Enhanced Rap1 activation and insulin secretagogue properties of an acetoxymethyl ester of an Epac-selective cyclic AMP analog in rat INS-1 cells: studies with 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM.
ABSTRACT: To ascertain the identities of cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins that mediate the insulin secretagogue action of cAMP, the possible contributions of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) and protein kinase A (PKA) were evaluated in a pancreatic beta cell line (rat INS-1 cells). Assays of Rap1 activation, CREB phosphorylation, and PKA-dependent gene expression were performed in combination with live cell imaging and high throughput screening of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based cAMP sensor (Epac1-camps) to validate the selectivity with which acetoxymethyl esters (AM-esters) of cAMP analogs preferentially activate Epac or PKA. Selective activation of Epac or PKA was achieved following exposure of INS-1 cells to 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM or Bt(2)cAMP-AM, respectively. Both cAMP analogs exerted dose-dependent and glucose metabolism-dependent actions to stimulate insulin secretion, and when each was co-administered with the other, a supra-additive effect was observed. Because 2.4-fold more insulin was secreted in response to a saturating concentration (10 microm) of Bt(2)cAMP-AM as compared with 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM, and because the action of Bt(2)cAMP-AM but not 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM was nearly abrogated by treatment with 3 microm of the PKA inhibitor H-89, it is concluded that for INS-1 cells, it is PKA that acts as the dominant cAMP-binding protein in support of insulin secretion. Unexpectedly, 10-100 microm of the non-AM-ester of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP failed to stimulate insulin secretion and was a weak activator of Rap1 in INS-1 cells. Moreover, 10 microm of the AM-ester of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP stimulated insulin secretion from mouse islets, whereas the non-AM-ester did not. Thus, the membrane permeability of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP in insulin-secreting cells is so low as to limit its biological activity. It is concluded that prior reports documenting the failure of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP to act in beta cells, or other cell types, need to be re-evaluated through the use of the AM-ester of this cAMP analog.
Project description:The blood glucose-lowering hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates cAMP production, promotes Ca2+ influx, and mobilizes an intracellular source of Ca2+ in pancreatic beta cells. Here we provide evidence that these actions of GLP-1 are functionally related: they reflect a process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) that requires activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the Epac family of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMPGEFs). In rat insulin-secreting INS-1 cells or mouse beta cells loaded with caged Ca2+ (NP-EGTA), a GLP-1 receptor agonist (exendin-4) is demonstrated to sensitize intracellular Ca2+ release channels to stimulatory effects of cytosolic Ca2+, thereby allowing CICR to be generated by the uncaging of Ca2+ (UV flash photolysis). This sensitizing action of exendin-4 is diminished by an inhibitor of PKA (H-89) or by overexpression of dominant negative Epac. It is reproduced by cell-permeant cAMP analogues that activate PKA (6-Bnz-cAMP) or Epac (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) selectively. Depletion of Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin abolishes CICR, while inhibitors of Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine and heparin) attenuate CICR in an additive manner. Because the uncaging of Ca2+ fails to stimulate CICR in the absence of cAMP-elevating agents, it is concluded that there exists in beta cells a process of second messenger coincidence detection, whereby intracellular Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors) monitor a simultaneous increase of cAMP and Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that second messenger coincidence detection of this type may explain how GLP-1 interacts with beta cell glucose metabolism to stimulate insulin secretion.
