Antarctic marine molluscs do have an HSP70 heat shock response.
ABSTRACT: The success of any organism depends not only on niche adaptation but also the ability to survive environmental perturbation from homeostasis, a situation generically described as stress. Although species-specific mechanisms to combat "stress" have been described, the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs), such as HSP70, is universally described across all taxa. Members of the HSP70 gene family comprising the constitutive (HSC70) and inducible (HSP70) members, plus GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein, 78 kDa), a related HSP70 family member, were cloned using degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from two evolutionary divergent Antarctic marine molluscs (Laternula elliptica and Nacella concinna), a bivalve and a gastropod, respectively. The expression of the HSP70 family members was surveyed via quantitative PCR after an acute 2-h heat shock experiment. Both species demonstrated significant up-regulation of HSP70 gene expression in response to increased temperatures. However, the temperature level at which these responses were induced varied with the species (+6-8 degrees C for L. elliptica and +8-10 degrees C for N. concinna) compared to their natural environmental temperature). L. elliptica also showed tissue-specific expression of the genes under study. Previous work on Antarctic fish has shown that they lack the classical heat shock response, with the inducible form of HSP70 being permanently expressed with an expression not further induced under higher temperature regimes. This study shows that this is not the case for other Antarctic animals, with the two molluscs showing an inducible heat shock response, at a level probably set during their temperate evolutionary past.
Project description:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of genes classically used to measure levels of organism stress. We have previously identified two HSP70 genes (HSP70A and HSP70B) in sub-tidal populations of the Antarctic limpet (Nacella concinna). These genes are up-regulated in response to increased seawater temperatures of 15 degrees C or more during acute heat shock experiments, temperatures that have very little basis when considering the current Antarctic ecology of these animals. Therefore, the question was posed as to whether these animals could express HSP70 genes when subjected to more complex environmental conditions, such as those that occur in the inter-tidal. Inter-tidal limpets were collected on three occasions in different weather conditions at South Cove, Rothera Point, over a complete tidal cycle, and the expression levels of the HSP70 genes were measured. Both genes showed relative up-regulation of gene expression over the period of the tidal cycle. The average foot temperature of these animals was 3.3 degrees C, far below that of the acute heat shock experiments. These experiments demonstrate that the temperature and expression levels of HSP production in wild animals cannot be accurately extrapolated from experimentally induced treatments, especially when considering the complexity of stressors in the natural environment. However, experimental manipulation can provide molecular markers for identifying stress in Antarctic molluscs, provided it is accompanied by environmental validation, as demonstrated here.
Project description:Heat shock protein 70 (designated Laternula elliptica Hsp70 (LEHsp70)) expression was investigated in an Antarctic mud clam to see whether or not the inducible heat shock response has been conserved throughout over 25 million years of adaptation to constant low environmental temperatures. LEHsp70 cDNA was cloned and sequenced from the Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica. We used degenerated primers designed in the highly conserved regions of Hsp to amplify the corresponding mRNA, and full-length cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full length of LEHsp70 cDNA was 2470 bp, with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 92 bp, a 3' UTR of 416 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1962 bp encoding a polypeptide of 653 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 71.266 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 5.20. LEHsp70 contained highly conserved functional motifs of the cytosolic Hsp70 family. Expression of the LEHsp70 gene was quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of digestive gland and gill tissues. Heat shock (10 degrees C for different time periods) caused rapid induction of LEHsp70. A significant 4.6 +/- 0.14-fold increase in the LEHsp70/beta-Actin mRNA ratio occurred in the gill at 12 hours, which returned to baseline after 48 hours. In contrast, the maximum expression in the digestive gland (3.6 +/- 0.36) was reached at 24 hours and was still significant after 48 hours (1.89 +/- 0.21). This indicates that LEHsp70 may play an important role in mediating thermal stress and tolerance in this clam.
Project description:Heat stress proteins are implicated in stabilizing and refolding denatured proteins in vertebrates and invertebrates. Members of the Hsp70 gene family comprise the cognate heat shock protein (Hsc70) and inducible heat shock protein (Hsp70). However, the cDNA sequence and the expression of Hsp70 in the Antarctic sea urchin are unknown.We amplified and cloned a transcript sequence of 1991 bp from the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, experimentally exposed to heat stress (5 and 10 °C for 1, 24 and 48 h). RACE-PCR and qPCR were employed to determine Hsp70 gene expression, while western blot and ELISA methods were used to determine protein expression.The sequence obtained from S. neumayeri showed high identity with Hsp70 members. Several Hsp70 family features were identified in the deduced amino acid sequence and they indicate that the isolated Hsp70 is related to the cognate heat shock protein type. The corresponding 70 kDa protein, called Sn-Hsp70, was immune detected in the coelomocytes and the digestive tract of S. neumayeri using a monospecific polyclonal antibody. We showed that S. neumayeri do not respond to acute heat stress by up-regulation of Sn-Hsp70 at transcript and protein level. Furthermore, the Sn-Hsp70 protein expression was not induced in the digestive tract.Our results provide the first molecular evidence that Sn-Hsp70 is expressed constitutively and is non-induced by heat stress in S. neumayeri.
