O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation of Sp1 inhibits the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter.
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression and replication are regulated by the promoter/enhancer located in the U3 region of the proviral 5' long terminal repeat (LTR). The binding of cellular transcription factors to specific regulatory sites in the 5' LTR is a key event in the replication cycle of HIV-1. Since transcriptional activity is regulated by the posttranslational modification of transcription factors with the monosaccharide O-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc), we evaluated whether increased O-GlcNAcylation affects HIV-1 transcription. In the present study we demonstrate that treatment of HIV-1-infected lymphocytes with the O-GlcNAcylation-enhancing agent glucosamine (GlcN) repressed viral transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the sole known enzyme catalyzing the addition of O-GlcNAc to proteins, specifically inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 LTR promoter in different T-cell lines and in primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Inhibition of HIV-1 LTR activity in infected T cells was most efficient (>95%) when OGT was recombinantly overexpressed prior to infection. O-GlcNAcylation of the transcription factor Sp1 and the presence of Sp1-binding sites in the LTR were found to be crucial for this inhibitory effect. From this study, we conclude that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 inhibits the activity of the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Modulation of Sp1 O-GlcNAcylation may play a role in the regulation of HIV-1 latency and activation and links viral replication to the glucose metabolism of the host cell. Hence, the establishment of a metabolic treatment might supplement the repertoire of antiretroviral therapies against AIDS.
Project description:The viral Tax oncoprotein plays a key role in both Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-replication and HTLV-1-associated pathologies, notably adult T-cell leukemia. Tax governs the transcription from the viral 5'LTR, enhancing thereby its own expression, via the recruitment of dimers of phosphorylated CREB to cAMP-response elements located within the U3 region (vCRE). In addition to phosphorylation, CREB is also the target of O-GlcNAcylation, another reversible post-translational modification involved in a wide range of diseases, including cancers. O-GlcNAcylation consists in the addition of O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on Serine or Threonine residues, a process controlled by two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which transfers O-GlcNAc on proteins, and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which removes it. In this study, we investigated the status of O-GlcNAcylation enzymes in HTLV-1-transformed T cells. We found that OGA mRNA and protein expression levels are increased in HTLV-1-transformed T cells as compared to control T cell lines while OGT expression is unchanged. However, higher OGA production coincides with a reduction in OGA specific activity, showing that HTLV-1-transformed T cells produce high level of a less active form of OGA. Introducing Tax into HEK-293T cells or Tax-negative HTLV-1-transformed TL-om1 T cells is sufficient to inhibit OGA activity and increase total O-GlcNAcylation, without any change in OGT activity. Furthermore, Tax interacts with the OGT/OGA complex and inhibits the activity of OGT-bound OGA. Pharmacological inhibition of OGA increases CREB O-GlcNAcylation as well as HTLV-1-LTR transactivation by Tax and CREB recruitment to the LTR. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type CREB but not a CREB protein mutated on a previously described O-GlcNAcylation site enhances Tax-mediated LTR transactivation. Finally, both OGT and OGA are recruited to the LTR. These findings reveal the interplay between Tax and the O-GlcNAcylation pathway and identify new key molecular actors involved in the assembly of the Tax-dependent transactivation complex.
Project description:Background and Aims: Increased O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)-induced O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) post-translational modification is linked with diabetic complications. MicroRNA-146a-5p (miR-146a-5p) is a negative inflammatory regulator and is downregulated in diabetes. Here, we investigated the interaction between miR-146a-5p and OGT. Methods: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were stimulated with high glucose (25 mM) and glucosamine (25 mM) for 24 h. Western blot, real time PCR, bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assay, miR-146a-5p mimic/inhibitor transfection, siRNA OGT transfection, miR-200a/200b mimic transfection, and OGT pharmacological inhibition (ST045849) were performed. The aorta from miR-146a-5p mimic-treated db/db mice were examined by immunohistochemistry staining. Results: HG and glucosamine upregulated OGT mRNA and protein expression, protein O-GlcNAcylation, and IL-6 mRNA and protein expression. Real time PCR analysis found that miR-146a-5p was decreased in HG- and glucosamine-stimulated HAECs. This suggested that OGT-induced protein O-GlcNAcylation as a mechanism to downregulate miR-146a-5p. Bioinformatic miR target analysis excluded miR-146a-5p as a post-transcriptional regulator of OGT. However, a luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-146a-5p mimic bound to 3'-UTR of human OGT mRNA, indicating that OGT is a non-canonical target of miR-146a-5p. Transfection with miR-146a-5p mimic and inhibitor confirmed that miR-146a-5p regulated OGT/protein O-GlcNAcylation/IL-6 expression levels. Furthermore, OGT siRNA transfection, miR-200a/miR-200b mimic transfection, and ST045849 increased HG-induced miR-146a-5p expression levels, indicating that HG-induced miR-146a-5p downregulation is partially mediated through OGT-mediated protein O-GlcNAcylation. In vivo, intravenous injections of miR-146a mimic decreased endothelial OGT and IL6 expression in db/db mice. Conclusion: A non-canonical positive feedback interaction between miR-146a-5p and OGT is involved in a vicious cycle to aggravate HG-induced vascular complications.
