Biomechanical thresholds regulate inflammation through the NF-kappaB pathway: experiments and modeling.
ABSTRACT: During normal physical activities cartilage experiences dynamic compressive forces that are essential to maintain cartilage integrity. However, at non-physiologic levels these signals can induce inflammation and initiate cartilage destruction. Here, by examining the pro-inflammatory signaling networks, we developed a mathematical model to show the magnitude-dependent regulation of chondrocytic responses by compressive forces.Chondrocytic cells grown in 3-D scaffolds were subjected to various magnitudes of dynamic compressive strain (DCS), and the regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression via activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling cascade examined. Experimental evidences provide the existence of a threshold in the magnitude of DCS that regulates the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), an inducible pro-inflammatory enzyme. Interestingly, below this threshold, DCS inhibits the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, with the degree of suppression depending on the magnitude of DCS. This suppression of NOS2 by DCS correlates with the attenuation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway as measured by IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB)-alpha, degradation of IkappaB-alpha and IkappaB-beta, and subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65. A mathematical model developed to understand the complex dynamics of the system predicts two thresholds in the magnitudes of DCS, one for the inhibition of IL-1beta-induced expression of NOS2 by DCS at low magnitudes, and second for the DCS-induced expression of NOS2 at higher magnitudes.Experimental and computational results indicate that biomechanical signals suppress and induce inflammation at critical thresholds through activation/suppression of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. These thresholds arise due to the bistable behavior of the networks originating from the positive feedback loop between NF-kappaB and its target genes. These findings lay initial groundwork for the identification of the thresholds in physical activities that can differentiate its favorable actions from its unfavorable consequences on joints.
Project description:Initial Ca(2+)-dependent contraction of intestinal smooth muscle is inhibited upon IL-1beta treatment. The decrease in contraction reflects the upregulation of regulator of G protein signaling-4 (RGS4) via the canonical inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase-2 (IKK2)/IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. Here, we show that the activation of various protein kinases, including ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), differentially modulates IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4 in rabbit colonic muscle cells. IL-1beta treatment caused a transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. It also caused the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta), sequential downstream effectors of PI3K. Pretreatment with PD-98059 (an ERK inhibitor) and SB-203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited IL-1beta-induced RGS4 expression. In contrast, LY-294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) augmented, whereas GSK3beta inhibitors inhibited, IL-1beta-induced RGS4 expression. PD-98059 blocked IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IKK2, degradation of IkappaB-alpha, and phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB subunit p65, whereas SB-203580 had a marginal effect, implying that the effect of ERK1/2 is exerted on the canonical IKK2/IkappaB-alpha/p65 pathway of NF-kappaB activation but that the effect of p38 MAPK may not predominantly involve NF-kappaB signaling. The increase in RGS4 expression enhanced by LY-294002 was accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of IKK2/IkappaB-alpha/p65 and blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of IKK2 (IKK2-IV) and IkappaB-alpha (MG-132). Inhibition of GSK3beta abolished IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IKK2/p65. These findings suggest that ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK enhance IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4; the effect of ERK1/2 reflects its ability to promote IKK2 phosphorylation and increase NF-kappaB activity. GSK3beta acts normally to augment the activation of the canonical NF-kappaB signaling. The PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta pathway attenuates IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4 expression by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subtle changes in the intracellular reduction-oxidation (redox) state can modulate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx) is a small, ubiquitous, redox-active thiol (-SH) protein that, with thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR), modifies the redox status of NF-kappaB pathway components. PMX464 is a novel thiol-reactive quinol thought to inhibit the Trx/TrxR system. The aim of this work was to investigate whether PMX464 inhibited NF-kappaB-mediated proinflammatory activation of human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and CXCL8, NF-kappaB DNA binding, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit, IkappaBalpha degradation, IkappaB phosphorylation and IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity were assessed in A549 cells stimulated with IL-1beta with or without PMX464 pretreatment. Effects of PMX464 on ICAM-1 expression in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) were also investigated. For comparison, selected measurements (ICAM-1 and IkappaB-alpha phospho-IkappaB-alpha) were made on A549 cells after RNA interference-mediated silencing (siRNA) of Trx. KEY RESULTS: PMX464 reduced ICAM-1, GM-CSF and CXCL8 expression in IL-1beta-stimulated A549 cells and ICAM-1 in HLMVEC. PMX464 inhibited IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit and factors involved in NF-kappaB activation; specifically, IkappaBalpha degradation, IkappaB phosphorylation and IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity in A549. By contrast, Trx siRNA did not alter ICAM-1 expression or IkappaBalpha degradation/phosphorylation in IL-1beta-stimulated A549 cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: PMX464 inhibits a proinflammatory response in A549 cells targeting the NFkappaB pathway above IKK. The lack of effect with Trx siRNA suggests that PMX464 acts on thiol proteins, in addition to Trx, to elicit anti-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells.