Project description:Understanding species' responses to environmental change underpins our abilities to make predictions on future biodiversity under any range of scenarios. In spite of the huge biodiversity in most ecosystems, a model species approach is often taken in environmental studies. To date, we still do not know how many species we need to study to input into models and inform on ecosystem-level responses to change. In this study, we tested current paradigms on factors setting thermal limits by investigating the acute warming response of six Antarctic marine invertebrates: a crustacean Paraceradocus miersi, a brachiopod Liothyrella uva, two bivalve molluscs, Laternula elliptica, Aequiyoldia eightsii, a gastropod mollusc Marseniopsis mollis and an echinoderm Cucumaria georgiana. Each species was warmed at the rate of 1 °C h-1 and taken to the same physiological end point (just prior to heat coma). Their molecular responses were evaluated using complementary metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches with the aim of discovering the underlying mechanisms of their resilience or sensitivity to warming. The responses were species-specific; only two showed accumulation of anaerobic end products and three exhibited the classical heat shock response with expression of HSP70 transcripts. These diverse cellular measures did not directly correlate with resilience to heat stress and suggested that each species may have a different critical point of failure. Thus, one unifying molecular mechanism underpinning response to warming could not be assigned, and no overarching paradigm was supported. This biodiversity in response makes future ecosystems predictions extremely challenging, as we clearly need to develop a macrophysiology-type approach to cellular evaluations of the environmental stress response, studying a range of well-rationalized members from different community levels and of different phylogenetic origins rather than extrapolating from one or two arbitrary model species.
Project description:Most of the members of the mammalian heat-shock protein (HSP) gene family have been studied and isolated from human and mouse cells. Few studies have concentrated on the HSPs of rat, a commonly used experimental animal. We have isolated and characterized a novel inducible rat HSP70 gene using an HSP70 cDNA sequence obtained from an ischaemic rat heart cDNA library. The isolated rat HSP70 gene was found to be a functional gene, as indicated by RNAase-protection and Northern-blot analysis. The deduced amino acid sequence of the inducible rat HSP70 exhibits a high degree of similarity to previously isolated mammalian inducible HSP70 gene products. Expression of the inducible HSP70 gene in rat myogenic cells (H9c2) is markedly increased after relatively short periods of hypoxia as well as by heat shock. Two heat-shock elements (HSE) are present in the rat HSP70 promoter. Transient transfection of rat HSP70 promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs into H9c2 cells shows that the presence of either of the two HSEs is sufficient for heat-shock inducibility. In contrast, induction of the rat HSP70/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs by hypoxia is only detectable when both HSEs are present. This leads us to conclude that the induction of HSP70 by hypoxia and heat shock occurs through the same regulatory HSEs but the activation of the inducible HSP70 gene by heat shock is several-fold higher than by hypoxia.
Project description:The suborder Notothenioidae is comprised of Antarctic fishes, several of which have lost their ability to rapidly upregulate heat shock proteins in response to thermal stress, instead adopting a pattern of expression resembling constitutive genes. Given the cold-denaturing effect that sub-zero waters have on proteins, evolution in the Southern Ocean has likely selected for increased expression of molecular chaperones. These selective pressures may have also enabled retention of gene duplicates, bolstering quantitative output of cytosolic heat shock proteins (HSPs). Given that newly duplicated genes are under more relaxed selection, it is plausible that gene duplication enabled altered regulation of such highly conserved genes. To test for evidence of gene duplication, copy number of various isoforms within major heat shock gene families were characterized via qPCR and compared between the Antarctic notothen, Trematomus bernacchii, which lost the inducible heat shock response, and the non-Antarctic notothen, Notothenia angustata, which maintains an inducible heat shock response. The results indicate duplication of isoforms within the hsp70 and hsp40 super families have occurred in the genome of T. bernacchii. The findings suggest gene duplications may have been critical in maintaining protein folding efficiency in the sub-zero waters and provided an evolutionary mechanism of alternative regulation of these conserved gene families.
