Design of (Gd-DO3A)n-polydiamidopropanoyl-peptide nucleic acid-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) magnetic resonance contrast agents.
ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that chelating Gd(III) to 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethylaza)cyclododecane-10-azaacetylamide (DO3A) on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) hybridization probes would provide a magnetic resonance genetic imaging agent capable of hybridization to a specific mRNA. Because of the low sensitivity of Gd(III) as an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a single Gd-DO3A complex per PNA hybridization agent could not provide enough contrast for detection of cancer gene mRNAs, even at thousands of mRNA copies per cell. To increase the Gd(III) shift intensity of MRI genetic imaging agents, we extended a novel DO3An-polydiamidopropanoyl (PDAPm) dendrimer, up to n = 16, from the N-terminus of KRAS PNA hybridization agents by solid phase synthesis. A C-terminal D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) cyclized peptide analog of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was included to enable receptor-mediated cellular uptake. Molecular dynamic simulation of the (Gd-DO3A-AEEA)16-PDAP4-AEEA2-KRAS PNA-AEEA-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) genetic imaging nanoparticles in explicit water yielded a pair correlation function similar to that of PAMAM dendrimers, and a predicted structure in which the PDAP dendron did not sequester the PNA. Thermal melting measurements indicated that the size of the PDAP dendron included in the (DO3A-AEEA)n-PDAPm-AEEA2-KRAS PNA-AEEA-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) probes (up to 16 Gd(III) cations per PNA) did not depress the melting temperatures (Tm) of the complementary PNA/RNA hybrid duplexes. The Gd(III) dendrimer PNA genetic imaging agents in phantom solutions displayed significantly greater T1 relaxivity per probe (r1 = 30.64 +/- 2.68 mM(-1) s(-1) for n = 2, r1 = 153.84 +/- 11.28 mM(-1) s(-1) for n = 8) than Gd-DTPA (r1 = 10.35 +/- 0.37 mM(-1) s(-1)), but less than that of (Gd-DO3A)32-PAMAM dendrimer (r1 = 771.84 +/- 20.48 mM(-1) s(-1)) (P < 0.05). Higher generations of PDAP dendrimers with 32 or more Gd-DO3A residues attached to PNA-D(Cys-Ser-Lys-Cys) genetic imaging agents might provide greater contrast for more sensitive detection.
Project description:95% of patients with ductal pancreatic cancer carry 12th codon activating mutations in their KRAS2 oncogenes. Early whole body imaging of mutant KRAS2 mRNA activation in pancreatic cancer would contribute to disease management. Scintigraphic hybridization probes to visualize gene activity in vivo constitute a new paradigm in molecular imaging. We have previously imaged mutant KRAS2 mRNA activation in pancreatic cancer xenografts by positron emission tomography (PET) based on a single radiometal, (64)Cu, chelated to a 1,4,7,10-tetra(carboxymethylaza)cyclododecane (DOTA) chelator, connected via a flexible, hydrophilic spacer, aminoethoxyethoxyacetate (AEEA), to the N-terminus of a mutant KRAS2 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) hybridization probe. A peptide analogue of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), connected to a C-terminal AEEA, enabled receptor-mediated endocytosis. We hypothesized that a polydiamidopropanoyl (PDAP) dendrimer (generation m), with increasing numbers (n) of DOTA chelators, extended via an N-terminal AEEA from a mutant KRAS2 PNA with a C-terminal AEEA and IGF1 analogue could enable more intense external imaging of pancreatic cancer xenografts that overexpress IGF1 receptor and mutant KRAS2 mRNA. ([(111)In]DOTA-AEEA)(n)-PDAP(m)-AEEA(2)-KRAS2 PNA-AEEA-IGF1 analogues were prepared and administered intravenously into immunocompromised mice bearing human AsPC1 (G12D) pancreatic cancer xenografts. CAPAN2 (G12 V) pancreatic cancer xenografts served as a cellular KRAS2 mismatch control. Scintigraphic tumor/muscle image intensity ratios for complementary [(111)In](n)-PDAP(m)-KRAS2 G12D probes increased from 3.1 +/- 0.2 at n = 2, m = 1, to 4.1 +/- 0.3 at n = 8, m = 3, to 6.2 +/- 0.4 at n = 16, m = 4, in AsPC1 (G12D) xenografts. Single mismatch [(111)In](n)-PDAP(m)-KRAS2 G12 V control probes showed lower tumor/muscle ratios (3.0 +/- 0.6 at n = 2, m = 1, 2.6 +/- 0.9 at n = 8, m = 3, and 3.7 +/- 0.3 at n = 16, m = 4). The mismatch results were comparable to the PNA-free [(111)In]DOTA control results. Simultaneous administration of nonradioactive Gd(n)-KRAS2 G12 V probes (n = 2 or 8) increased accumulation of [(111)In](8)KRAS2 G12 V probes 3-6-fold in pancreatic cancer CAPAN2 xenografts and other tissues, except for a 2-fold decrease in the kidneys. As a result, tissue distribution tumor/muscle ratios of (111)In uptake increased from 3.1 +/- 0.5 to 6.5 +/- 1.0, and the kidney/tumor ratio of (111)In uptake decreased by more than 5-fold from 174.8 +/- 17.5 to 30.8 +/- 3.1. Thus, PDAP dendrimers with up to 16 DOTA chelators attached to PNA-IGF1 analogs, as well as simultaneous administration of the elevated dose of nonradioactive Gd(n)-KRAS2 G12 V probes, enhanced tumor uptake of [(111)In](n)KRAS2 PNA probes. These results also imply that Gd(III) dendrimeric hybridization probes might be suitable for magnetic resonance imaging of gene expression in tumors, because the higher generations of the dendrimers, including the NMR contrast Gd(n)-KRAS2 G12 V probes, improved tumor accumulation of the probes and specificity of tumor imaging.
