Multilevel analysis of the chronic care model and 5A services for treating tobacco use in urban primary care clinics.
ABSTRACT: To examine the chronic care model (CCM) as a framework for improving provider delivery of 5A tobacco cessation services.Cross-sectional surveys were used to obtain data from 497 health care providers in 60 primary care clinics serving low-income patients in New York City. A hierarchical generalized linear modeling approach to ordinal regression was used to estimate the probability of full 5A service delivery, adjusting for provider covariates and clustering effects. We examined associations between provider delivery of 5A services, clinic implementation of CCM elements tailored for treating tobacco use, and the degree of CCM integration in clinics.Providers practicing in clinics with enhanced delivery system design, clinical information systems, and self-management support for cessation were 2.04-5.62 times more likely to perform all 5A services ( p<.05). CCM integration in clinics was also positively associated with 5As delivery. Compared with none, implementation of one to six CCM elements corresponded with a 3.69-30.9 increased odds of providers delivering the full spectrum of 5As ( p<.01).Findings suggest that the CCM facilitates provider adherence to the Public Health Service 5A clinical guideline. Achieving the full benefits of systems change may require synergistic adoption of all model components.
Project description:The 5As for smoking cessation is an evidence-based intervention to aid providers in counseling patients to quit smoking. While most providers "ask" patients about their tobacco use patterns and "advise" them to quit, fewer patients report being "assessed" for their interest in quitting, and even fewer report subsequent "assistance" in a quit attempt and having follow-up "arranged".This article describes the design of an implementation study testing a computer tablet intervention to improve provider adherence to the 5As for smoking cessation. Findings will contribute to the existing literature on technology acceptance for addressing addictive behaviors, and how digital tools may facilitate the broader implementation of evidence-based behavioral counseling practices without adversely affecting clinical flow or patient care.This project develops and tests a computer-facilitated 5As (CF-5As) model that administers the 5As intervention to patients with a computer tablet, then prompts providers to reinforce next steps. During the development phase, 5As' content will be programmed onto computer tablets, alpha and beta-testing of the service delivery model will be done, and pre-intervention interview and questionnaire data will be collected from patients, providers, and clinic staff about 5As fidelity and technology adoption. During the program evaluation phase, a randomized controlled trial comparing a group who receives the CF-5As intervention to one that does not will be conducted to assess 5As fidelity. Using the technology acceptance model, a mixed methods study of contextual and human factors influencing both 5As and technology adoption will also be conducted.Technology is increasingly being used in clinical settings. A technological tool that connects patients, providers, and clinic staff to facilitate the promotion of behavioral interventions such as smoking cessation may provide an innovative platform through which to efficiently and effectively implement evidence-based practices.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although dental care settings provide an exceptional opportunity to reach smokers and provide brief cessation advice and treatment to reduce oral and other tobacco-related health conditions, dental care providers demonstrate limited adherence to evidence-based guidelines for treatment of tobacco use and dependence. METHODS/DESIGN:Guided by a multi-level, conceptual framework that emphasizes changes in provider beliefs and organizational characteristics as drivers of improvement in tobacco treatment delivery, the current protocol will use a cluster, randomized design and multiple data sources (patient exit interviews, provider surveys, site observations, chart audits, and semi-structured provider interviews) to study the process of implementing clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco dependence in 18 public dental care clinics in New York City. The specific aims of this comparative-effectiveness research trial are to: compare the effectiveness of three promising strategies for implementation of tobacco use treatment guidelines-staff training and current best practices (CBP), CBP?+?provider performance feedback (PF), and CBP?+?PF?+?provider reimbursement for delivery of tobacco cessation treatment (pay-for-performance, or P4P); examine potential theory-driven mechanisms hypothesized to explain the comparative effectiveness of three strategies for implementation; and identify baseline organizational factors that influence the implementation of evidence-based tobacco use treatment practices in dental clinics. The primary outcome is change in providers' tobacco treatment practices and the secondary outcomes are cost per quit, use of tobacco cessation treatments, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence. DISCUSSION:We hypothesize that the value of these promising implementation strategies is additive and that incorporating all three strategies (CBP, PF, and P4P) will be superior to CBP alone and CBP?+?PF in improving delivery of cessation assistance to smokers. The findings will improve knowledge pertinent to the implementation, dissemination, and sustained utilization of evidence-based tobacco use treatment in dental practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01615237.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Behavioural support increases smoking cessation in clinical settings, but effect sizes differ among providers, due possibly to variations in delivery. This study evaluates a measure ('fidelity index') intended to capture fidelity to delivery of content- and interaction-based items of a behavioural support (BS) for smoking cessation and the association of fidelity with quit rates. METHODS:A fidelity index for scoring the adherence and quality domains of a specific BS intervention, '5As for quit', was developed by classifying the intervention components using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques. The index was applied to code 154 BS sessions audiotaped among 18 chest clinics in Pakistan to assess their fidelity and explore reliability of coding. The association between intervention fidelity and successful quit achieved by the same providers in a previous study was explored using regression analysis. RESULTS:The index represented two domains: adherence to delivery of content-based activities of 5As (37 items) and quality of interaction-based activities (eight items). The intercoder reliability was good for content-based (average Krippendorff's ? = 0.80) and moderate for interaction-based (average Krippendorff's ? = 0.66) items. Approximately 70% (intraclass correlation coefficient: adherence scores = 0.72, quality scores = 0.71) of variation in BS delivery was contributed by providers, which increased to 97% (g-coefficient: adherence scores = 0.973, quality scores = 0.974) after accounting for other sources of variation. Higher quit rates were positively associated with average quality scores [risk ratio = 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43-3.24], but negatively associated with average adherence scores (risk ratio = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.40-0.77) within services. CONCLUSIONS:The fidelity index is a reliable measure for quantifying intervention fidelity of delivering smoking cessation behavioural support. Recommended revisions of the fidelity index include incorporation of additional interaction-based items, such as the relational techniques used in motivational interviewing.
