Structural analysis of an open active site conformation of nonheme iron halogenase CytC3.
ABSTRACT: CytC3, a member of the recently discovered class of nonheme Fe(II) and alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG)-dependent halogenases, catalyzes the double chlorination of L-2-aminobutyric acid (Aba) to produce a known Streptomyces antibiotic, gamma,gamma-dichloroaminobutyrate. Unlike the majority of the Fe(II)-alphaKG-dependent enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation reactions, halogenases catalyze a transfer of halides. To examine the important enzymatic features that discriminate between chlorination and hydroxylation, the crystal structures of CytC3 both with and without alphaKG/Fe(II) have been solved to 2.2 A resolution. These structures capture CytC3 in an open active site conformation, in which no chloride is bound to iron. Comparison of the open conformation of CytC3 with the closed conformation of another nonheme iron halogenase, SyrB2, suggests two important criteria for creating an enzyme-bound Fe-Cl catalyst: (1) the presence of a hydrogen-bonding network between the chloride and surrounding residues, and (2) the presence of a hydrophobic pocket in which the chloride resides.
Project description:We present here a computational study of reactions at a model complex of the SyrB2 enzyme active site. SyrB2, which chlorinates L-threonine in the syringomycin biosynthetic pathway, belongs to a recently discovered class of alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG), non-heme Fe(II)-dependent halogenases that share many structural and chemical similarities with hydroxylases. Namely, halogenases and hydroxylases alike decarboxylate the alphaKG co-substrate, facilitating formation of a high-energy ferryl-oxo intermediate that abstracts a hydrogen from the reactant complex. The reaction mechanisms differ at this point, and mutation of active site residues (Asp for the hydroxylase to Ala or Ala to Asp/Glu for halogenase) fails to reproduce hydroxylating activity in SyrB2 or halogenating activity in similar hydroxylases. Using a density functional theory approach with a recently implemented Hubbard U correction for accurate treatment of transition-metal chemistry, we explore probable reaction pathways and mechanisms via a model complex consisting of only the iron center and its direct ligands. We show that the first step, alphaKG decarboxylation, is barrierless and exothermic, but the subsequent hydrogen abstraction step has an energetic barrier consistent with that accessible under biological conditions. In the model complex we use, radical chlorination is barrierless and exothermic, whereas the analogous hydroxylation is found to have a small energetic barrier. The hydrogen abstraction and radical chlorination steps are strongly coupled: the barrier for the hydrogen abstraction step is reduced when carried out concomitantly with the exothermic chlorination step. Our work suggests that the lack of chlorination in mutant hydroxylases is most likely due to poor binding of chlorine in the active site, whereas mutant halogenases do not hydroxylate for energetic reasons. Although secondary shell residues undoubtedly modulate the overall reactivity and binding of relevant substrates, we show that a small model compound consisting exclusively of the direct ligands to the metal can help explain reactivity heretofore not yet understood in the halogenase SyrB2.
Project description:The alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylases and halogenases employ similar reaction mechanisms involving hydrogen-abstracting Fe(IV)-oxo (ferryl) intermediates. In the halogenases, the carboxylate residue from the His(2)(Asp/Glu)(1) "facial triad" of iron ligands found in the hydroxylases is replaced by alanine, and a halide ion (X(-)) coordinates at the vacated site. Halogenation is thought to result from "rebound" of the halogen radical from the X-Fe(III)-OH intermediate produced by hydrogen (H(*)) abstraction to the substrate radical. The alternative decay pathway for the X-Fe(III)-OH intermediate, rebound of the hydroxyl radical to the substrate radical (as occurs in the hydroxylases), reportedly does not compete. Here we show for the halogenase SyrB2 that positioning of the alkyl group of the substrate away from the oxo/hydroxo ligand and closer to the halogen ligand sacrifices H(*)-abstraction proficiency for halogen-rebound selectivity. Upon replacement of L-Thr, the C4 amino acid tethered to the SyrB1 carrier protein in the native substrate, by the C5 amino acid L-norvaline, decay of the chloroferryl intermediate becomes 130x faster and the reaction outcome switches to primarily hydroxylation of C5, consistent with projection of the methyl group closer to the oxo/hydroxo by the longer side chain. Competing H(*) abstraction from C4 results primarily in chlorination, as occurs at this site in the native substrate. Consequently, deuteration of C5, which slows attack at this site, switches both the regioselectivity from C5 to C4 and the chemoselectivity from hydroxylation to chlorination. Thus, substrate-intermediate disposition and the carboxylate --> halide ligand swap combine to specify the halogenation outcome.
