Lysosomes in iron metabolism, ageing and apoptosis.
ABSTRACT: The lysosomal compartment is essential for a variety of cellular functions, including the normal turnover of most long-lived proteins and all organelles. The compartment consists of numerous acidic vesicles (pH approximately 4 to 5) that constantly fuse and divide. It receives a large number of hydrolases ( approximately 50) from the trans-Golgi network, and substrates from both the cells' outside (heterophagy) and inside (autophagy). Many macromolecules contain iron that gives rise to an iron-rich environment in lysosomes that recently have degraded such macromolecules. Iron-rich lysosomes are sensitive to oxidative stress, while 'resting' lysosomes, which have not recently participated in autophagic events, are not. The magnitude of oxidative stress determines the degree of lysosomal destabilization and, consequently, whether arrested growth, reparative autophagy, apoptosis, or necrosis will follow. Heterophagy is the first step in the process by which immunocompetent cells modify antigens and produce antibodies, while exocytosis of lysosomal enzymes may promote tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Apart from being an essential turnover process, autophagy is also a mechanism by which cells will be able to sustain temporary starvation and rid themselves of intracellular organisms that have invaded, although some pathogens have evolved mechanisms to prevent their destruction. Mutated lysosomal enzymes are the underlying cause of a number of lysosomal storage diseases involving the accumulation of materials that would be the substrate for the corresponding hydrolases, were they not defective. The normal, low-level diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into iron-rich lysosomes causes the slow formation of lipofuscin in long-lived postmitotic cells, where it occupies a substantial part of the lysosomal compartment at the end of the life span. This seems to result in the diversion of newly produced lysosomal enzymes away from autophagosomes, leading to the accumulation of malfunctioning mitochondria and proteins with consequent cellular dysfunction. If autophagy were a perfect turnover process, postmitotic ageing and several age-related neurodegenerative diseases would, perhaps, not take place.
Project description:The introduction of apo-ferritin or the iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated to starch into the lysosomal compartment protects cells against oxidative stress, lysosomal rupture and ensuing apoptosis/necrosis by binding intralysosomal redox-active iron, thus preventing Fenton-type reactions and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal membranes. Because up-regulation of MTs (metallothioneins) also generates enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, including X-irradiation, and MTs were found to be capable of iron binding in an acidic and reducing lysosomal-like environment, we propose that these proteins might similarly stabilize lysosomes following autophagocytotic delivery to the lysosomal compartment. Here, we report that Zn-mediated MT up-regulation, assayed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, results in lysosomal stabilization and decreased apoptosis following oxidative stress, similar to the protection afforded by fluid-phase endocytosis of apo-ferritin or DFO. In contrast, the endocytotic uptake of an iron phosphate complex destabilized lysosomes against oxidative stress, but this was suppressed in cells with up-regulated MT. It is suggested that the resistance against oxidative stress, known to occur in MT-rich cells, may be a consequence of autophagic turnover of MT, resulting in reduced iron-catalysed intralysosomal peroxidative reactions.
Project description:Lysosomes are the main proteolytic compartments of mammalian cells comprising of a battery of hydrolases. Lysosomes dispose and recycle extracellular or intracellular macromolecules by fusing with endosomes or autophagosomes through specific waste clearance processes such as chaperone-mediated autophagy or microautophagy. The proteolytic end product is transported out of lysosomes via transporters or vesicular membrane trafficking. Recent studies have demonstrated lysosomes as a signaling node which sense, adapt and respond to changes in substrate metabolism to maintain cellular function. Lysosomal dysfunction not only influence pathways mediating membrane trafficking that culminate in the lysosome but also govern metabolic and signaling processes regulating protein sorting and targeting. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of lysosome in influencing sorting and nutrient signaling. We further present a mechanistic overview of intra-lysosomal processes, along with extra-lysosomal processes, governing lysosomal fusion and fission, exocytosis, positioning and membrane contact site formation. This review compiles existing knowledge in the field of lysosomal biology by describing various lysosomal events necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis facilitating development of therapies maintaining lysosomal function.
Project description:Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) is an important regulator of vesicle trafficking. By generating actin on the surface of intracellular vesicles, WASH is able to directly regulate endosomal sorting and maturation. We report that, in Dictyostelium, WASH is also required for the lysosomal digestion of both phagocytic and autophagic cargo. Consequently, Dictyostelium cells lacking WASH are unable to grow on many bacteria or to digest their own cytoplasm to survive starvation. WASH is required for efficient phagosomal proteolysis, and proteomic analysis demonstrates that this is due to reduced delivery of lysosomal hydrolases. Both protease and lipase delivery are disrupted, and lipid catabolism is also perturbed. Starvation-induced autophagy therefore leads to phospholipid accumulation within WASH-null lysosomes. This causes the formation of multilamellar bodies typical of many lysosomal storage diseases. Mechanistically, we show that, in cells lacking WASH, cathepsin D becomes trapped in a late endosomal compartment, unable to be recycled to nascent phagosomes and autophagosomes. WASH is therefore required for the maturation of lysosomes to a stage at which hydrolases can be retrieved and reused.