Project description:To better understand the physiological capability of cold-stenothermal organisms to survive high-temperature stress, we analyzed the thermotolerance limits and the expression level of hsp70 genes under temperature stress in the alpine midge Pseudodiamesa branickii (Diptera Chironomidae). A lethal temperature (LT(100)) of 36°C and a lethal temperature 50% (LT(50)) of 32.2°C were found for the cold-stenothermal larvae after short-term shocks (1 h). Additional experiments revealed that the duration of the exposure negatively influenced survival, whereas a prior exposure to a less severe high temperature generated an increase in survival. To investigate the molecular basis of this high thermotolerance, the expression of the hsp70 gene family was surveyed via semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis in treated larvae. The constitutive (hsc70) and inducible (hsp70) forms were both analyzed. Larvae of P. branickii showed a significant up-regulation of inducible hsp70 gene with increasing temperatures and an over-expression of both hsp70 and hsc70 by increasing the time of exposure. Different from that was shown in many cold-stenothermal Antarctic organisms, P. branickii was able to activate hsp70 genes transcription (equal to heat shock response) in response to thermal stress. Finally, the unclear relationship between hsp70 expression and survival led us to surmise that genes other than hsp70 and other processes apart from the biochemical processes might generate the high thermaltolerance of P. branickii larvae. These results and future high-throughput studies at both the transcriptome and proteome level will improve our ability to predict the future geographic distribution of this species within the context of global warming.
Project description:This is a mathematical model of Hsp70 induction. To model heat shock effects, the model incorporates temperature dependencies in transcirption to Hsp70 mRNA and in dissociation of transcriptional complexes, in addition to a formal expression relating temperature to protein denaturation.
Project description:Unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium are the most common endosymbionts of reef-building scleractinian corals, living in a symbiotic partnership known to be highly susceptible to environmental changes such as hyperthermic stress. In this study, we identified members of two major heat shock proteins (HSPs) families, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in Symbiodinium sp. (clade C) with full-length sequences that showed the highest similarity and evolutionary relationship with other known HSPs from dinoflagellate protists. Regulation of HSPs gene expression was examined in samples of the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora subjected to elevated temperatures progressively over 18 h (fast) and 120 h (gradual thermal stress). Moderate to severe heat stress at 26°C and 29°C (+3°C and +6°C above average sea temperature) resulted in an increase in algal Hsp70 gene expression from 39% to 57%, while extreme heat stress (+9°C) reduced Hsp70 transcript abundance by 60% (after 18 h) and 70% (after 120 h). Elevated temperatures decreased an Hsp90 expression under both rapid and gradual heat stress scenarios. Comparable Hsp70 and Hsp90 gene expression patterns were observed in Symbiodinium cultures and in hospite, indicating their independent regulation from the host. Differential gene expression profiles observed for Hsp70 and Hsp90 suggests diverse roles of these molecular chaperones during heat stress response. Reduced expression of the Hsp90 gene under heat stress can indicate a reduced role in inhibiting the heat shock transcription factor which may lead to activation of heat-inducible genes and heat acclimation.
Project description:Heat shock proteins/cognates 70 are chaperones essential for proper protein folding. This protein family comprises inducible members (Hsp70s) with expression triggered by the increased concentration of misfolded proteins due to protein-destabilizing conditions, as well as constitutively expressed cognate members (Hsc70s). Previous works on non-model amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus, both endemic to Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia, have only revealed a constitutively expressed form, expression of which was moderately further induced by protein-destabilizing conditions. Here we describe heat-inducible hsp70s in these species. Contrary to the common approach of using sequence similarity with hsp/hsc70 of a wide spectrum of organisms and some characteristic features, such as absence of introns within genes and presence of heat shock elements in their promoter areas, the present study is based on next-generation sequencing for the studied or related species followed by differential expression analysis, quantitative PCR validation and detailed investigation of the predicted polypeptide sequences. This approach allowed us to describe a novel type of hsp70 transcripts that overexpress in response to heat shock. Moreover, we propose diagnostic sequence features of this Hsp70 type for amphipods. Phylogenetic comparisons with different types of Hsp/Hsc70s allowed us to suggest that the hsp/hsc70 gene family in Amphipoda diversified into cognate and heat-inducible paralogs independently from other crustaceans. Thus, the cognate and inducible hsp70 types in distant taxa may not be recognized by sequence similarity.