Light and intermittent smoking among California's Asian Americans.
ABSTRACT: Asian Americans, along with other ethnic minorities, have been described to be more likely than Whites to be light and intermittent smokers. Characterizing Asian American smoking behavior accurately on a population level requires oversampling groups of different national origin and including non-English-speaking participants.We analyzed the California Health Interview Survey to compare moderate/heavy (> or =10 cigarettes/day), light (0-9 cigarettes/day), and intermittent (not daily) smoking patterns in Asian Americans with those of Whites. We also examined whether social and demographic factors that had been associated with Asian American smoking prevalence also were associated with light and intermittent smoking patterns in each of the national origin groups.Most Asian American smokers were more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (range = 36.6%-61.5% for men and 29.9%-81.5% for women) compared with Whites, with lower mean cigarette consumption. Asian American light and intermittent smokers were more likely than moderate/heavy smokers to be women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.94), highly educated (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.21-8.28), not Korean (compared with Chinese; OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13-0.79), and bilingual speakers with high English language proficiency compared with English-only speakers (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.21-6.84). Asian American intermittent smokers were more likely than daily smokers to be women (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08-4.72) and to have lower household income.The predominance of Asian American light and intermittent smoking patterns has important implications for developing effective tobacco control outreach. Further studies are needed to elaborate the relationship between biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors influencing Asian American smoking intensity.
Project description:Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1-5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies.Using logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, and education, we examined the prevalence of intermittent and light daily consumption among current smokers across racial/ethnic groups from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We also examined the association of these demographic factors with consumption within each racial/ethnic group separately.Black (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.59-2.07), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29-2.04), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.75-3.74) smokers were more likely to smoke intermittently compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Black (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27-3.18), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.13-4.19), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 3.85-5.58) smokers also were more likely to have light daily consumption compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic/Latino intermittent smokers smoked fewer days per month and fewer cigarettes per day compared with non-Hispanic White smokers. We found no significant gender differences across racial/ethnic groups in intermittent smoking, but male smokers were significantly less likely to have light daily consumption for all racial/ethnic groups.These results have implications for the understanding of the tobacco dependence, the development of prevention and cessation strategies, and the applicability of harm-reduction techniques for racial/ethnic minorities.
Project description:Racial/ethnic disparities in cigarette use and cessation persist. This study compared cigarette consumption and former smoking trends in California (CA) with the rest of the United States (US) by racial/ethnic categories of non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander groups. Data were analyzed from the 1992 to 2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Consumption levels across decades were examined and adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare across CA and US. Results indicated steady declines in ever smoking prevalence for all groups with much lower magnitudes of change among US Blacks and Whites compared to their CA counterparts. After controlling for age, gender, and education, CA had significantly fewer heavy smokers (OR=0.45, 95% CI:0.38-0.54), more light and intermittent smokers (LITS; OR=1.68, 95%CI: 1.45-1.93), and a greater proportion of former smokers (OR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.24-1.48) than the rest of US. Data were stratified by race/ethnicity and the patterns shown were mostly consistent with CA performing statistically better than their US counterparts with the exception of Black LITS and Asian/Pacific Islander former smokers. California's success in reducing tobacco use disparities may serve as a prime example of tobacco control policy for the country. CA and the US will need to continue to address tobacco use and cessation in the context of the growing diversity of the population.
Project description:Introduction:Although California is home to the largest Hispanic/Latino population, few studies have compared smoking behavior trends of Hispanic/Latino nationality groups in California to the remaining United States, which may identify the impact of the states antitobacco efforts on these groups. This study compared smoking status, frequency, and intensity among Mexican Americans, Central/South Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites in California to the remaining United States in the 1990s and 2000s. Methods:Data were analyzed using the 1992-2011 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement to report the estimated prevalence of smoking status, frequency, and intensity by decade, race/ethnicity, and state residence. Weighted logistic regression explored sociodemographic factors associated with never and heavy smoking (?20 cigarettes per day). Results:There were absolute overall increases from 6.8% to 9.6% in never smoking across all groups. Compared to the remaining United States, there was a greater decrease in heavy smoking among Mexican American current smokers in California (5.1%) and a greater increase in light and intermittent smokers among Central/South American current smokers in California (9.3%) between decades. Compared to those living in the remaining United States, smokers living in California had lower odds of heavy smoking (1990s: odds ratio [OR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62, 0.66; 2000s: 0.54, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.55). Conclusions:California state residence significantly impacted smoking behaviors as indicated by significant differences in smoking intensity between California and the remaining United States among Hispanic/Latino nationality groups. Understanding smoking behaviors across Hispanic/Latino nationality groups in California and the United States can inform tobacco control and smoking prevention strategies for these groups. Implications:The present study explored the differences in smoking behaviors between Whites, Mexican Americans, and Central South/Americans living in California versus the rest of the United States in the 1990s and the 2000s. The results contribute to our current knowledge as there have been minimal efforts to provide disaggregated cigarette consumption information among Hispanic/Latino nationality groups. Additionally, by comparing cigarette consumption between those in California and the remaining United States, our data may provide insight into the impact of California's antitobacco efforts in reaching Hispanic/Latino subpopulations relative to the remaining US states, many of which have had less tobacco control policy implementation.
