Molecular mechanisms of yeast cell wall glucan remodeling.
ABSTRACT: Yeast cell wall remodeling is controlled by the equilibrium between glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, and transglycosylases. Family 72 glycoside hydrolases (GH72) are ubiquitous in fungal organisms and are known to possess significant transglycosylase activity, producing elongated beta(1-3) glucan chains. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the balance between hydrolysis and transglycosylation in these enzymes are not understood. Here we present the first crystal structure of a glucan transglycosylase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gas2 (ScGas2), revealing a multidomain fold, with a (betaalpha)(8) catalytic core and a separate glucan binding domain with an elongated, conserved glucan binding groove. Structures of ScGas2 complexes with different beta-glucan substrate/product oligosaccharides provide "snapshots" of substrate binding and hydrolysis/transglycosylation giving the first insights into the mechanisms these enzymes employ to drive beta(1-3) glucan elongation. Together with mutagenesis and analysis of reaction products, the structures suggest a "base occlusion" mechanism through which these enzymes protect the covalent protein-enzyme intermediate from a water nucleophile, thus controlling the balance between hydrolysis and transglycosylation and driving the elongation of beta(1-3) glucan chains in the yeast cell wall.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mannans are hemicellulosic polysaccharides in the plant primary cell wall with two major physiological roles: as storage polysaccharides that provide energy for the growing seedling; and as structural components of the hemicellulose-cellulose network with a similar function to xyloglucans. Endo-beta-mannanases are hydrolytic enzymes that cleave the mannan backbone. They are active during seed germination and during processes of growth or senescence. The recent discovery that endo-beta-mannanase LeMAN4a from ripe tomato fruit also has mannan transglycosylase activity requires the role of endo-beta-mannanases to be reinterpreted. AIMS: In this review, the role of endo-beta-mannanases as mannan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (MTHs) in remodelling the plant cell wall is considered by analogy to the role of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs). The current understanding of the reaction mechanism of these enzymes, their three-dimensional protein structure, their substrates and their genes are reported. FUTURE OUTLOOK: There are likely to be more endohydrolases within the plant cell wall that can carry out hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions. The challenge will be to demonstrate that the transglycosylation activities shown in vitro also exist in vivo and to validate a role for transglycosylation reactions during the growth and development of the plant cell wall.
Project description:The metabolism of the storage polysaccharides glycogen and starch is of vital importance to organisms from all domains of life. In bacteria, utilization of these ?-glucans requires the concerted action of a variety of enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases, glycoside phosphorylases, and transglycosylases. In particular, transglycosylases from glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) and GH77 play well established roles in ?-glucan side chain (de)branching, regulation of oligo- and polysaccharide chain length, and formation of cyclic dextrans. Here, we present the biochemical and tertiary structural characterization of a new type of bacterial 1,4-?-glucan 4-?-glucosyltransferase from GH31. Distinct from 1,4-?-glucan 6-?-glucosyltransferases (EC 184.108.40.206) and 4-?-glucanotransferases (EC 220.127.116.11), this enzyme strictly transferred one glucosyl residue from ?(1?4)-glucans in disproportionation reactions. Substrate hydrolysis was undetectable for a series of malto-oligosaccharides except maltose for which transglycosylation nonetheless dominated across a range of substrate concentrations. Crystallographic analysis of the enzyme in free, acarbose-complexed, and trapped 5-fluoro-?-glucosyl-enzyme intermediate forms revealed extended substrate interactions across one negative and up to three positive subsites, thus providing structural rationalization for the unique, single monosaccharide transferase activity of the enzyme.
Project description:Fungal cell wall synthesis is achieved by a balance of glycosyltransferase, hydrolase and transglycosylase activities. Transglycosylases strengthen the cell wall by forming a rigid network of crosslinks through mechanisms that remain to be explored. Here we study the function of the Aspergillus fumigatus family of five Crh transglycosylases. Although crh genes are dispensable for cell viability, simultaneous deletion of all genes renders cells sensitive to cell wall interfering compounds. In vitro biochemical assays and localisation studies demonstrate that this family of enzymes functions redundantly as transglycosylases for both chitin-glucan and chitin-chitin cell wall crosslinks. To understand the molecular basis of this acceptor promiscuity, we solved the crystal structure of A. fumigatus Crh5 (AfCrh5) in complex with a chitooligosaccharide at the resolution of 2.8 Å, revealing an extensive elongated binding cleft for the donor (-4 to -1) substrate and a short acceptor (+1 to +2) binding site. Together with mutagenesis, the structure suggests a "hydrolysis product assisted" molecular mechanism favouring transglycosylation over hydrolysis.