Project description:Lysosomes are thought to be the major intracellular compartment for the degradation of macromolecules. We recently identified a novel type of autophagy, RNautophagy, where RNA is directly taken up by lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner and degraded. However, the mechanism of RNA translocation across the lysosomal membrane and the physiological role of RNautophagy remain unclear. In the present study, we performed gain- and loss-of-function studies with isolated lysosomes, and found that SIDT2 (SID1 transmembrane family, member 2), an ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans putative RNA transporter SID-1 (systemic RNA interference deficient-1), mediates RNA translocation during RNautophagy. We also observed that SIDT2 is a transmembrane protein, which predominantly localizes to lysosomes. Strikingly, knockdown of Sidt2 inhibited up to ˜50% of total RNA degradation at the cellular level, independently of macroautophagy. Moreover, we showed that this impairment is mainly due to inhibition of lysosomal RNA degradation, strongly suggesting that RNautophagy plays a significant role in constitutive cellular RNA degradation. Our results provide a novel insight into the mechanisms of RNA metabolism, intracellular RNA transport, and atypical types of autophagy.
Project description:The antimalarial agent artesunate (ART) activates programmed cell death (PCD) in cancer cells in a manner dependent on the presence of iron and the generation of reactive oxygen species. In malaria parasites, ART cytotoxicity originates from interactions with heme-derived iron within the food vacuole. The analogous digestive compartment of mammalian cells, the lysosome, similarly contains high levels of redox-active iron and in response to specific stimuli can initiate mitochondrial apoptosis. We thus investigated the role of lysosomes in ART-induced PCD and determined that in MCF-7 breast cancer cells ART activates lysosome-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. ART impacted endolysosomal and autophagosomal compartments, inhibiting autophagosome turnover and causing perinuclear clustering of autophagosomes, early and late endosomes, and lysosomes. Lysosomal iron chelation blocked all measured parameters of ART-induced PCD, whereas lysosomal iron loading enhanced death, thus identifying lysosomal iron as the lethal source of reactive oxygen species upstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Moreover, lysosomal inhibitors chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 reduced ART-activated PCD, evidencing a requirement for lysosomal function during PCD signaling. ART killing did not involve activation of the BH3-only protein, Bid, yet ART enhanced TNF-mediated Bid cleavage. We additionally demonstrated the lysosomal PCD pathway in T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Importantly, non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells resisted ART-induced PCD. Together, our data suggest that ART triggers PCD via engagement of distinct, interconnected PCD pathways, with hierarchical signaling from lysosomes to mitochondria, suggesting a potential clinical use of ART for targeting lysosomes in cancer treatment.
Project description:Iron overload in the brain, defined as excess stores of iron, is known to be related to neurological disorder. Among neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, we reported a specific point mutation, 977-1G>A in WDR45, showing iron accumulation in the brain, and autophagy defects in the fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated whether fibroblasts with mutated WDR45 accumulated iron, and other effects on cellular organelles. We first identified the main location of iron accumulation in the mutant fibroblasts and then investigated the effects of this accumulation on other organelles, including lipid droplets, mitochondria, and lysosomes. Ultrastructure analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy showed structural changes in the organelles. Increased numbers of lipid droplets, fragmented mitochondria, and increased lysosomal vesicles with functional disorder due to WDR45 deficiency were observed. The majority of iron accumulation occurred in the lysosomal vesicles, according to correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). These changes were related to defects in autophagy and defective protein and organelle turnover. Gene expression profiling analysis also showed significant changes in lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function, and autophagy-related genes. Those data suggested that functional and structural changes caused impaired lipid metabolism, mitochondrial disorder, and unbalanced autophagy fluxes, due to iron overload. Overall design: The transcriptomic profiles of patient derived WDR45 mutant fibroblasts and normal fibroblasts.
