Metal-binding loop length and not sequence dictates structure.
ABSTRACT: The C-terminal copper-binding loop in the beta-barrel fold of the cupredoxin azurin has been replaced with a range of sequences containing alanine, glycine, and valine residues to assess the importance of amino acid composition and the length of this region. The introduction of 2 and 4 alanines between the coordinating Cys, His, and Met results in loop structures matching those in naturally occurring proteins with the same loop lengths. A loop with 4 alanines between the Cys and His and 3 between the His and Met ligands has a structure identical to that of the WT protein, whose loop is the same length. Loop structure is dictated by length and not sequence allowing the properties of the main surface patch for interactions with partners, to which the loop is a major contributor, to be optimized. Loops with 2 amino acids between the ligands using glycine, alanine, and valine residues have been compared. An empirical relationship is found between copper site protection by the loop and reduction potential. A loop adorned with 4 methyl groups is sufficient to protect the copper ion, enabling most sequences to adequately perform this task. The mutant with 3 alanine residues between the ligands forms a strand-swapped dimer in the crystal structure, an arrangement that has not, to our knowledge, been seen previously for this family of proteins. Cupredoxins function as redox shuttles and are required to be monomeric; therefore, none have evolved with a metal-binding loop of this length.
Project description:The copper-transporting ATPase ATP7B is essential for loading of copper ions to copper-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway; its inactivation results in Wilson disease. In contrast to copper-ion uptake by the cytoplasmic domains, ATP7B-mediated copper-ion release in the Golgi has not been explored yet. We demonstrate here that a luminal loop in ATP7B, rich in histidine/methionine residues, binds reduced copper (Cu(I)) ions, and identified copper-binding residues play an essential role in ATP7B-mediated metal ion release. NMR experiments on short-peptide models demonstrate that three methionine and two histidine residues are specifically involved in Cu(I) ion binding; with these residues replaced by alanines, no Cu(I) ion interaction is detected. Although more than one Cu(I) ion can interact with the wild-type peptide, removing either all histidine or all methionine residues reduces the stoichiometry to one Cu(I) ion binding per peptide. Using a yeast complementation assay, we show that for efficient copper transport by full-length ATP7B, the complete set of histidine and methionine residues in the lumen loop are required. The replacement of histidine/methionine residues by alanines does not perturb overall ATP7B structure, as the localization of ATP7B variants in yeast cells matches that of the wild-type protein. Thus, in similarity to ATP7A, ATP7B also appears to have a luminal "exit" copper ion site.
Project description:Copper ligands of the recombinant tyrosinase from the fungus Aspergillus oryzae expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. The recombinant protyrosinases expressed in S. cerevisiae were assayed for catalytic activities of mono-oxygenase and L-dopa oxidase at pH 5.5 after acid shock at pH 3.0. Replacements of His-63, His-84, His-93, His-290, His-294, His-332 or His-333 with asparagine resulted in mutant enzymes exhibiting no activities. The site-directed mutant Cys82Ala showed that Cys-82 was also an essential residue for the activity. We obtained homogeneous preparations of activated tyrosinases from mutated thioredoxin fusion gene products expressed in E. coli by acid shock. The copper contents of engineered mutants and wild-type enzyme expressed in E. coli were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The wild-type enzyme contained 2 g-atoms of copper/mol of the subunit. The His63Asn, His84Asn, His93Asn, His290Asn, His294Asn, His332Asn, His333Asn or Cys82Ala substitution decreased copper binding by approx. 50%, indicating that the mutants contain only approx. 1 g-atom of copper/mol of the subunit. The five mutants His63Asn, His93Asn, His290Asn, His294Asn and Cys82Ala contain only one copper ion, which is fully detectable by EPR. From the correlation of g( parallel) and (Cu)A( parallel), we deduced that the nitrogen or sulphur donors in the copper ligands should be in a square or a distorted tetrahedral geometric environment. In further atomic absorption spectrophotometry experiments, no copper atom was observed in the seven double mutants His63Asn/His290Asn, His63Asn/His294Asn, His63Asn/His332Asn, His63Asn/His333Asn, Cys82Ala/His290Asn, His84Asn/His333Asn and His93Asn/His290Asn. We propose a new structure of active sites of tyrosinase from A. oryzae: the most likely binding sites of tyrosinase for Cu(A) are His-63, His-84 and His-93, with the remaining conserved Cys-82 providing the fourth ligand. Cu(B) liganded by four histidine residues, His-290, His-294, His-332 and His-333, is identified as new binding motif of Cu(B).
Project description:The solution structures of apo, Cu(I), and Ni(II) human Sco1 have been determined. The protein passes from an open and conformationally mobile state to a closed and rigid conformation upon metal binding as shown by electrospray ionization MS and NMR data. The metal ligands of Cu(I) are two Cys residues of the CPXXCP motif and a His residue. The latter is suitably located to coordinate the metal anchored by the two Cys residues. The coordination sphere of Ni(II) in solution is completed by another ligand, possibly Asp. Crystals of the Ni(II) derivative were also obtained with the Ni(II) ion bound to the same His residue and to the two oxidized Cys residues of the CPXXCP motif. We propose that the various structures solved here represent the various states of the protein in its functional cycle and that the metal can be bound to the oxidized protein at a certain stage. Although it now seems reasonable that Sco1, which is characterized by a thioredoxin fold, has evolved to bind a metal atom via the di-Cys motif to act as a copper chaperone, the oxidized form of the nickel-bound protein suggests that it may also maintain the thioredoxin function.