Project description:Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express bTREK-1 K(+) channels that set the resting membrane potential and function pivotally in the physiology of cortisol secretion. Inhibition of these K(+) channels by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cAMP is coupled to depolarization and Ca(2+) entry. The mechanism of ACTH and cAMP-mediated inhibition of bTREK-1 was explored in whole cell patch clamp recordings from AZF cells. Inhibition of bTREK-1 by ACTH and forskolin was not affected by the addition of both H-89 and PKI (6-22) amide to the pipette solution at concentrations that completely blocked activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in these cells. The ACTH derivative, O-nitrophenyl, sulfenyl-adrenocorticotropin (NPS-ACTH), at concentrations that produced little or no activation of PKA, inhibited bTREK-1 by a Ca(2+)-independent mechanism. Northern blot analysis showed that bovine AZF cells robustly express mRNA for Epac2, a guanine nucleotide exchange protein activated by cAMP. The selective Epac activator, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, applied intracellularly through the patch pipette, inhibited bTREK-1 (IC(50) = 0.63 microM) at concentrations that did not activate PKA. Inhibition by this agent was unaffected by PKA inhibitors, including RpcAMPS, but was eliminated in the absence of hydrolyzable ATP. Culturing AZF cells in the presence of ACTH markedly reduced the expression of Epac2 mRNA. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP failed to inhibit bTREK-1 current in AZF cells that had been treated with ACTH for 3-4 d while inhibition by 8-br-cAMP was not affected. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP failed to inhibit bTREK-1 expressed in HEK293 cells, which express little or no Epac2. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to the well-described PKA-dependent TREK-1 inhibition, ACTH, NPS-ACTH, forskolin, and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP also inhibit these K(+) channels by a PKA-independent signaling pathway. The convergent inhibition of bTREK-1 through parallel PKA- and Epac-dependent mechanisms may provide for failsafe membrane depolarization by ACTH.
Project description:Tolbutamide and gliclazide block the K(ATP) channel K(ir)6.2/Sur1, causing membrane depolarization and stimulating insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. We examined the ability of the EPAC-selective cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM to potentiate the action of these drugs and the mechanism that might account for it. Insulin secretion stimulated by both 200 ?M tolbutamide and 20 ?M gliclazide, concentrations that had equivalent effects on membrane potential, was inhibited by thapsigargin (1 ?M) or the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nicardipine (2 ?M) and was potentiated by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM at concentrations ?2 ?M in INS-1 cells. Ca(2+) transients stimulated by either tolbutamide or gliclazide were inhibited by thapsigargin or nicardipine and were significantly potentiated by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM at 5 ?M but not 1 ?M. Both tolbutamide and gliclazide stimulated phospholipase C activity; however, only gliclazide did so independently of its activity at K(ATP) channels, and this activity was partially inhibited by pertussis toxin. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM alone (5 ?M) did not stimulate insulin secretion, but did increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration significantly, and this activity was inhibited by 25 ?M 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) or the removal of extracellular Ca(2+). 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiation of insulin secretion stimulated by tolbutamide was markedly inhibited by 2-APB (25 ?M) and enhanced by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I (1 ?M). Our data demonstrate that the actions of both tolbutamide and gliclazide are strongly potentiated by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM, that gliclazide can stimulate phospholipase C activity via a partially pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism, and that 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM potentiation of tolbutamide action may involve activation of a 2-APB-sensitive Ca(2+) influx.
Project description:Glucose metabolism stimulates cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42)-p21-activated kinase (Pak1) activity and initiates filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton remodeling in pancreatic ?-cells so that cytoplasmic secretory granules can translocate to the plasma membrane where insulin exocytosis occurs. Since glucose metabolism also generates cAMP in ?-cells, the cross talk of cAMP signaling with Cdc42-Pak1 activation might be of fundamental importance to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Previously, the type-2 isoform of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (Epac2) was established to mediate a potentiation of GSIS by cAMP-elevating agents. Here we report that nondiabetic human islets and INS-1 832/13 ?-cells treated with the selective Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-<i>O</i>-Me-cAMP-AM exhibited Cdc42-Pak1 activation at 1 mmol/L glucose and that the magnitude of this effect was equivalent to that which was measured during stimulation with 20 mmol/L glucose in the absence of 8-pCPT-2'-<i>O</i>-Me-cAMP-AM. Conversely, the cAMP antagonist Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB prevented glucose-stimulated Cdc42-Pak1 activation, thereby blocking GSIS while also increasing cellular F-actin content. Although islets from donors with type 2 diabetes had profound defects in glucose-stimulated Cdc42-Pak1 activation and insulin secretion, these defects were rescued by the Epac activator so that GSIS was restored. Collectively, these findings indicate an unexpected role for cAMP as a permissive or direct metabolic coupling factor in support of GSIS that is Epac2 and Cdc42-Pak1 regulated.