Project description:Previous research demonstrated the efficacy of sustained release bupropion (bupropion SR) for smoking cessation in whites as well as moderate to heavy (?10 cigarettes per day [CPD]) African American smokers. We evaluated whether bupropion SR was effective for smoking cessation among African American light smokers (?10 CPD).A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted from December 27, 2007, to May 13, 2010. All participants were African American light smokers (?10 CPD), aged 18 years or older. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg bupropion SR (150 mg once daily for 3 days and then 150 mg twice daily) (n = 270 participants) or placebo (n = 270 participants) for 7 weeks, and up to six sessions of health education counseling. Serum cotinine was measured at baseline (week 0). The primary outcome was salivary cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at week 26; a cut point of 15 ng/mL differentiated smokers from nonsmokers. Salivary cotinine-verified smoking abstinence at end of medication treatment at week 7 was also examined. Odds ratios (OR) for smoking abstinence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided.Participants at baseline visit (week 0) smoked an average of 8.0 CPD and had a mean serum cotinine level of 275.8 ng/mL (SD = 155.8 ng/mL); most used menthol cigarettes (83.7%) and smoked within 30 minutes of waking (72.2%). After imputing those lost to follow-up as smokers, no statistically significant difference in long-term smoking abstinence rates at week 26 was observed between bupropion SR and placebo groups (13.3% vs 10.0%, OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.82 to 2.35, P = .23). Cotinine-verified smoking abstinence rate at end of medication week 7 was higher in the bupropion SR vs placebo group (23.7% vs 9.6%, OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.78 to 4.77, P < .001).Bupropion SR was effective in promoting smoking cessation during the medication phase of treatment but showed no effect on long-term smoking cessation among African American light smokers. More research is needed to identify strategies for sustaining abstinence among African American light smokers.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Smoking prevalence remains high among Asian American immigrant men, particularly those with limited English proficiency. Understanding ways to promote serious quit attempts (defined as a quit attempt lasting at least 24?h) could be crucial for reducing tobacco-related health disparities in this population. This study examines correlates of serious past year quit attempts among Chinese and Vietnamese American male daily smokers.<h4>Methods</h4>Baseline survey data were collected between 2015 and 2017 from a lifestyle intervention trial (N?=?340 Chinese and Vietnamese male daily smokers). Data analysis was conducted in 2019. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with serious past year quit attempts.<h4>Results</h4>Less than half (43.2%) of the study participants had at least one serious past year quit attempt. Significant correlates of serious quit attempts included utilizing evidence-based methods (OR?=?12.83, 95% CI 5.17-31.84) or other methods (OR?=?3.92, 95% CI 3.92-13.73) to facilitate quitting compared to those who did not attempt to quit. Also, participants who had a physician encounter in the past year were more likely to have had a serious quit attempt (OR?=?2.25, 95% CI 1.12-4.53). Discussing smoking during a past year doctor's visit, however, was not a significant correlate of serious quit attempts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings underscore the importance of promoting the use of smoking cessation resources, and potentially utilizing healthcare encounters to facilitate cessation. Investigations are warranted to understand better how patient-physician interactions can enhance smoking cessation.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in smoking from adolescence into emerging adulthood and to identify factors that might influence these transitions, specifically, movement into and out of light and intermittent smoking.This study used Markov models to examine movement across three stages of smoking (nonsmoking, light and intermittent smoking, and heavy smoking) from adolescence into emerging adulthood. Biannual data were collected from 990 young men and women from the 12th grade until 2 years after high school.At each timepoint, most youth were nonsmokers. Those who were heavy smokers in 12th grade had a 79% chance of also being heavy smokers 2 years after high school. Between 17% and 21% of participants were light and intermittent smokers at each timepoint, and the likelihood of remaining so at the next timepoint ranged from 56% to 72%. Less than one-half of the 12th-grade light and intermittent smokers were light and intermittent smokers 2 years later, and 3% of the sample were light and intermittent smokers across all assessments. Prevalence and transition rates did not differ by gender. College attendees reported less smoking than nonattendees before and after their transition to college, and attendees compared with nonattendees who smoked were less likely to transition from light and intermittent to heavy smoking and remain heavy smokers. Binge drinking was significantly related to 12th-grade smoking stage and to transitions from nonsmoking to smoking. Overall, few emerging adults maintained light and intermittent smoking consistently over time.Light and intermittent smoking during emerging adulthood may not be the same phenomenon as light and intermittent smoking in adulthood.