Project description:Oxidative damage to nuclear DNA is known to involve site-specific Fenton-type chemistry catalysed by redox-active iron or copper in the immediate vicinity of DNA. However, the presence of transition metals in the nucleus has not been shown convincingly. Recently, it was proposed that a major part of the cellular pool of loose iron is confined within the acidic vacuolar compartment [Yu, Persson, Eaton and Brunk (2003) Free Radical Biol. Med. 34, 1243-1252; Persson, Yu, Tirosh, Eaton and Brunk (2003) Free Radical Biol. Med. 34, 1295-1305]. Consequently, rupture of secondary lysosomes, as well as subsequent relocation of labile iron to the nucleus, could be an important intermediary step in the generation of oxidative damage to DNA. To test this concept we employed the potent iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated with starch to form an HMM-DFO (high-molecular-mass DFO complex). The HMM-DFO complex will enter cells only via fluid-phase endocytosis and remain within the acidic vacuolar compartment, thereby chelating redox-active iron exclusively inside the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Both free DFO and HMM-DFO equally protected lysosomal-membrane integrity against H2O2-induced oxidative disruption. More importantly, both forms of DFO prevented H2O2-induced strand breaks in nuclear DNA, including telomeres. To exclude the possibility that lysosomal hydrolases, rather than iron, caused the observed DNA damage, limited lysosomal rupture was induced using the lysosomotropic detergent O-methyl-serine dodecylamine hydrochloride; subsequently, hardly any DNA damage was found. These observations suggest that rapid oxidative damage to cellular DNA is minimal in the absence of redox-active iron and that oxidant-mediated DNA damage, observed in normal cells, is mainly derived from intralysosomal iron translocated to the nucleus after lysosomal rupture.
Project description:Autophagy is a conserved cellular process to degrade and recycle cytoplasmic components. During autophagy, lysosomes fuse with an autophagosome to form an autolysosome. Sequestered components are degraded by lysosomal hydrolases and presumably released into the cytosol by lysosomal efflux permeases. Following starvation-induced autophagy, lysosome homeostasis is restored by autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR) requiring activation of the "target of rapamycin" (TOR) kinase. Spinster (Spin) encodes a putative lysosomal efflux permease with the hallmarks of a sugar transporter. Drosophila spin mutants accumulate lysosomal carbohydrates and enlarged lysosomes. Here we show that defects in spin lead to the accumulation of enlarged autolysosomes. We find that spin is essential for mTOR reactivation and lysosome reformation following prolonged starvation. Further, we demonstrate that the sugar transporter activity of Spin is essential for ALR.
Project description:The endocytic delivery of macromolecules from the mammalian cell surface for degradation by lysosomal acid hydrolases requires traffic through early endosomes to late endosomes followed by transient (kissing) or complete fusions between late endosomes and lysosomes. Transient or complete fusion results in the formation of endolysosomes, which are hybrid organelles from which lysosomes are re-formed. We have used synthetic membrane-permeable cathepsin substrates, which liberate fluorescent reporters upon proteolytic cleavage, as well as acid phosphatase cytochemistry to identify which endocytic compartments are acid hydrolase active. We found that endolysosomes are the principal organelles in which acid hydrolase substrates are cleaved. Endolysosomes also accumulated acidotropic probes and could be distinguished from terminal storage lysosomes, which were acid hydrolase inactive and did not accumulate acidotropic probes. Using live-cell microscopy, we have demonstrated that fusion events, which form endolysosomes, precede the onset of acid hydrolase activity. By means of sucrose and invertase uptake experiments, we have also shown that acid-hydrolase-active endolysosomes and acid-hydrolase-inactive, terminal storage lysosomes exist in dynamic equilibrium. We conclude that the terminal endocytic compartment is composed of acid-hydrolase-active, acidic endolysosomes and acid hydrolase-inactive, non-acidic, terminal storage lysosomes, which are linked and function in a lysosome regeneration cycle.
Project description:Cellular stresses trigger autophagy to remove damaged macromolecules and organelles. Lysosomes 'host' multiple stress-sensing mechanisms that trigger the coordinated biogenesis of autophagosomes and lysosomes. For example, transcription factor (TF)EB, which regulates autophagy and lysosome biogenesis, is activated following the inhibition of mTOR, a lysosome-localized nutrient sensor. Here we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate TFEB via a lysosomal Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism independent of mTOR. Exogenous oxidants or increasing mitochondrial ROS levels directly and specifically activate lysosomal TRPML1 channels, inducing lysosomal Ca(2+) release. This activation triggers calcineurin-dependent TFEB-nuclear translocation, autophagy induction and lysosome biogenesis. When TRPML1 is genetically inactivated or pharmacologically inhibited, clearance of damaged mitochondria and removal of excess ROS are blocked. Furthermore, TRPML1's ROS sensitivity is specifically required for lysosome adaptation to mitochondrial damage. Hence, TRPML1 is a ROS sensor localized on the lysosomal membrane that orchestrates an autophagy-dependent negative-feedback programme to mitigate oxidative stress in the cell.