AID can restrict L1 retrotransposition suggesting a dual role in innate and adaptive immunity.
ABSTRACT: Retrotransposons make up over 40% of the mammalian genome. Some copies are still capable of mobilizing and new insertions promote genetic variation. Several members of the APOBEC3 family of DNA cytosine deaminases function to limit the replication of a variety of retroelements, such as the long-terminal repeat (LTR)-containing MusD and Ty1 elements, and that of the non-LTR retrotransposons, L1 and Alu. However, the APOBEC3 genes are limited to mammalian lineages, whereas retrotransposons are far more widespread. This raises the question of what cellular factors control retroelement transposition in species that lack APOBEC3 genes. A strong phylogenetic case can be made that an ancestral activation-induced deaminase (AID)-like gene duplicated and diverged to root the APOBEC3 lineage in mammals. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that present-day AID proteins possess anti-retroelement activity. We found that AID can inhibit the retrotransposition of L1 through a DNA deamination-independent mechanism. This mechanism may manifest in the cytoplasmic compartment co- or posttranslationally. Together with evidence for AID expression in the ovary, our data combined to suggest that AID has innate immune functions in addition to its integral roles in creating antibody diversity.
Project description:The ability of mammalian cytidine deaminases encoded by the APOBEC3 (A3) genes to restrict a broad number of endogenous retroelements and exogenous retroviruses, including murine leukemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, is now well established. The RNA editing family member apolipoprotein B (apo B)-editing catalytic subunit 1 (APOBEC1; A1) from a variety of mammalian species, a protein involved in lipid transport and which mediates C-U deamination of mRNA for apo B, has also been shown to modify a range of exogenous retroviruses, but its activity against endogenous retroelements remains unclear. Here, we show in cell culture-based retrotransposition assays that A1 family proteins from multiple mammalian species can also reduce the mobility and infectivity potential of LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide sequence-1, L1) and long-terminal repeats (LTRs) retrotransposons (or endogenous retroviruses), such as murine intracisternal A-particle (IAP) and MusD sequences. The anti-L1 activity of A1 was mainly mediated by a deamination-independent mechanism, and was not affected by subcellular localization of the proteins. In contrast, the inhibition of LTR-retrotransposons appeared to require the deaminase activity of A1 proteins. Thus, the AID/APOBEC family proteins including A1s employ multiple mechanisms to regulate the mobility of autonomous retrotransposons in several mammalian species.
Project description:Retrotransposons constitute a major part of the genome in a number of eukaryotes. Long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are one type of the retrotransposons. Candida albicans have 34 distinct LTR-retrotransposon families. They respectively belong to the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups which have been extensively studied in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LTR-retrotransposons carry two LTRs flanking a long internal protein-coding domain, open reading frames. LTR-retrotransposons use RNA as intermediate to synthesize double-stranded DNA copies. In this article, we describe the structure feature, retrotransposition mechanism and the influence on organism diversity of LTR retrotransposons in C. albicans. We also discuss the relationship between pathogenicity and LTR retrotransposons in C. albicans.
Project description:LTR-retrotransposons are abundant components of all eukaryotic genomes and appear to be key players in their evolution. They share with retroviruses a reverse transcription step during their replication cycle. To better understand the replication of retrotransposons as well as their similarities to and differences from retroviruses, we set up an in vitro model system to examine minus-strand cDNA synthesis of the yeast Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon. Results show that the 5' and 3' ends of Ty1 genomic RNA interact through 14 nucleotide 5'-3' complementary sequences (CYC sequences). This 5'-3' base pairing results in an efficient initiation of reverse transcription in vitro. Transposition of a marked Ty1 element and Ty1 cDNA synthesis in yeast rely on the ability of the CYC sequences to base pair. This 5'-3' interaction is also supported by phylogenic analysis of all full-length Ty1 and Ty2 elements present in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. These novel findings lead us to propose that circularization of the Ty1 genomic RNA controls initiation of reverse transcription and may limit reverse transcription of defective retroelements.