Project description:IkappaB-zeta [inhibitor of NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) zeta] is a nuclear protein that is induced upon stimulation of TLRs (Toll-like receptors) and IL (interleukin)-1 receptor. IkappaB-zeta harbours C-terminal ankyrin repeats that interact with NF-kappaB. Our recent studies have shown that, upon stimulation, IkappaB-zeta is essential for the induction of a subset of inflammatory genes, represented by IL-6, whereas it inhibits the expression of TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-alpha. In the present study, we investigated mechanisms that determine the different functions of IkappaB-zeta. We found that co-expression of IkappaB-zeta and the NF-kappaB subunits synergistically activates transcription of the hBD-2 (human beta-defensin 2) and NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) genes, whereas it inhibits transcription of E-selectin. Reporter analyses indicated that, in addition to an NF-kappaB-binding site, a flanking C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-binding site in the promoters is essential for the IkappaB-zeta-mediated transcriptional activation. Using an artificial promoter consisting of the NF-kappaB- and C/EBP-binding sites, transcriptional activation was observed upon co-transfection with IkappaB-zeta and NF-kappaB, indicating that these sequences are minimal elements that confer the IkappaB-zeta-mediated transcriptional activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and knockdown experiments showed that both IkappaB-zeta and the NF-kappaB subunits were recruited to the NGAL promoter and were essential for the transcriptional activation of the hBD-2 and NGAL promoters on stimulation with IL-1beta. The activation of the NGAL promoter by transfection of IkappaB-zeta and NF-kappaB was suppressed in C/EBPbeta-depleted cells. Thus IkappaB-zeta acts as an essential transcriptional activator by forming a complex with NF-kappaB on promoters harbouring the NF-kappaB- and C/EBP-binding sites, upon stimulation of TLRs or IL-1 receptor.
Project description:The potential anti-inflammatory role of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-related tripeptide, lysine(11)-D-proline-valine(13) (KDPV), an analogue of interleukin (IL)-1beta(193-195) and an antagonist of IL-1beta/prostaglandin E(2), is not well characterized in the alveolar epithelium. In a model of foetal alveolar type II epithelial cells in vitro, we showed that lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) differentially, but selectively, induced the nuclear subunit composition of nuclear factor kappaB(1) (NF-kappaB(1)) (p50), RelA (p65) and c-Rel (p75), in parallel to up-regulating the DNA-binding activity (supershift indicating the presence of the p50-p65 complex). LPS accelerated the degradation of inhibitory kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha), accompanied by enhancing its phosphorylation in the cytosolic compartment but not in the nucleus. KDPV suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, the nuclear localization of p50, p65 and p75, an effect that led to the subsequent inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) decreased the nuclear abundance of p50, p65 and p75, and subsequently depressed the DNA-binding activity induced by LPS. Analysis of the mechanism involved in the KDPV- and IL-1ra-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear localization revealed a reversal in IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation, followed by cytosolic accumulation. LPS induced endogenous IL-1beta biosynthesis in a time-dependent manner; the administration of exogenous recombinant human interleukin 1 (rhIL-1) resulted in a dose-dependent activation of NF-kappaB. KDPV and IL-1ra abrogated the effect of rhIL-1. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB. These results indicate the involvement of prostanoid-dependent (NSAID-sensitive) and IL-1-dependent (IL-1ra-sensitive) mechanisms mediating LPS-induced NF-kappaB translocation and activation, a pathway that is regulated, in part, by a negative feedback mechanism transduced through IkappaB-alpha, the major cytosolic inhibitor of NF-kappaB.
