Gfi1-mediated stabilization of GATA3 protein is required for Th2 cell differentiation.
ABSTRACT: The differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into Th2 cells requires the T cell receptor-mediated activation of the ERK MAPK cascade. Little is known, however, in regard to how the ERK MAPK cascade regulates Th2 cell differentiation. We herein identified Gfi1 (growth factor independent-1) as a downstream target of the ERK MAPK cascade for Th2 cell differentiation. In the absence of Gfi1, interleukin-5 production and the change of histone modification at the interleukin-5 gene locus were severely impaired. Furthermore, the interferon gamma gene showed a striking activation in the Gfi1(-/-) Th2 cells. An enhanced ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation of GATA3 protein was observed in Gfi1(-/-) Th2 cells, and the overexpression of GATA3 eliminated the defect of Th2 cell function in Gfi1-deficient Th2 cells. These data suggest that the T cell receptor-mediated induction of Gfi1 controls Th2 cell differentiation through the regulation of GATA3 protein stability.
Project description:Gfi1 plays an important role in the development and maintenance of many hematopoietic linage cells. However, the impact of Gfi1-deficiency on the iNKT cell differentiation remains unclear. We herein demonstrate a critical role of Gfi1 in regulating the development of iNKT cell subsets. In the thymus of T cell-specific Gfi1-deficient mice, iNKT cells normally developed up to stage 2, while the number of stage 3 NK1.1pos iNKT cells was significantly reduced. Furthermore, CD4pos iNKT cells were selectively reduced in the peripheral organs of T cell-specific Gfi1-deficient mice. The ?-GalCer-dependent production of IFN-?and Th2 cytokines, but not IL-17A, was severely reduced in T cell-specific Gfi1-deficient mice. In addition, a reduction of the ?-GalCer-induced anti-tumor activity was observed in Gfi1-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate the important role of Gfi1 in regulating the development and function of NKT1- and NKT2-type iNKT cell subsets.
Project description:Effective immune responses depend upon appropriate T cell differentiation in accord with the nature of an infectious agent, and the contingency of differentiation depends minimally on TCR, coreceptor, and cytokine signals. In this reverse genetic study, we show that the MAPK Erk2 is not essential for T cell proliferation in the presence of optimum costimulation. Instead, it has opposite effects on T-bet and Gata3 expression and, hence, on Th1 and Th2 differentiation. Alternatively, in the presence of TGF-?, the Erk pathway suppresses a large program of gene expression, effectively limiting the differentiation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. In the latter case, the mechanisms involved include suppression of Gata3 and Foxp3, induction of Tbx21, phosphorylation of Smad2,3, and possibly suppression of Socs2, a positive inducer of Stat5 signaling. Consequently, loss of Erk2 severely impeded Th1 differentiation while enhancing the development of Foxp3(+)-induced T regulatory cells. Selected profiles of gene expression under multiple conditions of T cell activation illustrate the opposing consequences of Erk pathway signaling.
Project description:The transcriptional repressor Gfi1 regulates the expression of genes important for survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Gfi1 deficient mice are severely neutropenic and accumulate ill-defined CD11b(+)GR1(int) myeloid cells. Here we show that Gfi1 expression levels determine mono- or granulocytic lineage choice in precursor cells. In addition, we identify CD48 as a cell surface marker which enables a better definition of monocytes and granulocytes in mouse bone marrow. Using the CD48/Gr1/Gfi1 marker combination we can show that the CD11b(+)GR1(int) cells accumulating in Gfi1 deficient mice are monocytes and not granulocyte precursors. Expression of CD48, Gr1 and Gfi1 define different bone marrow subpopulations that are either committed to the granulocytic lineage, or bipotential precursors of granulocytes or monocytes. Finally, a comparison of genes differentially expressed between murine Gfi1 high granulocytic precursors and mature granulocytes with gene expression changes from human myeloblasts versus neutrophils show a strong resemblance of human and mouse differentiation pathways. This underlines the value of the markers CD48 and Gfi1 identified here to study human and murine granulo-monocytic differentiation.