Project description:As a general rule, ribosomally synthesized polypeptides contain amino acids only in the L-isoform in an order dictated by the coding DNA/RNA. Two of a total of only four examples of L to D conversions in prokaryotic systems occur in posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptides called lantibiotics. In both examples (lactocin S and lacticin 3147), ribosomally encoded L-serines are enzymatically converted to D-alanines, giving rise to an apparent mistranslation of serine codons to alanine residues. It has been suggested that this conversion results from a two-step reaction initiated by a lantibiotic synthetase converting the gene-encoded L-serine to dehydroalanine (dha). By using lacticin 3147 as a model system, we report the identification of an enzyme, LtnJ, that is responsible for the conversion of dha to D-alanine. Deletion of this enzyme results in the residues remaining as dha intermediates, leading to a dramatic reduction in the antimicrobial activity of the producing strain. The importance of the chirality of the three D-alanines present in lacticin 3147 was confirmed when these residues were systematically substituted by L-alanines. In addition, substitution with L-threonine (ultimately modified to dehydrobutyrine), glycine, or L-valine also resulted in diminished peptide production and/or relative activity, the extent of which depended on the chirality of the newly incorporated amino acid(s).
Project description:Tyramine ?-monooxygenase (TBM) is a member of a family of copper monooxygenases containing two noncoupled copper centers, and includes peptidylglycine monooxygenase and dopamine ?-monooxygenase. In its Cu(II) form, TBM is coordinated by two to three His residues and one to two non-His O/N ligands consistent with a [Cu(M)(His)(2)(OH(2))(2)-Cu(H)(His)(3)(OH(2))] formulation. Reduction to the Cu(I) state causes a change in the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectrum, consistent with a change to a [Cu(M)(His)(2)S(Met)-Cu(H)(His)(3)] environment. Lowering the pH to 4.0 results in a large increase in the intensity of the Cu(I)-S extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) component, suggesting a tighter Cu-S bond or the coordination of an additional sulfur donor. The XAS spectra of three variants, where the Cu(M) Met471 residue had been mutated to His, Cys, and Asp, were examined. Significant differences from the wild-type enzyme are evident in the spectra of the reduced mutants. Although the side chains of His, Cys, and Asp are expected to substitute for Met at the Cu(M) site, the data showed identical spectra for all three reduced variants, with no evidence for coordination of residue 471. Rather, the K-edge data suggested a modest decrease in coordination number, whereas the EXAFS indicated an average of two His residues at each Cu(I) center. These data highlight the unique role of the Met residue at the Cu(M) center, and pose interesting questions as to why replacement by the cuprophilic thiolate ligand leads to detectable activity whereas replacement by imidazole generates inactive TBM.
Project description:Sco is a mononuclear red copper protein involved in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. It is spectroscopically similar to red copper nitrosocyanin, but unlike the latter, which has one copper cysteine thiolate, the former has two. In addition to the two cysteine ligands (C45 and C49), the wild-type (WT) protein from Bacillus subtilis (hereafter named BSco) has a histidine (H135) and an unknown endogenous protein oxygen ligand in a distorted tetragonal array. We have compared the properties of the WT protein to variants in which each of the two coordinating Cys residues has been individually mutated to Ala, using UV/visible, Cu and S K-edge X-ray absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. Unlike the Cu(II) form of native Sco, the Cu(II) complexes of the Cys variants are unstable. The copper center of C49A undergoes autoreduction to the Cu(I) form, which is shown by extended X-ray absorption fine structure to be composed of a novel two-coordinate center with one Cys and one His ligand. C45A rearranges to a new stable Cu(II) species coordinated by C49, H135 and a second His ligand recruited from a previously uncoordinated protein side chain. The different chemistry exhibited by the Cys variants can be rationalized by whether a stable Cu(I) species can be formed by autoredox chemistry. For C49A, the remaining Cys and His residues are trans, which facilitates the formation of the highly stable two-coordinate Cu(I) species, while for C45A such a configuration cannot be attained. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of the WT protein indicates a net weak Cu-S bond strength at approximately 2.24 A corresponding to the two thiolate-copper bonds, whereas the single variant C45A shows a moderately strong Cu-S bond at approximately 2.16 A. S K-edge data give a total covalency of 28% for both Cu-S bonds in the WT protein. These data suggest an average covalency per Cu-S bond lower than that observed for nitrosocyanin and close to that expected for type-2 Cu(II)-thiolate systems. The data are discussed relative to the unique Cu-S characteristics of cupredoxins, from which it is concluded that Sco does not contain highly covalent Cu-S bonds of the type expected for long-range electron-transfer reactivity.