Project description:Initial Ca2+-dependent contraction of the intestinal smooth muscle mediated by G(q)-coupled receptors is attenuated by RGS4 (regulator of G-protein signalling 4). Treatment of colonic muscle cells with IL-1beta (interleukin-1beta) inhibits acetylcholine-stimulated initial contraction through increasing the expression of RGS4. NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) signalling is the dominant pathway activated by IL-1beta. In the present study we show that RGS4 is a new target gene regulated by IL-1beta/NF-kappaB signalling. Exposure of cultured rabbit colonic muscle cells to IL-1beta induced a rapid increase in RGS4 mRNA expression, which was abolished by pretreatment with a transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, implying a transcription-dependent mechanism. Existence of the canonical IKK2 [IkappaB (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) kinase 2]/IkappaBalpha pathway of NF-kappaB activation induced by IL-1beta in rabbit colonic muscle cells was validated with multiple approaches, including the induction of reporter luciferase activity and endogenous NF-kappaB-target gene expression, NF-kappaB-DNA binding activity, p65 nuclear translocation, IkappaBalpha degradation and the phosphorylation of IKK2 at Ser(177/181) and p65 at Ser(536). RGS4 up-regulation by IL-1beta was blocked by selective inhibitors of IKK2, IkappaBalpha or NF-kappaB activation, by effective siRNA (small interfering RNA) of IKK2, and in cells expressing either the kinase-inactive IKK2 mutant (K44A) or the phosphorylation-deficient IkappaBalpha mutant (S32A/S36A). An IKK2-specific inhibitor or effective siRNA prevented IL-1beta-induced inhibition of acetylcholine-stimulated PLC-beta (phopsholipase C-beta) activation. These results suggest that the canonical IKK2/IkappaBalpha pathway of NF-kappaB activation mediates the up-regulation of RGS4 expression in response to IL-1beta and contributes to the inhibitory effect of IL-1beta on acetylcholine-stimulated PLC-beta-dependent initial contraction in rabbit colonic smooth muscle.
Project description:Despite certain structural and biochemical similarities, differences exist in the function of the NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) inhibitory proteins IkappaBalpha (inhibitory kappaBalpha) and IkappaBbeta. The functional disparity arises in part from variance at the level of gene regulation, and in particular from the substantial induction of IkappaBalpha, but not IkappaBbeta, gene expression post-NF-kappaB activation. In the present study, we probe the differential effects of IL (interleukin)-1beta on induction of IkappaBalpha and perform the first characterization of the human IkappaBbeta promoter. A consensus NF-kappaB-binding site, capable of binding NF-kappaB both in vitro and in vivo, is found in the IkappaBbeta gene 5' flanking region. However, the IkappaBbeta promoter was not substantially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha, that are known to cause strong activation of NF-kappaB. Furthermore, in contrast with IkappaBalpha, NF-kappaB activation did not increase expression of endogenous IkappaBbeta as assessed by analysis of mRNA and protein levels. Unlike kappaB-responsive promoters, IkappaBbeta promoter-bound p65 inefficiently recruits RNA polymerase II, which stalls at the promoter. We present evidence that this stalling is likely due to the absence of transcription factor IIH engagement, a prerequisite for RNA polymerase II phosphorylation and transcriptional initiation. Differences in the conformation of promoter-bound NF-kappaB may underlie the variation in the ability to engage the basal transcriptional apparatus at the IkappaBbeta and kappaB-responsive promoters. This accounts for the differential expression of IkappaB family members in response to NF-kappaB activation and furthers our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcription factor activity and IkappaBbeta gene regulation.