Project description:The transcription factor growth factor independence 1 (Gfi1) and the growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are individually essential for neutrophil differentiation from myeloid progenitors. Here, we provide evidence that the functions of Gfi1 and G-CSF are linked in the regulation of granulopoiesis. We report that Gfi1 promotes the expression of Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), an exchange factor that activates Ras, and that RasGRP1 is required for G-CSF signaling through the Ras/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/Erk) pathway. Gfi1-null mice have reduced levels of RasGRP1 mRNA and protein in thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, and Gfi1 transduction in myeloid cells promotes RasGRP1 expression. When stimulated with G-CSF, Gfi1-null myeloid cells are selectively defective at activating Erk1/2, but not signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) or STAT3, and fail to differentiate into neutrophils. Expression of RasGRP1 in Gfi1-deficient cells rescues Erk1/2 activation by G-CSF and allows neutrophil maturation by G-CSF. These results uncover a previously unknown function of Gfi1 as a regulator of RasGRP1 and link Gfi1 transcriptional control to G-CSF signaling and regulation of granulopoiesis.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cell differentiation is specified by cytokines and transcription factors, but the mechanisms controlling instructive and permissive signalling networks are poorly understood. We provide evidence that CLP1-dependent IL7-receptor mediated B cell differentiation is critically controlled by the transcriptional repressor Gfi1. Gfi1-deficient progenitor B cells show global defects in IL7Ralpha-dependent signal cascades. Consequently, IL7-dependent trophic, proliferative and differentiation-inducing responses of progenitor B cells are perturbed. Gfi1 directly regulates expression levels of IL7Ralpha and indirectly controls STAT5 signalling via expression of SOCS3. Thus, Gfi1 selectively specifies IL7-dependent development of B cells from CLP1 progenitors, providing clues to the transcriptional networks integrating cytokine signals and lymphoid differentiation.
Project description:The differentiation of haematopoietic cells is regulated by a plethora of so-called transcription factors (TFs). Mutations in genes encoding TFs or graded reduction in their expression levels can induce the development of various malignant diseases such as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Growth Factor Independence 1 (GFI1) is a transcriptional repressor with key roles in haematopoiesis, including regulating self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as myeloid and lymphoid differentiation. Analysis of AML patients and different AML mouse models with reduced GFI1 gene expression levels revealed a direct link between low GFI1 protein level and accelerated AML development and inferior prognosis. Here, we report that upregulated expression of GFI1 in several widely used leukemic cell lines inhibits their growth and decreases the ability to generate colonies in vitro. Similarly, elevated expression of GFI1 impedes the in vitro expansion of murine pre-leukemic cells. Using a humanized AML model, we demonstrate that upregulation of GFI1 expression leads to myeloid differentiation morphologically and immunophenotypically, increased level of apoptosis and reduction in number of cKit+ cells. These results suggest that increasing GFI1 level in leukemic cells with low GFI1 expression level could be a therapeutic approach.
Project description:Precise control of microRNA expression contributes to development and the establishment of tissue identity, including in proper hematopoietic commitment and differentiation, whereas aberrant expression of various microRNAs has been implicated in malignant transformation. A small number of microRNAs are upregulated in megakaryocytes, among them is microRNA-22 (miR-22). Dysregulation of miR-22 leads to various hematologic malignancies and disorders, but its role in hematopoiesis is not yet well established. Here we show that upregulation of miR-22 is a critical step in megakaryocyte differentiation. Megakaryocytic differentiation in cell lines is promoted upon overexpression of miR-22, whereas differentiation is disrupted in CRISPR/Cas9-generated miR-22 knockout cell lines, confirming that miR-22 is an essential mediator of this process. RNA-sequencing reveals that miR-22 loss results in downregulation of megakaryocyte-associated genes. Mechanistically, we identify the repressive transcription factor, GFI1, as the direct target of miR-22, and upregulation of GFI1 in the absence of miR-22 inhibits megakaryocyte differentiation. Knocking down aberrant GFI1 expression restores megakaryocytic differentiation in miR-22 knockout cells. Furthermore, we have characterized hematopoiesis in miR-22 knockout animals and confirmed that megakaryocyte differentiation is similarly impaired in vivo and upon ex vivo megakaryocyte differentiation. Consistently, repression of Gfi1 is incomplete in the megakaryocyte lineage in miR-22 knockout mice and Gfi1 is aberrantly expressed upon forced megakaryocyte differentiation in explanted bone marrow from miR-22 knockout animals. This study identifies a positive role for miR-22 in hematopoiesis, specifically in promoting megakaryocyte differentiation through repression of GFI1, a target antagonistic to this process.