Project description:APOBEC3s (A3s) are single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases that provide innate immune defences against retroviruses and mobile elements. A3s are specific to eutherian mammals because no direct homologs exist at the syntenic genomic locus in metatherian (marsupial) or prototherian (monotreme) mammals. However, the A3s in these species have the likely evolutionary precursors, the antibody gene deaminase AID and the RNA/DNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 (A1). Here, we used cell culture-based assays to determine whether opossum A1 restricts the infectivity of retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the mobility of LTR/non-LTR retrotransposons. Opossum A1 partially inhibited HIV-1, as well as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), murine leukemia virus (MLV), and the retrotransposon MusD. The mechanism of inhibition required catalytic activity, except for human LINE1 (L1) restriction, which was deamination-independent. These results indicate that opossum A1 functions as an innate barrier to infection by retroviruses such as HIV-1, and controls LTR/non-LTR retrotransposition in marsupials.
Project description:The ETn (Early Transposon) elements are among the most active murine mobile sequences, being responsible for a series of mutations by insertion in vivo. Yet they are noncoding, and it had long been suspected that ETn are mobilized in trans by coding-competent elements, most probably from the closely related MusD family of LTR-retrotransposons. A genome-wide in silico search for coding-competent MusD elements identified a total of nine such copies, which we cloned and marked to test their transpositional activity, using an ex vivo assay in heterologous cells. Three copies were found to be autonomous for transposition, with each gag, pro, and pol MusD gene absolutely required for mobility. These active MusD copies specifically trigger retrotransposition of marked ETn elements with high efficiency, by complementation in trans. Characterization of the structures of de novo transposed MusD and ETn marked elements, as well as of their integration sites, disclosed canonical retroviral-like retrotransposition, with 6-bp target site duplications common to both elements. These results highlight the parasitic molecular strategies that are used by the ETn elements for their mobility, and unambiguously identify their "master genes."
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sequencing projects have allowed diverse retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons from different eukaryotic organisms to be characterized. It is known that retroviruses and other retro-transcribing viruses evolve from LTR retrotransposons and that this whole system clusters into five families: Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia, Bel/Pao and Caulimoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses usually show that these split into multiple distinct lineages but what is yet to be understood is how deep evolution occurred in this system. RESULTS: We combined phylogenetic and graph analyses to investigate the history of LTR retroelements both as a tree and as a network. We used 268 non-redundant LTR retroelements, many of them introduced for the first time in this work, to elucidate all possible LTR retroelement phylogenetic patterns. These were superimposed over the tree of eukaryotes to investigate the dynamics of the system, at distinct evolutionary times. Next, we investigated phenotypic features such as duplication and variability of amino acid motifs, and several differences in genomic ORF organization. Using this information we characterized eight reticulate evolution markers to construct phenotypic network models. CONCLUSION: The evolutionary history of LTR retroelements can be traced as a time-evolving network that depends on phylogenetic patterns, epigenetic host-factors and phenotypic plasticity. The Ty1/Copia and the Ty3/Gypsy families represent the oldest patterns in this network that we found mimics eukaryotic macroevolution. The emergence of the Bel/Pao, Retroviridae and Caulimoviridae families in this network can be related with distinct inflations of the Ty3/Gypsy family, at distinct evolutionary times. This suggests that Ty3/Gypsy ancestors diversified much more than their Ty1/Copia counterparts, at distinct geological eras. Consistent with the principle of preferential attachment, the connectivities among phenotypic markers, taken as network-represented combinations, are power-law distributed. This evidences an inflationary mode of evolution where the system diversity; 1) expands continuously alternating vertical and gradual processes of phylogenetic divergence with episodes of modular, saltatory and reticulate evolution; 2) is governed by the intrinsic capability of distinct LTR retroelement host-communities to self-organize their phenotypes according to emergent laws characteristic of complex systems. REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by Eugene V. Koonin, Eric Bapteste, and Enmanuelle Lerat (nominated by King Jordan).
Project description:UNLABELLED:Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus lack the conserved RNA interference pathway and utilize a novel form of copy number control (CNC) to inhibit Ty1 retrotransposition. Although noncoding transcripts have been implicated in CNC, here we present evidence that a truncated form of the Gag capsid protein (p22) or its processed form (p18) is necessary and sufficient for CNC and likely encoded by Ty1 internal transcripts. Coexpression of p22/p18 and Ty1 decreases mobility more than 30,000-fold. p22/p18 cofractionates with Ty1 virus-like particles (VLPs) and affects VLP yield, protein composition, and morphology. Although p22/p18 and Gag colocalize in the cytoplasm, p22/p18 disrupts sites used for VLP assembly. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) affinity pulldowns also suggest that p18 and Gag interact. Therefore, this intrinsic Gag-like restriction factor confers CNC by interfering with VLP assembly and function and expands the strategies used to limit retroelement propagation. IMPORTANCE:Retrotransposons dominate the chromosomal landscape in many eukaryotes, can cause mutations by insertion or genome rearrangement, and are evolutionarily related to retroviruses such as HIV. Thus, understanding factors that limit transposition and retroviral replication is fundamentally important. The present work describes a retrotransposon-encoded restriction protein derived from the capsid gene of the yeast Ty1 element that disrupts virus-like particle assembly in a dose-dependent manner. This form of copy number control acts as a molecular rheostat, allowing high levels of retrotransposition when few Ty1 elements are present and inhibiting transposition as copy number increases. Thus, yeast and Ty1 have coevolved a form of copy number control that is beneficial to both "host and parasite." To our knowledge, this is the first Gag-like retrotransposon restriction factor described in the literature and expands the ways in which restriction proteins modulate retroelement replication.