Project description:Four gadolinium (Gd)-based macromolecular contrast agents, G3-(Gd-DOTA)(24), G5-(Gd-DOTA)(96), G3-(Gd-DTPA)(24), and G5-(Gd-DTPA)(96), were prepared that varied in the size of dendrimer (generation three and five), the type of chelate group (DTPA or DOTA), and the theoretical number of metalated chelates (24 and 96). Synthesis relied on a dichlorotriazine derivatized with a DOTA or DTPA ligand that was incorporated into the dendrimer and ultimately metalated with Gd ions. Paramagnetic characteristics and in vivo pharmacokinetics of all four contrast agents were investigated. The DOTA-containing agents, G3-(Gd-DOTA)(24) and G5-(Gd-DOTA)(96), demonstrated exceptionally high r1 relaxivity values at off-peak magnetic fields. Additionally, G5-(Gd-DOTA)(96) showed increased r1 relaxivity in serum compared to that in PBS, which was consistent with in vivo images. While G3-(Gd-DOTA)(24) and G3-(Gd-DTPA)(24) were rapidly excreted into the urine, G5-(Gd-DOTA)(96) and G5-(Gd-DTPA)(96) did not clear as quickly through the kidneys. Molecular simulation of the DOTA-containing dendrimers suggests that a majority of the metalated ligands are accessible to water. These triazine dendrimer-based MRI contrast agents exhibit several promising features such as high in vivo r1 relaxivity, desirable pharmacokinetics, and well-defined structure.
Project description:PURPOSE:Copper-64 (Cu-64) and Galium-68 (Ga-68) radiolabeled DO3A and NODA conjugates of exendin-4 were used for preclinical imaging of pancreatic ? cells via targeting of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). PROCEDURES:DO3A-VS- and NODA-VS-tagged Cys(40)exendin-4 (DO3A-VS-Cys(40)-exendin-4 and NODA-VS-Cys(40)-exendin-4, respectively) were labeled with Cu-64 and Ga-68 using standard techniques. Biodistribution and dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) were carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Ex vivo autoradiography imaging was conducted with freshly frozen pancreatic thin sections. RESULTS:DO3A-VS- and NODA-VS-Cys(40)-exendin-4 analogues were labeled with Cu-64 and Ga-68 to a specific activity of 518.7?±?3.7 Ci/mmol (19.19?±?0.14 TBq/mmol) and radiochemical yield above 98 %. Biodistribution data demonstrated pancreatic uptake of 0.11?±?0.02 %ID/g for [(64)Cu]DO3A-VS-, 0.14?±?0.02 %ID/g for [(64)Cu]NODA-VS-, 0.11?±?0.03 for [(68)Ga]DO3A-VS-, and 0.26?±?0.03 for [(68)Ga]NODA-VS-Cys(40)-exendin-4. Excess exendin-4 and exendin-(9-39)-amide displaced all four Cu-64 and Ga-68 labeled exendin-4 derivatives in blocking studies. CONCLUSIONS:[(64)Cu]/[(68)Ga]DO3A-VS-Cys(40)- and [(64)Cu]/[(68)Ga]NODA-VS-Cys(40)-exendin-4 can be used as PET imaging agents specific for GLP-1R expressed on ? cells. Here, we report the first evidence of pancreatic uptake visualized with exendin-4 derivative in a rat animal model via in vivo dynamic PET imaging.
Project description:l-cysteine (Cys)- and l-serine (Ser)-modified, third-generation polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with multiple reduced thiols (Ser-PAMAM-Cys) was synthesized as a kidney-targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger to help prevent renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ser-PAMAM-Cys effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ROS (hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, ~64% of 111In-labeled Ser-PAMAM-Cys accumulated in mouse kidney 3 h after intravenous administration. An in vivo imaging system (IVIS) study indicated that near-infrared fluorescence dye (NIR)-labeled Ser-PAMAM-Cys specifically accumulated in the kidney. In a mouse renal ischemia/reperfusion injury model, increases in the kidney damage markers creatinine (Cre) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly inhibited by intravenous Ser-PAMAM-Cys administration. In contrast, Cys injection had no statistically significant effect of preventing Cre or BUN elevation relative to the control. Ser-PAMAM-Cys also effectively downregulated the inflammatory factors NGAL, IL-18, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in the renal ischemia/reperfusion injury model. These results indicate that Ser-PAMAM-Cys is a promising kidney-targeting ROS scavenger which could prevent ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal failure.