Project description:The identification of 2'-O-methyl substituted adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) analogs that activate the Epac family of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMP-GEFs, also known as Epac1 and Epac2), has ushered in a new era of cyclic nucleotide research in which previously unrecognized signalling properties of the second messenger cAMP have been revealed. These Epac-Selective Cyclic AMP Analogs (ESCAs) incorporate a 2'-O-methyl substitution on the ribose ring of cAMP, a modification that impairs their ability to activate protein kinase A (PKA), while leaving intact their ability to activate Epac (the Exchange Protein directly Activated by Cyclic AMP). One such ESCA in wide-spread use is 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. It is a cell-permeant derivative of 2'-O-Me-cAMP, and it is a super activator of Epac. A wealth of newly published studies demonstrate that 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP is a unique tool with which to asses atypical actions of cAMP that are PKA-independent. Particularly intriguing are recent reports demonstrating that ESCAs reproduce the PKA-independent actions of ligands known to stimulate Class I (Family A) and Class II (Family B) GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This topical review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the molecular pharmacology and signal transduction properties of Epac-selective cAMP analogs. Special attention is focused on the rational drug design of ESCAs in order to improve their Epac selectivity, membrane permeability, and stability. Also emphasized is the usefulness of ESCAs as new tools with which to assess the role of Epac as a determinant of intracellular Ca2+ signalling, ion channel function, neurotransmitter release, and hormone secretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nephrotoxicity is the principal dose-limiting factor for cisplatin chemotherapy and is primarily associated with proximal tubular epithelial cells, including disruption of cell adhesions and induction of apoptosis. Cell adhesion and survival is regulated by, amongst other factors, the small GTPase Rap and its activator, the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Epac is particularly enriched in renal tubule epithelium. This study investigates the cytoprotective effects of cAMP-Epac-Rap signalling in a model of cisplatin-induced renal cell injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The Epac-selective cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP was used to activate the Epac-Rap signalling pathway in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Cells were exposed to cisplatin, in the presence or absence of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, and nephrotoxicity was determined by monitoring cell-cell junctions and cell apoptosis. KEY RESULTS: Activation of Epac-Rap signalling preserves cell-cell junctions and protects against cell apoptosis of mouse proximal tubular cells during cisplatin treatment. Activation with the Epac-selective cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP or receptor-mediated induction of cAMP both induced cytoprotection against cisplatin, whereas a PKA-selective cAMP analogue was not cytoprotective. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP mediated cytoprotection was blocked by RNAi-mediated silencing of Epac-Rap signalling in these cells. In contrast, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP did not protect against cisplatin-induced cell death of cancer cells that lacked Epac1 expression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our study identifies activation of Epac-Rap signalling as a potential strategy for reducing the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatments and, as a result, broadens the therapeutic window of this chemotherapeutic agent.
Project description:Analogs of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP have been extensively used to mimic or modulate cellular events mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), or protein kinase G (PKG). We report here that some of the most commonly used cyclic nucleotide analogs inhibit transmembrane transport mediated by the liver specific organic anion transporter peptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, unrelated to actions on Epac, PKA or PKG. Several cAMP analogs, particularly with 8-pCPT-substitution, inhibited nodularin (Nod) induced primary rat hepatocyte apoptosis. Inhibition was not mediated by PKA or Epac, since increased endogenous cAMP, and some strong PKA- or Epac-activating analogs failed to protect cells against Nod induced apoptosis. The cAMP analogs inhibiting Nod induced hepatocyte apoptosis also reduced accumulation of radiolabeled Nod or cholic acid in primary rat hepatocytes. They also inhibited Nod induced apoptosis in HEK293 cells with enforced expression of OATP1B1 or 1B3, responsible for Nod transport into cells. Similar results were found with adenosine analogs, disconnecting the inhibitory effect of certain cAMP analogs from PKA or Epac. The most potent inhibitors were 8-pCPT-6-Phe-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, whereas analogs like 6-MB-cAMP or 8-Br-cAMP did not inhibit Nod uptake. This suggests that the addition of aromatic ring-containing substituents like the chloro-phenyl-thio group to the purines of cyclic nucleotides increases their ability to inhibit the OATP-mediated transport. Taken together, our data show that aromatic ring substituents can add unwanted effects to cyclic nucleotides, and that such nucleotide analogs must be used with care, particularly when working with cells expressing OATP1B1/1B3, like hepatocytes, or intact animals where hepatic metabolism can be an issue, as well as certain cancer cells. On the other hand, cAMP analogs with substituents like bromo, monobutyryl were non-inhibitory, and could be considered an alternative when working with cells expressing OATP1 family members.