Project description:Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases (ENGases) are dual specificity enzymes with an ability to catalyze hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions. Recently, these enzymes have become the focus of intense research because of their potential for synthesis of glycopeptides. We have determined the 3D structures of an ENGase from Arthrobacter protophormiae (Endo-A) in 3 forms, one in native form, one in complex with Man(3)GlcNAc-thiazoline and another in complex with GlcNAc-Asn. The carbohydrate moiety sits above the TIM-barrel in a cleft region surrounded by aromatic residues. The conserved essential catalytic residues - E173, N171 and Y205 are within hydrogen bonding distance of the substrate. W216 and W244 regulate access to the active site during transglycosylation by serving as "gate-keepers". Interestingly, Y299F mutation resulted in a 3 fold increase in the transglycosylation activity. The structure provides insights into the catalytic mechanism of GH85 family of glycoside hydrolases at molecular level and could assist rational engineering of ENGases.
Project description:Lysobacter enzymogenes strain N4-7 produces multiple biochemically distinct extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase activities. The gluA, gluB, and gluC genes, encoding enzymes with beta-1,3-glucanase activity, were identified by a reverse-genetics approach following internal amino acid sequence determination of beta-1,3-glucanase-active proteins partially purified from culture filtrates of strain N4-7. Analysis of gluA and gluC gene products indicates that they are members of family 16 glycoside hydrolases that have significant sequence identity to each other throughout the catalytic domain but that differ structurally by the presence of a family 6 carbohydrate-binding domain within the gluC product. Analysis of the gluB gene product indicates that it is a member of family 64 glycoside hydrolases. Expression of each gene in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of proteins with beta-1,3-glucanase activity. Biochemical analyses of the recombinant enzymes indicate that GluA and GluC exhibit maximal activity at pH 4.5 and 45 degrees C and that GluB is most active between pH 4.5 and 5.0 at 41 degrees C. Activity of recombinant proteins against various beta-1,3 glucan substrates indicates that GluA and GluC are most active against linear beta-1,3 glucans, while GluB is most active against the insoluble beta-1,3 glucan substrate zymosan A. These data suggest that the contribution of beta-1,3-glucanases to the biocontrol activity of L. enzymogenes may be due to complementary activities of these enzymes in the hydrolysis of beta-1,3 glucans from fungal cell walls.
Project description:Carbohydrates are complex macromolecules in biological metabolism. Enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates is recognized as a powerful tool to overcome the problems associated with large scale synthesis of carbohydrates. Novel enzymes with significant transglycosylation ability are still in great demand in glycobiology studies. Here we report a novel glycoside hydrolase family 16 "elongating" β-transglycosylase from Paecilomyces thermophila (PtBgt16A), which efficiently catalyzes the synthesis of higher polymeric oligosaccharides using β-1,3/1,4-oligosaccharides as donor/acceptor substrates. Further structural information reveals that PtBgt16A has a binding pocket around the -1 subsite. The catalytic mechanism of PtBgt16A is partly similar to an exo-glycoside hydrolase, which cleaves the substrate from the non-reducing end one by one. However, PtBgt16A releases the reducing end product and uses the remainder glucosyl as a transglycosylation donor. This catalytic mechanism has similarity with the catalytic mode of amylosucrase, which catalyzes the transglycosylation products gradually extend by one glucose unit. PtBgt16A thus has the potential to be a tool enzyme for the enzymatic synthesis of new β-oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates.
Project description:The Neurospora crassa genome encodes five GH72 family transglycosylases, and four of these enzymes (GEL-1, GEL-2, GEL-3 and GEL-5) have been found to be present in the cell wall proteome. We carried out an extensive genetic analysis on the role of these four transglycosylases in cell wall biogenesis and demonstrated that the transglycosylases are required for the formation of a normal cell wall. As suggested by the proteomic analysis, we found that multiple transglycosylases were being expressed in N. crassa cells and that different combinations of the enzymes are required in different cell types. The combination of GEL-1, GEL-2 and GEL-5 is required for the growth of vegetative hyphae, while the GEL-1, GEL-2, GEL-3 combination is needed for the production of aerial hyphae and conidia. Our data demonstrates that the enzymes are redundant with partially overlapping enzymatic activities, which provides the fungus with a robust cell wall biosynthetic system. Characterization of the transglycosylase-deficient mutants demonstrated that the incorporation of cell wall proteins was severely compromised. Interestingly, we found that the transglycosylase-deficient mutant cell walls contained more ?-1,3-glucan than the wild type cell wall. Our results demonstrate that the GH72 transglycosylases are not needed for the incorporation of ?-1,3-glucan into the cell wall, but they are required for the incorporation of cell wall glycoprotein into the cell wall.
