASA on gene signatures of smoking and lung cancer from nasal brushings. Fifty-four participants were randomized to intermittent ASA (ASA 81 mg daily for one week alternating with placebo daily for one week) or continuous ASA (81 mg daily) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was modulation of a smoking gene signature in nasal brushings. Other [JB1] endpoints included modulation of nasal and bronchial gene signatures for smoking, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and changes in cyclooxygenase (COX)- and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX)-mediated arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolism. Low dose ASA intervention caused minimal changes in smoking and lung cancer gene signature scores in nasal epithelium of current heavy smokers. The small sample size of the intervention groups may have limited the ability to detect modulation of the gene signatures. Low dose ASA lowered urinary prostaglandin E metabolite, a marker of COX-mediated ARA metabolic pathway with no change in urinary leukotriene E4, a marker of 5-LOX-mediated pathway. Exploratory genomic analysis showed that ASA intervention induced wide-ranging genomic changes in the nasal epithelium, including modulation of the arachidonic acid pathway and wound healing. A companion study is underway using ASA plus zileuton to test dual suppression of COX- and 5-LOX-mediated pathways on these gene signature scores in current heavy smokers. Overall design: The study was a single center randomized, double-blinded trial to determine the modulatory effects of intermittent ASA dosing (ASA 81 mg daily for one week alternating with placebo daily for one week) versus continuous ASA dosing (ASA 81 mg daily) for 12 weeks on nasal epithelium gene expression and arachidonic acid metabolism in current smokers. Nasal brushings were collected at baseline, at end of intervention and 7-10 days post intervention.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To prospectively examine vaping as a predictor of future cigarette smoking among youth with and without previous cigarette smoking experience. A secondary aim is to investigate whether vaping may desensitise youth to the dangers of smoking. METHODS:Analysis of prospective longitudinal panel data from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future study. The analysis is based on 347 12th grade students who were part of a randomly selected subsample that completed in-school surveys in 2014 and were resurveyed 1-year later. RESULTS:Among youth who had never smoked a cigarette by 12th grade, baseline, recent vapers were more than 4 times (relative risk (RR)=4.78) more likely to report past-year cigarette smoking at follow-up, even among youth who reported the highest possible level of perceived risk for cigarette smoking at baseline. Among 12th grade students who had smoked in the past but had not recently smoked at baseline, recent vapers were twice (RR=2.15) as likely to report smoking in the past 12?months at the follow-up. Vaping did not predict cessation of smoking among recent smokers at baseline. Among never-smokers at baseline, recent vapers were more than 4 times (RR=4.73) more likely to move away from the perception of cigarettes as posing a 'great risk' of harm, a finding consistent with a desensitisation process. CONCLUSIONS:These results contribute to the growing body of evidence supporting vaping as a one-way bridge to cigarette smoking among youth. Vaping as a risk factor for future smoking is a strong, scientifically-based rationale for restricting youth access to e-cigarettes.
Project description:Little is known about alteration of the global gene expression by cigarette smoke (CS) and few biomarkers for smoking-related harm are available. We used Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChips to measure the transcriptomes in lymphocytes of 23 current healthy smokers. When heavy smokers were compared with light smokers, 311 genes demonstrated a significant difference in mRNA expression of their blood lymphocytes. Experiment Overall Design: The goals of this study were to evaluate novel gene expression profiles and pathways affected by cigarette smoking, and to identify potential biomarkers for cigarette smoke exposure and harm. To this end, we isolated the PBMC from 10 heavy and 13 light smokers, determined their gene expression profiles with Affymetrix microarray and analyzed their relationship with cigarette smoking.