Project description:Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in MEFV, which encodes a 781-amino acid protein denoted pyrin. We have previously shown that pyrin regulates caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta production through interaction of its N-terminal PYD motif with the ASC adapter protein, and also modulates IL-1beta production by interaction of its C-terminal B30.2 domain with the catalytic domains of caspase-1. We now asked whether pyrin might itself be a caspase-1 substrate, and found that pyrin is cleaved by caspase-1 at Asp330, a site remote from the B30.2 domain. Pyrin variants harboring FMF-associated B30.2 mutations were cleaved more efficiently than wild-type pyrin. The N-terminal cleaved fragment interacted with the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB and with IkappaB-alpha through its 15-aa bZIP basic domain and adjacent sequences, respectively, and translocated to the nucleus. The interaction of the N-terminal fragment with p65 enhanced entrance of p65 into the nucleus. The interaction of N-terminal pyrin with IkappaB-alpha induced calpain-mediated degradation of IkappaB-alpha, thus potentiating NF-kappaB activation. Absolute and relative quantities of cleaved pyrin and IkappaB-alpha degradation products were substantially increased in leukocytes from FMF patients compared with healthy controls. Our data support a new pyrin/caspase-1 pathway for NF-kappaB activation.
Project description:The effect of cycloheximide (CHX) on the mRNA expression of the cytokine-inducible, calcium-independent nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was investigated in fetal hepatocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the presence of CHX the LPS-dependent iNOS mRNA levels were reduced, whereas the response to pro-inflammatory cytokines was enhanced. Because iNOS transcription is highly dependent on the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), this factor was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and a close correlation between NF-kappaB activity and iNOS mRNA levels was observed. CHX itself potentiated the degradation of the IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta inhibitory subunits (IkappaB is inhibitory kappaB) of the NF-kappaB complex, and therefore the loss of LPS-dependent iNOS mRNA expression cannot be attributed to a blockage in the activation of NF-kappaB. These results suggest the existence of a CHX-sensitive pathway in the expression of iNOS mediated by LPS, a mechanism that is not involved in the response to pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:Inflammatory activation of glial cells is associated with neuronal injury in several degenerative movement disorders of the basal ganglia, including manganese neurotoxicity. Manganese (Mn) potentiates the effects of inflammatory cytokines on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) in astrocytes, but the signaling mechanisms underlying this effect have remained elusive. It was postulated in the present studies that direct stimulation of cGMP synthesis and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways underlies the capacity of Mn to augment NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in astrocytes. Exposure of primary cortical astrocytes to a low concentration of Mn (10 microM) potentiated expression of NOS2 mRNA and protein along with production of NO in response to interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), which was prevented by overexpression of dominant negative IkappaB alpha. Mn also potentiated IFNgamma- and TNFalpha-induced phosphorylation of extracellular response kinase (ERK), p38, and JNK, as well as cytokine-induced activation of a fluorescent NF-kappaB reporter construct in transgenic astrocytes. Activation of ERK preceded that of NF-kappaB and was required for maximal activation of NO synthesis. Independently of IFNgamma/TNFalpha, Mn-stimulated synthesis of cGMP in astrocytes and inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) abolished the potentiating effect of Mn on MAP kinase phosphorylation, NF-kappaB activation, and production of NO. These data indicate that near-physiological concentrations of Mn potentiate cytokine-induced expression of NOS2 and production of NO in astrocytes via activation of sGC, which promotes ERK-dependent enhancement of NF-kappaB signaling.
Project description:The NF-kappaB pathways have been implicated in tumorigenesis in several lymphoid malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas. However, the antiapoptotic functions and the mechanism responsible for signaling through each NF-kappaB pathway remain to be elucidated. In the current study, lymphoma cell lines with constitutively active NF-kappaB were found to be resistant to inducers of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Resistance to cell death resulted from blocks early and late in the apoptosis cascade. Several NF-kappaB target genes were overexpressed in these cell lines, including Bcl-xL, Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitor protein, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis, and X inhibitor of apoptosis. Inhibition of the canonical or noncanonical NF-kappaB pathways with small interfering RNAs or adenovirus expressing a stable form of inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB) enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis inducers and resulted in lower levels of Bcl-xL or Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitor protein, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis, and X inhibitor of apoptosis. These findings demonstrate an important role of both NF-kappaB pathways in mediating resistance to apoptosis and distinctive antiapoptotic downstream target gene profiles responsible for this effect.