Project description:Family GH16 glycoside hydrolases can be assigned to five subgroups according to their substrate specificities, including xyloglucan transglucosylases/hydrolases (XTHs), (1,3)-beta-galactanases, (1,4)-beta-galactanases/kappa-carrageenases, "nonspecific" (1,3/1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases, and (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases. A structured family GH16 glycoside hydrolase database has been constructed (http://www.ghdb.uni-stuttgart.de) and provides multiple sequence alignments with functionally annotated amino acid residues and phylogenetic trees. The database has been used for homology modeling of seven glycoside hydrolases from the GH16 family with various substrate specificities, based on structural coordinates for (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases and a kappa-carrageenase. In combination with multiple sequence alignments, the models predict the three-dimensional (3D) dispositions of amino acid residues in the substrate-binding and catalytic sites of XTHs and (1,3/1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucan endohydrolases; there is no structural information available in the databases for the latter group of enzymes. Models of the XTHs, compared with the recently determined structure of a Populus tremulos x tremuloides XTH, reveal similarities with the active sites of family GH11 (1,4)-beta-D-xylan endohydrolases. From a biological viewpoint, the classification, molecular modeling and a new 3D structure of the P. tremulos x tremuloides XTH establish structural and evolutionary connections between XTHs, (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases and xylan endohydrolases. These findings raise the possibility that XTHs from higher plants could be active not only on cell wall xyloglucans, but also on (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans and arabinoxylans, which are major components of walls in grasses. A role for XTHs in (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan and arabinoxylan modification would be consistent with the apparent overrepresentation of XTH sequences in cereal expressed sequence tags databases.
Project description:Unveiling the determinants for transferase and hydrolase activity in glycoside hydrolases would allow using their vast diversity for creating novel transglycosylases, thereby unlocking an extensive toolbox for carbohydrate chemists. Three different amino acid substitutions at position 220 of a GH1 ?-glucosidase from Thermotoga neapolitana caused an increase of the ratio of transglycosylation to hydrolysis (r s/r h) from 0.33 to 1.45-2.71. Further increase in r s/r h was achieved by modulation of pH of the reaction medium. The wild-type enzyme had a pH optimum for both hydrolysis and transglycosylation around 6 and reduced activity at higher pH. Interestingly, the mutants had constant transglycosylation activity over a broad pH range (5-10), while the hydrolytic activity was largely eliminated at pH 10. The results demonstrate that a combination of protein engineering and medium engineering can be used to eliminate the hydrolytic activity without affecting the transglycosylation activity of a glycoside hydrolase. The underlying factors for this success are pursued, and perturbations of the catalytic acid/base in combination with flexibility are shown to be important factors.
Project description:The fungal wall is pivotal for cell shape and function, and in interfacial protection during host infection and environmental challenge. Here, we provide the first description of the carbohydrate composition and structure of the cell wall of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. We focus on the family of glucan elongation proteins (Gels) and characterize five putative ?-1,3-glucan glucanosyltransferases that each carry the Glycoside Hydrolase 72 signature. We generated targeted deletion mutants of all Gel isoforms, that is, the GH72+ , which carry a putative carbohydrate-binding module, and the GH72- Gels, without this motif. We reveal that M. oryzae GH72+ GELs are expressed in spores and during both infective and vegetative growth, but each individual Gel enzymes are dispensable for pathogenicity. Further, we demonstrated that a ?gel1?gel3?gel4 null mutant has a modified cell wall in which 1,3-glucans have a higher degree of polymerization and are less branched than the wild-type strain. The mutant showed significant differences in global patterns of gene expression, a hyper-branching phenotype and no sporulation, and thus was unable to cause rice blast lesions (except via wounded tissues). We conclude that Gel proteins play significant roles in structural modification of the fungal cell wall during appressorium-mediated plant infection.