NF-kappaB signaling regulates functional expression of the MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor for IgG via intronic binding sequences.
ABSTRACT: The neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) functions to transport maternal IgG to a fetus or newborn and to protect IgG from degradation. Although FcRn is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, the extent to which FcRn expression is regulated by immunological and inflammatory events remains unknown. Stimulation of intestinal epithelial cell lines, macrophage-like THP-1, and freshly isolated human monocytes with the cytokine TNF-alpha rapidly up-regulated FcRn gene expression. In addition, the TLR ligands LPS and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhanced the level of FcRn expression in THP-1 and monocytes. Treatment of TNF-stimulated THP-1 cells with the NF-kappaB-specific inhibitor or overexpression of a dominant negative mutant inhibitory NF-kappaB (IkappaBalpha; S32A/S36A) resulted in down-regulation of FcRn expression. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation we identified three NF-kappaB binding sequences within introns 2 and 4 of the human FcRn gene. An EMSA confirmed the p50/p50 and/or p65/p50 complex (s) bound to intron 2- or 4-derived oligonucleotides containing putative NF-kappaB binding sequences, respectively. The intronic NF-kappaB sequences in combination with the promoter or alone regulated the expression of a luciferase reporter gene in response to TNF-alpha stimulation or overexpression of NF-kappaB p65 and p50. DNA looping interactions potentially occurred after the stimulation between intronic NF-kappaB sequences and the FcRn promoter as shown by a chromosome conformation capture assay. Finally, TNF-alpha stimulations enhanced IgG transport across an intestinal Caco-2 epithelial monolayer. Together, these data provide the first evidence that NF-kappaB signaling via intronic sequences regulates FcRn expression and function.
Project description:We have recently demonstrated that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) mediates the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent expression of the gene encoding interleukin 6 (IL-6) in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells cultured in the presence of thyrotropin (TSH). In the present study we investigated how TSH is involved in the activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha in the cells. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay revealed that, in the absence of TSH, TNF-alpha activated a single protein-DNA complex containing the p50 subunit but not other NF-kappaB subunits such as p65. In contrast, two distinct protein-DNA complexes were activated in the presence of TSH: the faster-migrating complex contained only p50 subunit; the slower-migrating complex consisted of p65-p50 heterodimer. This TSH effect was mimicked by forskolin and thyroid-stimulating antibodies obtained from patients with Graves's disease, suggesting that an increase in intracellular cAMP is responsible for the induction of different NF-kappaBs by TNF-alpha. A transient transfection study with a luciferase reporter gene driven by multimerized NF-kappaB sites demonstrated that TNF-alpha increased the luciferase activities only in the presence of TSH, and that this increase was inhibited by the co-transfection of mutant p65, which prevented the function of wild-type p65 in a dominant-negative manner. Accordingly, TNF-alpha activated the expression of the IL-6 gene in the presence of TSH but not in its absence. Although the expression of the p105 gene, another known target for NF-kappaB, was increased by TNF-alpha in the absence of TSH, the presence of TSH further increased the mRNA level. Taken together, these observations indicate that the presence of TSH is crucial for the NF-kappaB-mediated actions of TNF-alpha on thyroid follicular cells.
Project description:We previously showed that angiocidin, a tumor and vascular associated protein, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Angiocidin is a multidomain protein that exerts its antiangiogenic activity through multiple mechanisms, including effects on cell matrix interaction. Here, we describe another activity of angiocidin that may contribute to its antitumor activity. We show that angiocidin activates monocytes to secrete a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines and induces them to differentiate into macrophage-like cells. Using the monocytic cell line THP-1, we show that angiocidin induces the cells to become adherent and phagocytic, express macrophage markers, and secrete matrix metalloproteinase-9. Microarray analysis of control and angiocidin-treated THP-1 cells revealed that angiocidin up-regulated p105/p50, p100/p52, and rel B, components of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. We confirmed the microarray data and showed that angiocidin induced phosphorylation of I kappa beta, p50, and p65 and translocation of p50 and p65 to the nucleus. We also showed that angiocidin activated up-stream mediators of NF-kappaB, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K). Blockage of NF-kappaB and MAPK activation with small molecule inhibitors completely prevented angiocidin-mediated secretion of cytokines from THP-1 cells, but did not inhibit their adhesive phenotype. Blocking PI3K inhibited both secretion of cytokines, as well as the adhesive phenotype. These data suggest that angiocidin activates monocytes to secrete cytokines and differentiates them to a macrophage-like phenotype through at least two pathways mediated by MAPK and NF-kappaB, as well as PI3K.