Project description:Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is frequently associated with changes in protein composition and post-translational modifications (PTM) that exacerbate the disorder. O-linked-?-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a PTM occurring at serine/threonine residues that is derived from and closely associated with metabolic substrates. The enzymes O-GlcNActransferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) mediate the addition and removal, respectively, of the O-GlcNAc modification. The goal of this study was to characterize OGT/OGA and protein O-GlcNAcylation in the epileptic hippocampus and to determine and whether direct manipulation of these proteins and PTM's alter epileptiform activity. We observed reduced global and protein specific O-GlcNAcylation and OGT expression in the kainate rat model of TLE and in human TLE hippocampal tissue. Inhibiting OGA with Thiamet-G elevated protein O-GlcNAcylation, and decreased both seizure duration and epileptic spike events, suggesting that OGA may be a therapeutic target for seizure control. These findings suggest that loss of O-GlcNAc homeostasis in the kainate model and in human TLE can be reversed via targeting of O-GlcNAc related pathways.
Project description:Contractile dysfunction and increased deposition of O-linked ?-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in cardiac proteins are a hallmark of the diabetic heart. However, whether and how this posttranslational alteration contributes to lower cardiac function remains unclear. Using a refined ?-elimination/Michael addition with tandem mass tags (TMT)-labeling proteomic technique, we show that CpOGA, a bacterial analog of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that cleaves O-GlcNAc in vivo, removes site-specific O-GlcNAcylation from myofilaments, restoring Ca(2+) sensitivity in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic cardiac muscles. We report that in control rat hearts, O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) are mainly localized at the Z-line, whereas OGA is at the A-band. Conversely, in diabetic hearts O-GlcNAc levels are increased and OGT and OGA delocalized. Consistent changes were found in human diabetic hearts. STZ diabetic hearts display increased physical interactions of OGA with ?-actin, tropomyosin, and myosin light chain 1, along with reduced OGT and increased OGA activities. Our study is the first to reveal that specific removal of O-GlcNAcylation restores myofilament response to Ca(2+) in diabetic hearts and that altered O-GlcNAcylation is due to the subcellular redistribution of OGT and OGA rather than to changes in their overall activities. Thus, preventing sarcomeric OGT and OGA displacement represents a new possible strategy for treating diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Oxygen signaling is critical for stem cell regulation, and oxidative stress-induced stem cell apoptosis decreases the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Hypoxia activates O-linked ?-N-acetyl glucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) of stem cells, which contributes to regulation of cellular metabolism, as well as cell fate. Our study investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation via glucosamine in the protection of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Hypoxia increased mESCs apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, hypoxia also slightly increased the O-GlcNAc level. Glucosamine treatment further enhanced the O-GlcNAc level and prevented hypoxia-induced mESC apoptosis, which was suppressed by O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitors. In addition, hypoxia regulated several lipid metabolic enzymes, whereas glucosamine increased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1), a lipid metabolic enzyme producing lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In addition, glucosamine-increased O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1, which subsequently leads to Sp1 nuclear translocation and GPAT1 expression. Silencing of GPAT1 by gpat1 siRNA transfection reduced glucosamine-mediated anti-apoptosis in mESCs and reduced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation. Indeed, LPA prevented mESCs from undergoing hypoxia-induced apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its substrates (S6K1 and 4EBP1). Moreover, mTOR inactivation by rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) increased pro-apoptotic proteins expressions and mESC apoptosis. Furthermore, transplantation of non-targeting siRNA and glucosamine-treated mESCs increased cell survival and inhibited flap necrosis in mouse skin flap model. Conversely, silencing of GPAT1 expression reversed those glucosamine effects. In conclusion, enhancing O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 by glucosamine stimulates GPAT1 expression, which leads to inhibition of hypoxia-induced mESC apoptosis via mTOR activation.
Project description:O-linked ?-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) regulates protein O-GlcNAcylation, an essential post-translational modification that is abundant in the brain. Recently, OGT mutations have been associated with intellectual disability, although it is not understood how they affect OGT structure and function. Using a multi-disciplinary approach we show that the L254F OGT mutation leads to conformational changes of the tetratricopeptide repeats and reduced activity, revealing the molecular mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previously, we demonstrated that glucosamine (GlcN) exerts a suppressive effect on LPS-induced inducible NOS (iNOS) through the inhibition of NF-?B activation in BV2 mouse microglial cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanisms by which GlcN inhibits NF-?B activation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: BV2 cells were stimulated with LPS with or without GlcN. NF-?B/c-Rel activities were studied by EMSA, nuclear translocation, reporter assay or chromatin immunoprecipitation. Wheat germ agglutinin precipitation or galactosyltransferase assay were used to measure O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of c-Rel. Protein-protein interactions were examined by co-immunoprecipitation. KEY RESULTS: LPS stimulated the activation of c-Rel, increased the O-GlcNAcylation of c-Rel and enhanced the binding of c-Rel to the NF-?B site in the iNOS promoter; GlcN attenuated these effects of LPS. O-GlcNAcylation of both nuclear and cytosolic forms of c-Rel was increased by LPS and reduced by GlcN. LPS increased the interaction of c-Rel with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and p50/p105, and GlcN suppressed these interactions. Knockdown of OGT reduced the c-Rel O-GlcNAcylation and c-Rel-p50 interaction in response to LPS, but did not affect either the binding of c-Rel to the iNOS promoter or the transcriptional activity of c-Rel. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In BV2 microglial cells, the anti-inflammatory effect of GlcN is mediated by prevention of the prolonged activation of transcription factors, c-Rel and NF-?B. Further clarification of the mechanism by which GlcN exerts this effect will facilitate the development of pharmacological strategies for preventing excessive NO formation when targeting inflammatory diseases of the periphery or CNS.