Project description:Rap1 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins and is localized on pancreatic zymogen granules. The current study was designed to determine whether GTP-Rap1 is involved in the regulation of amylase secretion. Rap1A/B and the two Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Epac1 and CalDAG-GEF III, were identified in mouse pancreatic acini. A fraction of both Rap1 and Epac1 colocalized with amylase in zymogen granules, but only Rap1 was integral to the zymogen granule membranes. Stimulation with cholecystokinin (CCK), carbachol, and vasoactive intestinal peptide all induced Rap1 activation, as did calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol ester, forskolin, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, and the Epac-specific cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. The phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 abolished carbachol- but not forskolin-induced Rap1 activation. Co-stimulation with carbachol and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP led to an additive effect on Rap1 activation, whereas a synergistic effect was seen on amylase release. Although the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 abolished forskolin-stimulated CREB phosphorylation, it did not modify forskolin-induced GTP-Rap1 levels, excluding PKA participation. Overexpression of Rap1 GTPase-activating protein, which blocked Rap1 activation, reduced the effect of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, and vasoactive intestinal peptide on amylase release by 60% and reduced CCK- as well as carbachol-stimulated pancreatic amylase release by 40%. These findings indicate that GTP-Rap1 is required for pancreatic amylase release. Rap1 activation not only mediates the cAMP-evoked response via Epac1 but is also involved in CCK- and carbachol-induced amylase release, with their action most likely mediated by CalDAG-GEF III.
Project description:In the heart, cAMP is a key regulator of excitation-contraction coupling and its biological effects are mainly associated with the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the cAMP-binding protein Epac (Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) in the regulation of the contractile properties of rat ventricular cardiac myocytes. We report that both PKA and Epac increased cardiac sarcomere contraction but through opposite mechanisms. Differently from PKA, selective Epac activation by the cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT) reduced Ca(2+) transient amplitude and increased cell shortening in intact cardiomyocytes and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Moreover, ventricular myocytes, which were infected in vivo with a constitutively active form of Epac, showed enhanced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity compared to control cells infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) alone. At the molecular level, Epac increased phosphorylation of 2 key sarcomeric proteins, cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C (cMyBP-C). The effects of Epac activation on myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and on cTnI and cMyBP-C phosphorylation were independent of PKA and were blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca(2+) calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors. Altogether these findings identify Epac as a new regulator of myofilament function.
Project description:The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin facilitates synaptic transmission presynaptically via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In addition, cAMP also increases glutamate release via PKA-independent mechanisms, although the downstream presynaptic targets remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the isolation of a PKA-independent component of glutamate release in cerebrocortical nerve terminals after blocking Na(+) channels with tetrodotoxin. We found that 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, a specific activator of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), mimicked and occluded forskolin-induced potentiation of glutamate release. This Epac-mediated increase in glutamate release was dependent on phospholipase C, and it increased the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Moreover, the potentiation of glutamate release by Epac was independent of protein kinase C, although it was attenuated by the diacylglycerol-binding site antagonist calphostin C. Epac activation translocated the active zone protein Munc13-1 from soluble to particulate fractions; it increased the association between Rab3A and RIM1? and redistributed synaptic vesicles closer to the presynaptic membrane. Furthermore, these responses were mimicked by the ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) agonist isoproterenol, consistent with the immunoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemical data demonstrating presynaptic expression of ?ARs in a subset of glutamatergic synapses in the cerebral cortex. Based on these findings, we conclude that ?ARs couple to a cAMP/Epac/PLC/Munc13/Rab3/RIM-dependent pathway to enhance glutamate release at cerebrocortical nerve terminals.