Project description:The ability of an FeIV?O intermediate in SyrB2 to perform chlorination versus hydroxylation was computationally evaluated for different substrates that had been studied experimentally. The ?-trajectory for H atom abstraction (FeIV?O oriented perpendicular to the C-H bond of substrate) was found to lead to the S = 2 five-coordinate HO-FeIII-Cl complex with the C• of the substrate, ?-oriented relative to both the Cl- and the OH- ligands. From this ferric intermediate, hydroxylation is thermodynamically favored, but chlorination is intrinsically more reactive due to the energy splitting between two key redox-active d?* frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). The splitting is determined by the differential ligand field effect of Cl- versus OH- on the Fe center. This makes chlorination effectively competitive with hydroxylation. Chlorination versus hydroxylation selectivity is then determined by the orientation of the substrate with respect to the HO-Fe-Cl plane that controls either the Cl- or the OH- to rebound depending on the relative ?-overlap with the substrate C radical. The differential contribution of the two FMOs to chlorination versus hydroxylation selectivity in SyrB2 is related to a reaction mechanism that involves two asynchronous transfers: electron transfer from the substrate radical to the iron center followed by late ligand (Cl- or OH-) transfer to the substrate.
Project description:The CurA halogenase (Hal) catalyzes a cryptic chlorination leading to cyclopropane ring formation in the synthesis of the natural product curacin A. Hal belongs to a family of enzymes that use Fe(2+), O(2) and alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) to perform a variety of halogenation reactions in natural product biosynthesis. Crystal structures of the enzyme in five ligand states reveal strikingly different open and closed conformations dependent on alphaKG binding. The open form represents ligand-free enzyme, preventing substrate from entering the active site until both alphaKG and chloride are bound, while the closed form represents the holoenzyme with alphaKG and chloride coordinated to iron. Candidate amino acid residues involved in substrate recognition were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. These new structures provide direct evidence of a conformational switch driven by alphaKG leading to chlorination of an early pathway intermediate.
Project description:Aliphatic halogenases activate O(2), cleave alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) to CO(2) and succinate, and form haloferryl [X-Fe(IV)O; X = Cl or Br] complexes that cleave aliphatic C-H bonds to install halogens during the biosynthesis of natural products by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). For the related alphaKG-dependent dioxygenases, it has been shown that reaction of the Fe(II) cofactor with O(2) to form the C-H bond-cleaving ferryl complex is "triggered" by binding of the target substrate. In this study, we have tested for and defined structural determinants of substrate triggering (ST) in the halogenase, SyrB2, from the syringomycin E biosynthetic NRPS of Pseudomonas syringae B301D. As for other halogenases, the substrate of SyrB2 is complex, consisting of l-Thr tethered via a thioester linkage to a covalently bound phosphopantetheine (PPant) cofactor of a carrier protein, SyrB1. Without an appended amino acid, SyrB1 does not trigger formation of the chloroferryl intermediate state in SyrB2, even in the presence of free l-Thr or its analogues, but SyrB1 charged either by l-Thr (l-Thr-S-SyrB1) or by any of several non-native amino acids does trigger the reaction by as much as 8000-fold (for the native substrate). Triggering efficacy is sensitive to the structures of both the amino acid and the carrier protein, being diminished by 5-24-fold when the native l-Thr is replaced with another amino acid and by approximately 40-fold when SyrB1 is replaced with the heterologous carrier protein, CytC2. The directing effect of the carrier protein and consequent tolerance for profound modifications to the target amino acid allow the chloroferryl state to be formed in the presence of substrates that perturb the ratio of its two putative coordination isomers, lack the target C-H bond (l-Ala-S-SyrB1), or contain a C-H bond of enhanced strength (l-cyclopropylglycyl-S-SyrB1). For the latter two cases, the SyrB2 chloroferryl state so formed exhibits unprecedented stability (t(1/2) = 30-110 min at 0 degree C), can be trapped at high concentration and purity by manual freezing without a cryosolvent, and represents an ideal target for structural characterization. As initial steps toward this goal, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to determine the Fe-O and Fe-Cl distances and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to confirm that the measured distances are consistent with the anticipated structure of the intermediate.