Project description:Mobile LTR-retroelements comprising retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons form a large part of eukaryotic genomes. Their mode of replication and abundance favour the notion that they are major actors in eukaryote evolution. The Gypsy retroelement can spread in the germ line of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster via both env-independent and env-dependent processes. Thus, Gypsy is both an active retrotransposon and an infectious retrovirus resembling the gammaretrovirus MuLV. However, unlike gammaretroviruses, the Gypsy Gag structural precursor is not processed into Matrix, Capsid and Nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. In contrast, it has features in common with Gag of the ancient yeast TY1 retroelement. These characteristics of Gypsy make it a very interesting model to study replication of a retroelement at the frontier between ancient retrotransposons and retroviruses. We investigated Gypsy replication using an in vitro model system and transfection of insect cells. Results show that an unstructured domain of Gypsy Gag has all the properties of a retroviral NC. This NC-like peptide forms ribonucleoparticle-like complexes upon binding Gypsy RNA and directs the annealing of primer tRNA(Lys,2) to two distinct primer binding sites (PBS) at the genome 5' and 3' ends. Only the 5' PBS is indispensable for cDNA synthesis in vitro and in Drosophila cells.
Project description:The Apobec3 family of cytidine deaminases can inhibit the replication of retroviruses and retrotransposons. Human and chimpanzee genomes encode seven Apobec3 paralogs; of these, Apobec3DE has the greatest sequence divergence between humans and chimpanzees. Here we show that even though human and chimpanzee Apobec3DEs are very divergent, the two orthologs similarly restrict long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposons (MusD and Alu, respectively). However, chimpanzee Apobec3DE also potently restricts two lentiviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that infects African green monkeys (SIVagmTAN), unlike human Apobec3DE, which has poor antiviral activity against these same viruses. This difference between human and chimpanzee Apobec3DE in the ability to restrict retroviruses is not due to different levels of Apobec3DE protein incorporation into virions but rather to the ability of Apobec3DE to deaminate the viral genome in target cells. We further show that Apobec3DE rapidly evolved in chimpanzee ancestors approximately 2 to 6 million years ago and that this evolution drove the increased breadth of chimpanzee Apobec3DE antiviral activity to its current high activity against some lentiviruses. Despite a difference in target specificities between human and chimpanzee Apobec3DE, Apobec3DE is likely to currently play a role in host defense against retroelements in both species.
Project description:The role of AID/APOBEC proteins in the mammalian immune response against retroviruses and retrotransposons is well established. G to A hypermutations, the hallmark of their cytidine deaminase activity, are present in several mammalian retrotransposons. However, the role of AID/APOBEC proteins in non-mammalian retroelement restriction is not completely understood.Here we provide the first evidence of anti-retroelement activity of a reptilian APOBEC protein. The green anole lizard A1 protein displayed potent DNA mutator activity and inhibited ex vivo retrotransposition of LINE1 and LINE2 ORF1 protein encoding elements, displaying a mechanism of action similar to that of the human A1 protein. In contrast, the human A3 proteins did not require ORF1 protein to inhibit LINE retrotransposition, suggesting a differential mechanism of anti-LINE action of A1 proteins, which emerged in amniotes, and A3 proteins, exclusive to placental mammals. In accordance, genomic analyses demonstrate differential G to A DNA editing of LINE retrotransposons in the lizard genome, which is also the first evidence for G to A DNA editing in non-mammalian genomes.Our data suggest that vertebrate APOBEC proteins differentially inhibit the retrotransposition of LINE elements and that the anti-retroelement activity of APOBEC proteins predates mammals.