Project description:The Enterococcus hirae CopB ATPase (EC 18.104.22.168) confers copper resistance to the organism by expelling excess copper. Two related human ATPase genes, ATP7A (EC 22.214.171.124) and ATP7B (EC 126.96.36.199), have been cloned as the loci of mutations causing Menkes and Wilson diseases, diseases of copper metabolism. Many mutations in these genes have been identified in patients. Since it has not yet been possible to purify the human copper ATPases, it has proved difficult to test the impact of mutations on ATPase function. Some mutations occur in highly conserved sequence motifs, suggesting that their effect on function can be tested with a homologous enzyme. Here, we used the E. hirae CopB ATPase to investigate the impact of such mutations on enzyme function in vivo and in vitro. The Menkes disease mutation of Cys-1000-->Arg, changing the conserved Cys-Pro-Cys ('CPC') motif, was mimicked in CopB. The corresponding Cys-396-->Ser CopB ATPase was unable to restore copper resistance in a CopB knock-out mutant in vivo. The purified mutant ATPase still formed an acylphosphate intermediate, but possessed no detectable ATP hydrolytic activity. The most frequent Wilson disease mutation, His-1069-->Gln, was introduced into CopB as His-480-->Gln (H480Q). This mutant CopB also failed to confer copper resistance to a CopB knock-out strain. Purified H480Q CopB formed an acylphosphate intermediate and retained a small, but significant, ATPase activity. Our results reveal that Cys-396 and His-480 of CopB are key residues for ATPase function, and similar roles are suggested for Cys-1000 and His-1069 of Menkes and Wilson ATPases respectively.
Project description:1. A comparison of the diagonal ;maps' of chymotrypsin A and ;tosylphenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone'-inhibited chymotrypsin A showed that His-57 is alkylated specifically by this substrate analogue. 2. From peptic digests of chymotrypsinogen A and B, trypsin and elastase it was demonstrated by the diagonal electrophoretic technique that a common di-histidine cystine-bridged structure is present in all four enzymes. 3. The sequences of these peptides were determined and show that the positions of the two histidine residues relative to the disulphide bond are a common feature. Thus His-40 of chymotrypsin A is only two residues removed from CyS-42, and His-57 is adjacent to the other half of this bridge, CyS-58. 4. Considerable variation in sequence occurs about His-40, where the aromatic residues 39 and 41 of the chymotrypsins and trypsin are replaced by alanine and threonine in elastase. There is a remarkable similarity in sequence following CyS-42 and preceding CyS-58 in all four enzymes.
Project description:The copper-transporting ATPase ATP7A has an essential role in human physiology. ATP7A transfers the copper cofactor to metalloenzymes within the secretory pathway; inactivation of ATP7A results in an untreatable neurodegenerative disorder, Menkes disease. Presently, the mechanism of ATP7A-mediated copper release into the secretory pathway is not understood. We demonstrate that the characteristic His/Met-rich segment Met(672)-Pro(707) (HM-loop) that connects the first two transmembrane segments of ATP7A is important for copper release. Mutations within this loop do not prevent the ability of ATP7A to form a phosphorylated intermediate during ATP hydrolysis but inhibit subsequent dephosphorylation, a step associated with copper release. The HM-loop inserted into a scaffold protein forms two structurally distinct binding sites and coordinates copper in a mixed His-Met environment with an ?2:1 stoichiometry. Binding of either copper or silver, a Cu(I) analog, induces structural changes in the loop. Mutations of 4 Met residues to Ile or two His-His pairs to Ala-Gly decrease affinity for copper. Altogether, the data suggest a two-step process, where copper released from the transport sites binds to the first His(Met)(2) site, triggering a structural change and binding to a second 2-coordinate His-His or His-Met site. We also show that copper binding within the HM-loop stabilizes Cu(I) and protects it from oxidation, which may further aid the transfer of copper from ATP7A to acceptor proteins. The mechanism of copper entry into the secretory pathway is discussed.
Project description:Histidine-heme loop formation in the denatured state of a protein is a sensitive means for probing residual structure under unfolding conditions. In this study, we use a host-guest approach to investigate the relative tendencies of different amino acids to promote residual structure under denaturing conditions. The host for this work is a 6-amino-acid insert of five alanines, followed by a lysine engineered immediately following a unique histidine near the N-terminus of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c. We substitute the fourth alanine in this sequence HAAAXAK (with X=Trp, Phe, Tyr, and Leu). The effects of proline are tested with substitutions at positions 1 and 5 in the insert (HPAAAAK and HAAAAPK, respectively). Thermodynamic studies on His-heme loop formation in 3 M guanidine hydrochloride reveal significant stabilization of residual structure by aromatic amino acids, particularly Trp and Phe, and minimal stabilization of residual structure by Leu. Prolines slightly disfavor His-heme loop formation, presumably due to enhanced chain stiffness. Kinetic studies reveal that much of the change in His-heme loop stability for the aromatic amino acids is caused by a slowdown in the rate of His-heme loop breakage, indicating that residual structure is preferentially stabilized in the closed-loop form of the denatured state.