Project description:TNF-alpha is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that regulates immune and inflammatory responses and programmed cell death. TNF-alpha stimulation causes nuclear translocation of several NF-kappaB dimers, including RelA/p50 and RelB/p50. However, contrary to RelA, RelB entering the nucleus in response to TNF-alpha cannot bind to DNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, strongly suggesting that RelB DNA-binding activity is modulated by additional nuclear mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that TNF-alpha promotes the association of RelA with RelB in the nucleus and that TNF-alpha-induced RelA/RelB heterodimers do not bind to kappaB sites. Remarkably, we show that RelA serine-276, the phosphorylation of which is induced by TNF receptor ligation, is crucial for RelA/RelB complex formation and subsequent inhibition of RelB DNA binding. In the absence of RelA phosphorylation on serine-276, TNF-alpha stimulation leads to a strong increase in the expression of endogenous NF-kappaB-responsive genes, such as Bcl-xL, whose transcriptional up-regulation is mainly controlled by RelB. Our findings demonstrate that RelA has a major regulatory role serving to dampen RelB activity in response to TNF-alpha and define a previously unrecognized mechanism that represents an essential step leading to selective NF-kappaB target gene expression.
Project description:Activation of NF-kappaB is essential for protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)-mediated ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Here we show that PAR-1 activation induces binding of both p65/RelA and NFATc1 to the NF-kappaB binding site localized in intron-1 of the ICAM-1 gene to initiate transcription in endothelial cells. We discovered the presence of two NF-kappaB binding sites in intron-1 (+70, NF-kappaB site 1; +611, NF-kappaB site 2) of the human ICAM-1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results showed that thrombin induced binding of p65/RelA and of NFATc1 specifically to intronic NF-kappaB site 1 of the ICAM-1 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays confirmed the binding of p65/RelA and NFATc1 to the intronic NF-kappaB site 1 in thrombin-stimulated cells. Thrombin increased the expression of ICAM-1-promoter-intron 1-reporter (-1,385 to +234) construct approximately 25-fold and mutation of intronic NF-kappaB site 1 markedly reduced thrombin-induced reporter expression. Moreover, inhibition of calcineurin, knockdown of either NFATc1 or p65/RelA with siRNA significantly reduced thrombin-induced ICAM-1 expression and polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. In contrast, NFATc1 knockdown had no effect on TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression. Thus these results suggest that p65/RelA and NFATc1 bind to the intronic NF-kappaB site 1 sequence to induce optimal transcription of the ICAM-1 gene in response to thrombin in endothelial cells.
Project description:Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine intestinal coronavirus that causes fatal severe watery diarrhea in piglets. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is the only IgG transport receptor, its expression on mucosal surfaces is triggered upon viral stimulation, which significantly enhances mucosal immunity. We utilized TGEV as a model pathogen to explore the role of FcRn in resisting viral invasion in overall intestinal mucosal immunity. TGEV induced FcRn expression by activating NF-?B signaling in porcine small intestinal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells, however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. First, using small interfering RNAs, we found that TGEV up-regulated FcRn expression via TLR3, TLR9 and RIG-I. Moreover, TGEV induced IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-?, and TNF-? production. TGF-?-stimulated IPEC-J2 cells highly up-regulated FcRn expression, while treatment with a JNK-specific inhibitor down-regulated the expression. TGEV nucleocapsid (N) protein also enhanced FcRn promoter activity via the NF-?B signaling pathway and its central region (aa 128-252) was essential for FcRn activation. Additionally, N protein-mediated FcRn up-regulation promotes IgG transcytosis. Thus, TGEV N protein and TGF-? up-regulated FcRn expression, further clarifying the molecular mechanism of up-regulation of FcRn expression by TGEV.
Project description:The patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have a 'leaky gut' manifested by an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) permeability. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proto-typical pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in intestinal inflammation of CD. An important pro-inflammatory action of TNF-alpha is to cause a functional opening of intestinal TJ barrier. Previous studies have shown that TNF-alpha increase in TJ permeability was regulated by an increase in myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) gene activity and protein expression. The major aim of this study was to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and TNF-alpha-induced increase in MLCK gene activity. By progressive 5' deletion, minimal MLCK promoter was localized between -313 to +118 on MLCK promoter. A p53 binding site located within minimal promoter region was identified as an essential determinant for basal promoter activity. A 4 bp start site and a 5 bp downstream promoter element were required for MLCK gene activity. TNF-alpha-induced increase in MLCK promoter activity was mediated by NF-kappaB activation. There were eight kappaB binding sites on MLCK promoter. The NF-kappaB1 site at +48 to +57 mediated TNF-alpha-induced increase in MLCK promoter activity. The NF-kappaB2 site at -325 to -316 had a repressive role on promoter activity. The opposite effects on promoter activity were due to differences in the NF-kappaB dimer type binding to the kappaB sites. p50/p65 dimer preferentially binds to the NF-kappaB1 site and up-regulates promoter activity; while p50/p50 dimer preferentially binds to the NF-kappaB2 site and down-regulates promoter activity. In conclusion, we have identified the minimal MLCK promoter region, essential molecular determinants and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and TNF-alpha-induced modulation of MLCK promoter activity in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. These studies provide novel insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate basal and TNF-alpha-induced modulation of MLCK gene activity.