Project description:?-Ketoglutarate (?KG) dependent oxygenases comprise a large superfamily of enzymes that activate O2 for varied reactions. While most of these enzymes contain a nonheme Fe bound by a His2(Asp/Glu) facial triad, a small number of ?KG-dependent halogenases require only the two His ligands to bind Fe and activate O2. The enzyme "factor inhibiting HIF" (FIH) contains a His2Asp facial triad and selectively hydroxylates polypeptides; however, removal of the Asp ligand in the Asp201?Gly variant leads to a highly active enzyme, seemingly without a complete facial triad. Herein, we report on the formation of an Fe-Cl cofactor structure for the Asp201?Gly FIH variant using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which provides insight into the structure of the His2Cl facial triad found in halogenases. The Asp201?Gly variant supports anion dependent peptide hydroxylation, demonstrating the requirement for a complete His2X facial triad to support O2 reactivity. Our results indicated that exogenous ligand binding to form a complete His2X facial triad was essential for O2 activation and provides a structural model for the His2Cl-bound nonheme Fe found in halogenases.
Project description:Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4H) catalyze the post-translational hydroxylation of proline residues and play a role in collagen production, hypoxia response, and cell wall development. P4Hs belong to the group of Fe(II)/alphaKG oxygenases and require Fe(II), alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG), and O(2) for activity. We report the 1.40 A structure of a P4H from Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, whose immunodominant exosporium protein BclA contains collagen-like repeat sequences. The structure reveals the double-stranded beta-helix core fold characteristic of Fe(II)/alphaKG oxygenases. This fold positions Fe-binding and alphaKG-binding residues in what is expected to be catalytically competent orientations and is consistent with proline peptide substrate binding at the active site mouth. Comparisons of the anthrax P4H structure with Cr P4H-1 structures reveal similarities in a peptide surface groove. However, sequence and structural comparisons suggest differences in conformation of adjacent loops may change the interaction with peptide substrates. These differences may be the basis of a substantial disparity between the K(M) values for the Cr P4H-1 compared to the anthrax and human P4H enzymes. Additionally, while previous structures of P4H enzymes are monomers, B. anthracis P4H forms an alpha(2) homodimer and suggests residues important for interactions between the alpha(2) subunits of alpha(2)beta(2) human collagen P4H. Thus, the anthrax P4H structure provides insight into the structure and function of the alpha-subunit of human P4H, which may aid in the development of selective inhibitors of the human P4H enzyme involved in fibrotic disease.