Project description:This is the first study to examine predictors of successful cessation in African American (AA) light smokers treated within a placebo-controlled trial of bupropion.We analyzed data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion and health education for 540 African American light smokers. African American light smokers (?10 cigarettes per day, cpd) were randomly assigned to receive 150mg bid bupropion SR (n=270) or placebo (n=270) for 7weeks. All participants received health education counseling at weeks 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7. Using chi-square tests, two sample t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses, we examined baseline psychosocial and smoking characteristics as predictors of cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence among study participants at the end treatment (Week 7) and at the end of follow-up (Week 26).Participants who received bupropion were significantly more likely to quit smoking compared to those who received placebo (OR=2.72, 95% CI=1.60-4.62, P=0.0002). Greater study session attendance (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.76-3.46, P=0.0001), and smoking non-menthol cigarettes increased the likelihood of quitting (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.01-3.36, P=0.05); while longer years of smoking (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.96-1.00, P=0.05) and higher baseline cotinine (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.95-0.99, P=0.002) significantly reduced the odds of quitting at Week 7. Conversely, at the end of follow-up (Week 26), treatment with bupropion vs. placebo (OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.65-2.02, P=0.64) was not significantly associated with quitting and type of cigarette smoked (menthol vs. non-menthol) did not appear in the final logistic regression model. Greater study session attendance (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.44-2.66, P=0.0001); BMI (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.00-1.07, P=0.04); and weight efficacy (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.05, P=0.01) increased the likelihood of quitting at Week 26. Similar to our findings at Week 7, longer years of smoking (OR=0.96, 95% CI=0.94-0.99, P=0.01) and higher baseline cotinine (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.95-0.99, P=0.02) significantly reduced the odds of quitting at Week 26.Baseline cotinine levels, number of years smoked and study session attendance are associated with both short- and long-term smoking cessation, while bupropion and the type of cigarette smoked were associated with quitting on short term only.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Text-messaging programs for smoking cessation improve abstinence outcomes in the general population. However, little is known about engagement and abstinence outcomes among African Americans in text-messaging smoking cessation programs. The current study compares engagement and abstinence between Blacks and Whites in the National Cancer Institute's SmokefreeTXT program. METHOD:Data were from Blacks (n = 1333) and Whites (n = 7154) who enrolled in the 6-week SmokefreeTXT program between August 2017 and June 2018. We assessed the association between race and program initiation and completion; responses to weekly smoking cessation, mood, and craving assessments; and self-reported abstinence using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:Blacks and Whites initiated the program at a similar frequency, yet Blacks were more likely to complete the program (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43 to 2.06). Blacks were less likely to respond to all seven abstinence, mood, and craving assessments (eg, AOR of quit day responses = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.77; 6-week AOR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.72). Self-reported abstinence was lower among Blacks for all seven smoking assessments (eg, quit day abstinence AOR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.68; 6-week abstinence AOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.89). CONCLUSION:Although Blacks were more likely than Whites to complete the SmokefreeTXT program, they were less likely to engage with the program by responding to assessment questions and had lower abstinence rates. Qualitative research may reveal unique barriers to engagement among Blacks. IMPLICATIONS:Black smokers enrolled in a nationwide mobile smoking cessation program at a rate comparable to White smokers. However, they were significantly less likely to engage with the program or quit smoking. This study highlights the need to examine barriers to cessation for Black smokers.
Project description:Nondaily smokers experience adverse effects from tobacco use, yet they have been understudied compared to daily smokers. Understanding how reasons for smoking (RS) differ by smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity could inform tailored interventions.A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American [AA], Latino, and White) across smoking level (native nondaily, converted nondaily, daily light, and daily moderate/heavy).A 7-factor structure of a 20-item Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) was confirmed (each subscale alpha > 0.80). Each factor of the MRSS varied by smoking level, with nondaily smokers endorsing all RS less frequently than daily smokers (p < .0001). The 4 smoker subgroups incrementally differed from one another (p < .05) with several exceptions between converted nondaily and daily light smokers. Males reported stronger RS on 5 out of 7 reasons (p < .05). Females had higher scores on tension reduction/relaxation (p < .0001). Latinos reported stronger RS than Whites and AAs on all reasons (p < .05) except for tension reduction/relaxation (p > .05). AAs and Whites were comparable on all RS (p > .05).The present study highlights considerable variability across smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity in strength of RS. Addressing subgroup differences in RS may contribute to more sensitive and effective prevention and treatment efforts.