Project description:A new Gadolinium(III)-coumarin complex, DO3A-Gd-CA, was designed and prepared as a dual-modal probe for simultaneous fluorescence and relaxivity responses to fluoride ions (F-) in aqueous media and mice. DO3A-Gd-CA was designed by using Gd(III) center as an MRI signal output unit and fluoride binding site, and the 4-(diethylamino)-coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (CA) as a fluorescence reporter. Upon the addition of fluoride ions to the solution of DO3A-Gd-CA, the liberation of the coordinated CA ligand led to a 5.7-fold fluorescence enhancement and a 75% increase in the longitudinal relaxivity (r?). The fluorescent detection limit for fluoride ions was determined to be 8 ?M based on a 3?/slope. The desirable features of the proposed DO3A-Gd-CA, such as high sensitivity and specificity, reliability at physiological pH and low cytotoxicity enable its application in visualization of fluoride ion in mice. The successful in vivo imaging indicates that DO3A-Gd-CA could be potentially used in biomedical diagnosis fields.
Project description:The design and synthesis of three 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (DO3A) derivatives bearing linkers with terminal thiol groups and a preliminary evaluation of their potential for use in assembling redox-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents are reported. The linkers were selected on the basis of computational docking with a crystal structure of human serum albumin (HSA). Gd(III)-DO3A and Eu(III)-DO3A complexes were synthesized, and the structure of one complex was established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The binding to HSA of a Gd(III)-DO3A complex bearing a thiol-terminated 3,6-dioxanonyl chain was competitively inhibited by homocysteine and by the corresponding Eu chelate. Binding to HSA was abolished when the terminal thiol group of this complex was absent. The longitudinal water-proton relaxivities (r(1)) of the three Gd(III)-DO3A complexes and of two Gd(III)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexes were measured in saline at 7 T. The DO3A complexes exhibited smaller r(1) values, in both bound and free states, than the DOTA complexes.
Project description:Rosmarinic acid (RosA), an important polyphenol, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its application in theranostics has been rarely reported. Therefore, a new single-molecule anti-inflammatory theranostic compound containing RosA would be of great interest. A gadolinium (Gd) complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid (DO3A) and RosA (Gd(DO3A-RosA)(H2O)) was synthesized and examined for use as a single-molecule theranostic agent. Its kinetic stability is comparable to that of clinically used macrocyclic magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. In addition, its relaxivity is higher than that of structurally analogous Gd-BT-DO3A. This agent was evaluated for inflammatory targeting magnetic resonance contrast and showed strong and prolonged enhancement of imaging in inflamed tissues of mice. The theranostic agent also possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, as evidenced by reactive oxygen species scavenging, superoxide dismutase activity, and inflammatory factors. The novel RosA-conjugated Gd complex is a promising theranostic agent for the imaging of inflamed tissues, as well as for the treatment of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Project description:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive diagnostic tool that enables distinguishing healthy from pathological tissues, with high anatomical detail. Nevertheless, MRI is quite limited in the investigation of molecular/cellular biochemical events, which can be reached by fluorescence-based techniques. Thus, we developed bimodal nanosystems consisting in hydrophilic quantum dots (QDs) directly conjugated to Gd(III)-DO3A monoamide chelates, a Gd(III)-DOTA derivative, allowing for the combination of the advantages of both MRI and fluorescence-based tools. These nanoparticulate systems can also improve MRI contrast, by increasing the local concentration of paramagnetic chelates. Transmetallation assays, optical characterization, and relaxometric analyses, showed that the developed bimodal nanoprobes have great chemical stability, bright fluorescence, and high relaxivities. Moreover, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis allowed us to distinguish nanosystems containing different amounts of chelates/QD. Also, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP - OES) indicated a conjugation yield higher than 75%. Our nanosystems showed effective longitudinal relaxivities per QD and per paramagnetic ion, at least 5 times [per Gd(III)] and 100 times (per QD) higher than the r1 for Gd(III)-DOTA chelates, suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Additionally, the bimodal nanoparticles presented negligible cytotoxicity, and efficiently labeled HeLa cells as shown by fluorescence. Thus, the developed nanosystems show potential as strategic probes for fluorescence analyses and MRI, being useful for investigating a variety of biological processes.
Project description:The holostean fishes are the extant representatives of the primitive ray-finned fishes from which the present-day teleosts may have evolved. The primary structure of insulin from a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), was established as: A-chain: Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-Leu-Lys-Pro-Cys-Thr-Ile-Tyr-Glu-Met-Glu- Lys-Tyr-Cys-Asn B-chain: Ala-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala-Leu-Phe-Leu- Val-Cys-Gly-Glu-Ser-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Asn-Pro-Asn-Lys-Ser This amino acid sequence contains several substitutions (methionine at A16, phenylalanine at B16 and serine at B22) at sites that have been strongly conserved in other vertebrate species and that may be expected to influence biological activity. Consistent with this prediction, bowfin insulin was approx. 14-fold less potent than pig insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr-A14](human insulin) to transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells expressing the human insulin receptor.