Project description:The potential role of the posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetyl-?-d-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been studied extensively, yet the exact function of O-GlcNAc in AD remains elusive. O-GlcNAc cycling is facilitated by only two highly conserved enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition, while O-GlcNAcase (OGA) catalyzes the removal of GlcNAc from proteins. Studies analyzing global O-GlcNAc levels in AD brain have produced inconsistent results and the reasons for altered O-GlcNAcylation in AD are still poorly understood. In this study, we show a 1.2-fold increase in cytosolic protein O-GlcNAc modification in AD brain when compared to age-matched controls. Interestingly, O-GlcNAc changes seem to be attributable to differential modification of a few individual proteins. While our finding of augmented O-GlcNAcylation concurs with some reports, it is contrary to others demonstrating decreased O-GlcNAc levels in AD brain. These conflicting results emphasize the need for further studies providing conclusive evidence on the subject of O-GlcNAcylation in AD. We further demonstrate that, while OGT protein levels are unaffected in AD, OGA protein levels are significantly decreased to 75% of those in control samples. In addition, augmented protein O-GlcNAc modification correlates to decreased OGA protein levels in AD subjects. While OGA inhibitors are already being tested for AD treatment, our results provide a strong indication that the general subject of O-GlcNAcylation and specifically its regulation by OGA and OGT in AD need further investigation to conclusively elucidate its potential role in AD pathogenesis and treatment.
Project description:Ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes, including TET1, TET2 and TET3, convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and regulate gene transcription. However, the molecular mechanism by which TET family enzymes regulate gene transcription remains elusive. Using protein affinity purification, here we search for functional partners of TET proteins, and find that TET2 and TET3 associate with O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), an enzyme that by itself catalyses the addition of O-GlcNAc onto serine and threonine residues (O-GlcNAcylation) in vivo. TET2 directly interacts with OGT, which is important for the chromatin association of OGT in vivo. Although this specific interaction does not regulate the enzymatic activity of TET2, it facilitates OGT-dependent histone O-GlcNAcylation. Moreover, OGT associates with TET2 at transcription start sites. Downregulation of TET2 reduces the amount of histone 2B Ser?112 GlcNAc marks in vivo, which are associated with gene transcription regulation. Taken together, these results reveal a TET2-dependent O-GlcNAcylation of chromatin. The double epigenetic modifications on both DNA and histones by TET2 and OGT coordinate together for the regulation of gene transcription.
Project description:O-GlcNAcylation (addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine on serine or threonine residues) is a post-translational modification that regulates stability, activity or localization of cytosolic and nuclear proteins. O-linked N-acetylgluocosmaine transferase (OGT) uses UDP-GlcNAc, produced in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway to O-GlcNacylate proteins. Removal of O-GlcNAc from proteins is catalyzed by the ?-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (OGA). Recent evidences suggest that O-GlcNAcylation may affect the growth of cancer cells. However, the consequences of O-GlcNAcylation on anti-cancer therapy have not been evaluated. In this work, we studied the effects of O-GlcNAcylation on tamoxifen-induced cell death in the breast cancer-derived MCF-7 cells. Treatments that increase O-GlcNAcylation (PUGNAc and/or glucosoamine) protected MCF-7 cells from death induced by tamoxifen. In contrast, inhibition of OGT expression by siRNA potentiated the effect of tamoxifen on cell death. Since the PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway is a major regulator of cell survival, we used BRET to evaluate the effect of PUGNAc+glucosamine on PIP3 production. We observed that these treatments stimulated PIP3 production in MCF-7 cells. This effect was associated with an increase in Akt phosphorylation. However, the PI-3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, which abolished the effect of PUGNAc+glucosamine on Akt phosphorylation, did not impair the protective effects of PUGNAc+glucosamine against tamoxifen-induced cell death. These results suggest that the protective effects of O-GlcNAcylation are independent of the PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway. As tamoxifen sensitivity depends on the estrogen receptor (ER?) expression level, we evaluated the effect of PUGNAc+glucosamine on the expression of this receptor. We observed that O-GlcNAcylation-inducing treatment significantly reduced the expression of ER? mRNA and protein, suggesting a potential mechanism for the decreased tamoxifen sensitivity induced by these treatments. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation may constitute an interesting approach to improve the sensitivity of breast cancer to anti-estrogen therapy.