Project description:Expression of prohibitin 1 (PHB), a multifunctional protein in the cell, is decreased during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Little is known regarding the regulation and role of PHB during intestinal inflammation. We examined the effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of IBD, on PHB expression and the effect of sustained PHB expression on TNF-alpha activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and epithelial barrier dysfunction, two hallmarks of intestinal inflammation. We show that TNF-alpha decreased PHB protein and mRNA abundance in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in colon mucosa in vivo. Sustained expression of prohibitin in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo (prohibitin transgenic mice, PHB TG) resulted in a marked decrease in TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of the NF-kappaB protein p65, NF-kappaB/DNA binding, and NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activation despite robust IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation and increased cytosolic p65. Cells overexpressing PHB were protected from TNF-alpha-induced increased epithelial permeability. Expression of importin alpha3, a protein involved in p50/p65 nuclear import, was decreased in cells overexpressing PHB and in colon mucosa of PHB TG mice. Restoration of importin alpha3 levels sustained NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha during PHB transfection. These results suggest that PHB inhibits NF-kappaB nuclear translocation via a novel mechanism involving alteration of importin alpha3 levels. TNF-alpha decreases PHB expression in intestinal epithelial cells and restoration of PHB expression in these cells can protect against the deleterious effects of TNF-alpha and NF-kappaB on barrier function.
Project description:Alcohol dependence and associated cognitive impairments apparently result from neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol consumption involving changes in expression of multiple genes. Here we investigated whether transcription factors of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family, controlling neuronal plasticity and neurodegeneration, are involved in these adaptations in human chronic alcoholics.Analysis of DNA-binding of NF-kappaB (p65/p50 heterodimer) and the p50 homodimer as well as NF-kappaB proteins and mRNAs was performed in postmortem human brain samples from 15 chronic alcoholics and 15 control subjects. The prefrontal cortex involved in alcohol dependence and cognition was analyzed and the motor cortex was studied for comparison. The p50 homodimer was identified as dominant kappaB binding factor in analyzed tissues. NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding was downregulated, levels of p65 (RELA) mRNA were attenuated, and the stoichiometry of p65/p50 proteins and respective mRNAs was altered in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics. Comparison of a number of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB target DNA sites, kappaB elements in 479 genes, down- or upregulated in alcoholics demonstrated that genes with kappaB elements were generally upregulated in alcoholics. No significant differences between alcoholics and controls were observed in the motor cortex.We suggest that cycles of alcohol intoxication/withdrawal, which may initially activate NF-kappaB, when repeated over years downregulate RELA expression and NF-kappaB and p50 homodimer DNA-binding. Downregulation of the dominant p50 homodimer, a potent inhibitor of gene transcription apparently resulted in derepression of kappaB regulated genes. Alterations in expression of p50 homodimer/NF-kappaB regulated genes may contribute to neuroplastic adaptation underlying alcoholism.
Project description:The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a variety of genes involved in apoptosis and immune response. We examined relationships between genotypes at five NF-kappaB subunits (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, and RELB) and variable expression levels of 15 NF-kappaB regulated proteins with heritability greater than 0.40: BCL2A1, BIRC2, CD40, CD44, CD80, CFLAR, CR2, FAS, ICAM1, IL15, IRF1, JUNB, MYC, SLC2A5, and VCAM1. SNP genotypes and expression phenotypes from pedigrees of Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe were provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 and supplemented with additional genotype data from the International HapMap Consortium. We conducted association, linkage, and family-based association analyses between each candidate gene and the 15 heritable expression phenotypes. We observed consistent results in association and linkage analyses of the NFKB1 region (encoding p50) and levels of FAS and IRF1 expression. FAS is a cell surface protein that also belongs to the TNF-receptor family; signals through FAS are able to induce apoptosis. IRF1 is a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor family, which has been shown to regulate apoptosis and tumor-suppression. Analyses in the REL region (encoding c-Rel) revealed linkage and association with CD40 phenotype. CD40 proteins belong to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor family, which mediates a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses. We conclude that variation in the genes encoding p50 and c-Rel may play a role in NF-kappaB-related transcription of FAS, IRF1, and CD40.
Project description:Antibodies of the immunoglobulin G1 class are induced in mice by T-cell-dependent antigens but not by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CD40 engagement contributes to this preferential isotype production by activating NF-kappaB/Rel to induce germ line gamma1 transcripts, which are essential for class switch recombination. Although LPS also activates NF-kappaB, it poorly induces germ line gamma1 transcripts. Western blot analyses show that CD40 ligand (CD40L) induces all NF-kappaB/Rel proteins, whereas LPS activates predominantly p50 and c-Rel. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that in CD40L-treated cells, p50-RelA and p50-RelB dimers are the major NF-kappaB complexes binding to the germ line gamma1 promoter, whereas in LPS-treated cells, p50-c-Rel and p50-p50 dimers are the major binding complexes. Transfection of expression plasmids for NF-kappaB/Rel fusion proteins (forced dimers) indicates that p50-RelA and p50-RelB dimers activate the germ line gamma1 promoter and that p50-c-Rel and p50-p50 dimers inhibit this activation by competitively binding to the promoter without activating the promoter. Therefore, germ line gamma1 transcription depends on the composition of NF-kappaB/Rel proteins.