Erythromycin resistance by L4/L22 mutations and resistance masking by drug efflux pump deficiency.
ABSTRACT: We characterized the effects of classical erythromycin resistance mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 of the large ribosomal subunit on the kinetics of erythromycin binding. Our data are consistent with a mechanism in which the macrolide erythromycin enters and exits the ribosome through the nascent peptide exit tunnel, and suggest that these mutations both impair passive transport through the tunnel and distort the erythromycin-binding site. The growth-inhibitory action of erythromycin was characterized for bacterial populations with wild-type and L22-mutated ribosomes in drug efflux pump deficient and proficient backgrounds. The L22 mutation conferred reduced erythromycin susceptibility in the drug efflux pump proficient, but not deficient, background. This 'masking' of drug resistance by pump deficiency was reproduced by modelling with input data from our biochemical experiments. We discuss the general principles behind the phenomenon of drug resistance 'masking', and highlight its potential importance for slowing down the evolution of drug resistance among pathogens.
Project description:Macrolide-resistant mutants of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were selected in vitro using erythromycin and tylosin. These mutants exhibited modifications in the ribosomal proteins L4 (G74D) and L22 (insertions at position 86 or 98). A synergy between the CmeABC efflux pump and these modifications in conferring macrolide resistance was observed.
Project description:Mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 confer resistance to erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics in a variety of bacteria. L4 and L22 have elongated loops whose tips converge in the peptide exit tunnel near the macrolide-binding site, and resistance mutations typically affect residues within these loops. Here, we used bacteriophage lambda Red-mediated recombination, or "recombineering," to uncover new L4 and L22 alleles that confer macrolide resistance in Escherichia coli. We randomized residues at the tips of the L4 and L22 loops using recombineered oligonucleotide libraries and selected the mutagenized cells for erythromycin-resistant mutants. These experiments led to the identification of 341 resistance mutations encoding 278 unique L4 and L22 proteins-the overwhelming majority of which are novel. Many resistance mutations were complex, involving multiple missense mutations, in-frame deletions, and insertions. Transfer of L4 and L22 mutations into wild-type cells by phage P1-mediated transduction demonstrated that each allele was sufficient to confer macrolide resistance. Although L4 and L22 mutants are typically resistant to most macrolides, selections carried out on different antibiotics revealed macrolide-specific resistance mutations. L22 Lys90Trp is one such allele that confers resistance to erythromycin but not to tylosin and spiramycin. Purified L22 Lys90Trp ribosomes show reduced erythromycin binding but have the same affinity for tylosin as wild-type ribosomes. Moreover, dimethyl sulfate methylation protection assays demonstrated that L22 Lys90Trp ribosomes bind tylosin more readily than erythromycin in vivo. This work underscores the exceptional functional plasticity of the L4 and L22 proteins and highlights the utility of Red-mediated recombination in targeted genetic selections.
Project description:Resistance to macrolides and ketolides occurs mainly via alterations in RNA moieties of the drug-binding site. Using an A2058G mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis, additional telithromycin resistance was acquired via deletion of 15 residues from protein L22. Molecular modeling, based on the crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Deinococcus radiodurans complexed with telithromycin, shows that the telithromycin carbamate group is located in the proximity of the tip of the L22 hairpin-loop, allowing for weak interactions between them. These weak interactions may become more important once the loss of A2058 interactions destabilizes drug binding, presumably resulting in a shift of the drug toward the other side of the tunnel, namely, to the vicinity of L22. Hence, the deletion of 15 residues from L22 may further destabilize telithromycin binding and confer telithromycin resistance. Such deletions may also lead to notable differences in the tunnel outline, as well as to an increase of its diameter to a size, allowing the progression of the nascent chain.
Project description:Recent experiments have shown that drug efflux pump deficiency not only increases the susceptibility of pathogens to antibiotics, but also seems to "mask" the effects of mutations, that decrease the affinities of drugs to their intracellular targets, on the growth rates of drug-exposed bacteria. That is, in the presence of drugs, the growth rates of drug-exposed WT and target mutated strains are the same in a drug efflux pump deficient background, but the mutants grow faster than WT in a drug efflux pump proficient background. Here, we explain the mechanism of target resistance masking and show that it occurs in response to drug efflux pump inhibition among pathogens with high-affinity drug binding targets, low cell-membrane drug-permeability and insignificant intracellular drug degradation. We demonstrate that target resistance masking is fundamentally linked to growth-bistability, i.e., the existence of 2 different steady state growth rates for one and the same drug concentration in the growth medium. We speculate that target resistance masking provides a hitherto unknown mechanism for slowing down the evolution of target resistance among pathogens.
Project description:L4 and L22, proteins of the large ribosomal subunit, contain globular surface domains and elongated 'tentacles' that reach into the core of the large subunit to form part of the lining of the peptide exit tunnel. Mutations in the tentacles of L4 and L22 confer macrolide resistance in a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. In Escherichia coli, a Lys-to-Glu mutation in L4 and a three-amino-acid deletion in the L22 had been reported. To learn more about the roles of the tentacles in ribosome assembly and function, we isolated additional erythromycin-resistant E. coli mutants. Eight new mutations mapped in L4, all within the tentacle. Two new mutations were identified in L22; one mapped outside the tentacle. Insertion mutations were found in both genes. All of the mutants grew slower than the parent, and they all showed reduced in vivo rates of peptide-chain elongation and increased levels of precursor 23S rRNA. Large insertions in L4 and L22 resulted in very slow growth and accumulation of abnormal ribosomal subunits. Our results highlight the important role of L4 and L22 in ribosome function and assembly, and indicate that a variety of changes in these proteins can mediate macrolide resistance.