Project description:The generation of all blood cells depends on the ability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. We show here that the transcription factor Gfi1 is expressed in HSCs and in more mature cells such as common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and granulo/monocytic progenitors, but is absent in common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors. When Gfi1 is deleted in mice, HSC frequencies are significantly reduced and CLPs all but disappear from the bone marrow. This specific requirement of Gfi1 for the maintenance of HSC numbers is cell autonomous. Transplantation of Gfi1-deficient bone marrow results in a compromised radioprotection and lower numbers of colony forming units in the spleen of wild-type recipients. Strikingly, Gfi1-/- bone marrow cells are severely impaired in competitive long-term reconstituting abilities after transplantation and show a surprisingly high proportion of actively cycling HSCs, suggesting that Gfi1 restrains proliferation of HSCs and thereby regulates their self-renewal and long-term engraftment abilities.
Project description:Protracted inhibition of osteoblast (OB) differentiation characterizes multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease and persists even when patients are in long-term remission. However, the underlying pathophysiology for this prolonged OB suppression is unknown. Therefore, we developed a mouse MM model in which the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) remained unresponsive to OB differentiation signals after removal of MM cells. We found that BMSCs from both MM-bearing mice and MM patients had increased levels of the transcriptional repressor Gfi1 compared with controls and that Gfi1 was a novel transcriptional repressor of the critical OB transcription factor Runx2. Trichostatin-A blocked the effects of Gfi1, suggesting that it induces epigenetic changes in the Runx2 promoter. MM-BMSC cell-cell contact was not required for MM cells to increase Gfi1 and repress Runx2 levels in MC-4 before OBs or naive primary BMSCs, and Gfi1 induction was blocked by anti-TNF-? and anti-IL-7 antibodies. Importantly, BMSCs isolated from Gfi1(-/-) mice were significantly resistant to MM-induced OB suppression. Strikingly, siRNA knockdown of Gfi1 in BMSCs from MM patients significantly restored expression of Runx2 and OB differentiation markers. Thus, Gfi1 may have an important role in prolonged MM-induced OB suppression and provide a new therapeutic target for MM bone disease.
Project description:Interleukin-7 receptor ? (IL-7R?) is essential for T cell survival and differentiation. Glucocorticoids are potent enhancers of IL-7R? expression with diverse roles in T cell biology. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor, growth factor independent-1 (Gfi1), as a novel intermediary in glucocorticoid-induced IL-7R? up-regulation. We found Gfi1 to be a major inhibitory target of dexamethasone by microarray expression profiling of 3B4.15 T-hybridoma cells. Concordantly, retroviral transduction of Gfi1 significantly blunted IL-7R? up-regulation by dexamethasone. To further assess the role of Gfi1 in vivo, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, in which a modified Il7r locus expresses GFP to report Il7r gene transcription. By introducing this BAC reporter transgene into either Gfi1-deficient or Gfi1-transgenic mice, we document in vivo that IL-7R? transcription is up-regulated in the absence of Gfi1 and down-regulated when Gfi1 is overexpressed. Strikingly, the in vivo regulatory role of Gfi1 was specific for CD8(+), and not CD4(+) T cells or immature thymocytes. These results identify Gfi1 as a specific transcriptional repressor of the Il7r gene in CD8 T lymphocytes in vivo.