Project description:Hypoxia sensing is the generic term for pO2-sensing in humans and other higher organisms. These cellular responses to pO2 are largely controlled by enzymes that belong to the Fe(II) alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) dependent dioxygenase superfamily, including the human enzyme called the factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1), which couples O2-activation to the hydroxylation of the hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIFalpha). Uncoupled O2-activation by human FIH-1 was studied by exposing the resting form of FIH-1 (alphaKG + Fe)FIH-1, to air in the absence of HIFalpha. Uncoupling lead to two distinct enzyme oxidations, one a purple chromophore (lambda(max) = 583 nm) arising from enzyme auto-hydroxylation of Trp296, forming an Fe(III)-O-Trp296 chromophore [Y.-H. Chen, L.M. Comeaux, S.J. Eyles, M.J. Knapp, Chem. Commun. (2008), doi:10.1039/B809099H]; the other a yellow chromophore due to Fe(III) in the active site, which under some conditions also contained variable levels of an oxygenated surface residue (oxo)Met275. The kinetics of purple FIH-1 formation were independent of Fe(II) and alphaKG concentrations, however, product yield was saturable with increasing [alphaKG] and required excess Fe(II). Yellow FIH-1 was formed from (succinate+Fe)FIH-1, or by glycerol addition to (alphaKG+Fe)FIH-1, suggesting that glycerol could intercept the active oxidant from the FIH-1 active site and prevent hydroxylation. Both purple and yellow FIH-1 contained high-spin, rhombic Fe(III) centers, as shown by low temperature EPR. XAS indicated distorted octahedral Fe(III) geometries, with subtle differences in inner-shell ligands for yellow and purple FIH-1. EPR of Co(II)-substituted FIH-1 (alphaKG + Co)FIH-1, indicated a mixture of 5-coordinate and 6-coordinate enzyme forms, suggesting that resting FIH-1 can readily undergo uncoupled O2-activation by loss of an H2O ligand from the metal center.
Project description:We employ error-corrected density functional theory methods to map out the dependence of reactivity on substrate position for SyrB2, a member of a family of non-heme iron halogenases and hydroxylases that are only reactive toward amino acid substrates delivered via prosthetic phosphopantetheine arms. For the initial hydrogen abstraction step, the inherent flexibility of the phosphopantetheine molecule weakens the position dependence for both the native substrate (threonine for SyrB2) and alternative substrates. Over a 5 ? window of substrate positions, the tethered hydrogen abstraction step proceeds with nearly identical activation energies and donor-acceptor distances in the transition state. The propensity of a particular substrate toward halogenation or hydroxylation is found to depend strongly on the substrate placement following hydrogen abstraction, with deeper substrate delivery into the active (for native substrates) site favoring halogenation and shallower substrate delivery favoring hydroxylation.
Project description:Mononuclear nonheme Fe(II) (MNH) and ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) dependent halogenases activate O2 to perform oxidative halogenations of activated and nonactivated carbon centers. While the mechanism of halide incorporation into a substrate has been investigated, the mechanism by which halogenases prevent oxidations in the absence of chloride is still obscure. Here, we characterize the impact of chloride on the metal center coordination and reactivity of the fatty acyl-halogenase HctB. Stopped-flow kinetic studies show that the oxidative transformation of the Fe(II)-?-KG-enzyme complex is >200-fold accelerated by saturating concentrations of chloride in both the absence and presence of a covalently bound substrate. By contrast, the presence of substrate, which generally brings about O2 activation at enzymatic MNH centers, only has an ?10-fold effect in the absence of chloride. Circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic CD (MCD) studies demonstrate that chloride binding triggers changes in the metal center ligation: chloride binding induces the proper binding of the substrate as shown by variable-temperature, variable-field (VTVH) MCD studies of non-?-KG-containing forms and the conversion from six-coordinate (6C) to 5C/6C mixtures when ?-KG is bound. In the presence of substrate, a site with square pyramidal five-coordinate (5C) geometry is observed, which is required for O2 activation at enzymatic MNH centers. In the absence of substrate an unusual trigonal bipyramidal site is formed, which accounts for the observed slow, uncoupled reactivity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the binding of chloride to the metal center of HctB leads to a conformational change in the enzyme that makes the active site more accessible to the substrate and thus facilitates the formation of the catalytically competent enzyme-substrate complex. Results are discussed in relation to other MNH dependent halogenases.