Project description:Ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 both have a globular domain that sits on the surface of the large ribosomal subunit and an extended loop that penetrates its core. The tips of both loops contribute to the lining of the peptide exit tunnel and have been implicated in a gating mechanism that might regulate the exit of nascent peptides. Also, the extensions of L4 and L22 contact multiple domains of 23S rRNA, suggesting they might facilitate rRNA folding during ribosome assembly. To learn more about the roles of these extensions, we constructed derivatives of both proteins that lack most of their extended loops. Our analysis of ribosomes carrying L4 or L22 deletion proteins did not detect any significant difference in their sedimentation property or polysome distribution. Also, the role of L4 in autogenous control was not affected. We conclude that these extensions are not required for ribosome assembly or for L4-mediated autogenous control of the S10 operon.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae has been frequently associated with nosocomial infections. Efflux systems are ubiquitous transporters that also function in drug resistance. Genome analysis of K. pneumoniae strain NTUH-K2044 revealed the presence of ?15 putative drug efflux systems. We discuss here for the first time the characterization of a putative SMR-type efflux pump, an ebrAB homolog (denoted here as kpnEF) with respect to Klebsiella physiology and the multidrug-resistant phenotype. Analysis of hypermucoviscosity revealed direct involvement of kpnEF in capsule synthesis. The ?kpnEF mutant displayed higher sensitivity to hyperosmotic (?2.8-fold) and high bile (?4.0-fold) concentrations. Mutation in kpnEF resulted in increased susceptibility to cefepime, ceftriaxone, colistin, erythromycin, rifampin, tetracycline, and streptomycin; mutated strains changed from being resistant to being susceptible, and the resistance was restored upon complementation. The ?kpnEF mutant displayed enhanced sensitivity toward structurally related compounds such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, deoxycholate, and dyes, including clinically relevant disinfectants such as benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, and triclosan. The prevalence of kpnEF in clinical strains broadens the diversity of antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae. Experimental evidence of CpxR binding to the efflux pump promoter and quantification of its expression in a cpxAR mutant background demonstrated kpnEF to be a member of the Cpx regulon. This study helps to elucidate the unprecedented biological functions of the SMR-type efflux pump in Klebsiella spp.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria maintain an intrinsic resistance mechanism against entry of noxious compounds by utilizing highly efficient efflux pumps. The E. coli AcrAB-TolC drug efflux pump contains the inner membrane H<sup>+</sup>/drug antiporter AcrB comprising three functionally interdependent protomers, cycling consecutively through the loose (L), tight (T) and open (O) state during cooperative catalysis. Here, we present 13 X-ray structures of AcrB in intermediate states of the transport cycle. Structure-based mutational analysis combined with drug susceptibility assays indicate that drugs are guided through dedicated transport channels toward the drug binding pockets. A co-structure obtained in the combined presence of erythromycin, linezolid, oxacillin and fusidic acid shows binding of fusidic acid deeply inside the T protomer transmembrane domain. Thiol cross-link substrate protection assays indicate that this transmembrane domain-binding site can also accommodate oxacillin or novobiocin but not erythromycin or linezolid. AcrB-mediated drug transport is suggested to be allosterically modulated in presence of multiple drugs.
Project description:Macrolide antibiotics are used for treatment of soft-tissue infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. However, infections with S. aureus are increasingly difficult to treat owing to the emergence and rapid spread of multiple-drug resistant S. aureus. Resistance to macrolide in S. aureus is mostly due to the modification of 23 S rRNA by methylases encoded by erm genes. Here, we have identified that a 27-nucleotide repeat sequence insertion in the rplV gene induced a specific resistance to macrolide antibiotics. An erythromycin-resistant strain, 8325ER+, was screened by resistance to erythromycin from the macrolide-sensitive strain 8325-4. Comparative genome sequencing analysis showed that 8325ER+ contained a 27-nt repeat sequence insertion in the rplV gene that encodes the ribosomal protein L22, when compared to its parent strain. The 27-nt repeat sequence led to an insertion of 9 amino acids in L22, which had been identified to reduce the sensitivity to erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics. Moreover, we show that the ectopic expression of the mutated rplV gene containing the 27-nt repeat sequence insertion in several susceptible strains specifically conferred resistance to macrolide antibiotics. Our findings present a potential mechanism of resistance to macrolide antibiotics in S. aureus.
Project description:Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus is an under-recognized pathogen and zoonotic agent causing opportunistic infections in humans. Despite increasing recognition of this subspecies as a cause for human infectious diseases, limited information is known about its antibiotic resistance mechanism. In this study, we aim to identify the molecular mechanism underlying the high macrolide resistance of six S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolates from dead ducklings collected in several natural outbreaks in China during 2010-2013. All isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance including high macrolide resistance (MIC ? 1024 mg/L for erythromycin, and 512 mg/L for clarithromycin). Efflux-encoding mefA and mefE genes were not detectable in these isolates. The presence of 23S rRNA mutations in specific isolates did not significantly change macrolide MICs. No nucleotide substitutions were found in genes encoding ribosomal proteins L4 or L22. The ermB and ermT genes were found in the genomes of all isolates. These two genes were acquired independently in one highly virulent isolate AL101002, and clustered with Tn916 and IS1216, respectively. The expression of both ermB and ermT in all isolates was erythromycin inducible and yielded comparable macrolide MICs in all six isolates. Taken together, inducible expression of both ermB and ermT conferred high macrolide resistance in these S. gallolyticus subsp. pasterianus isolates. Our findings reveal new macrolide resistance features in S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus by both ermB and ermT.