Project description:Clinical practice guidelines recommend that clinicians implement the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) for smoking cessation at every clinical encounter. We sought to examine the prevalence of patient- and clinician-reported 5As in two primary care and one HIV care clinics in San Francisco, California between August 2013 and March 2014 (n = 462 patients and n = 61 clinicians). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with receipt of the 5As, adjusting for patient demographics, patient insurance, clinic site, patient tobacco use, and patient comorbidities. The patient-reported prevalence of 5As receipt was as follows: Ask, 49.9%; Advise, 47.2%; Assess, 40.6%; any Assist, 44.9%; and Arrange, 22.4%. In multivariable analysis, receipt of Advise, Assess, and Assist were associated with older patient age. Whereas patients with HIV had a lower odds of reporting being advised (AOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) or assessed for readiness to quit (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), patients with pulmonary diseases had higher odds of reporting being assisted (AOR 1.6, 95% 1.0-2.6) than patients without these diagnoses. Although the majority of clinicians reported asking (91.8%), advising (91.8%), and assessing (93.4%) tobacco use 'most of the time' or 'always' during a clinical encounter, fewer reported assisting (65.7%) or arranging (19.7%) follow-up. Only half of patients reported being screened for tobacco use and fewer reported receipt of the other 5As, with significant disparities in receipt of the 5As among patients with HIV. Our findings confirm the need for interventions to increase clinician-delivered cessation treatment in primary and HIV care.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Smoking is elevated amongst individuals with behavioral health disorders, but not commonly addressed. Taking Texas Tobacco Free is an evidence-based, tobacco-free workplace program that addresses this, in-part, by providing clinician training to treat tobacco use in local mental health authorities (LMHAs). This study examined organizational moderators of change in intervention delivery from pre- to post-program implementation.<h4>Methods</h4>LMHA leaders completed the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) and provided organization demographics pre-implementation. Clinicians (N = 1237) were anonymously surveyed about their consistent use of the 5As (Asking about smoking; Advising clientele to quit; Assessing willingness to quit; Assisting them to quit; Arranging follow-up) pre- and post-program implementation. Adjusted generalized linear mixed models were used for analyses (responses nested within LMHAs), with interaction terms used to assess moderation effects.<h4>Results</h4>Clinician delivery of 5As increased pre- to post-implementation (p < .001). LMHAs with fewer employees (ref = ?300) demonstrated greater increases in Asking, Assessing, and Assisting over time. LMHAs with fewer patients (ref = ?10?000) evinced greater changes in Asking over time. Less initial ORIC Change Efficacy, Change Commitment, and Task Knowledge were each associated with greater pre- to post-implementation changes in Asking. Less initial Task Knowledge was associated with greater increases in Advising, Assessing, and Assisting. Finally, less initial Resource Availability was associated with greater increases in Assisting (all moderation term ps < .025).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The smallest and least ready LMHAs showed the largest gains in tobacco cessation intervention delivery; thus, low initial readiness was not a barrier for program implementation, particularly when efficacy-building training and resources are provided.<h4>Implications</h4>This study examined organizational moderators of increases in tobacco cessation treatment delivery over time following the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco-free workplace program within 20 of 39 LMHAs across Texas (hundreds of clinics; servicing >50% of the state) from 2013 to 2018. Overall, LMHAs with fewer employees and patients, and that demonstrated the least initial readiness for change, evinced greater gains in intervention delivery. Findings add to dissemination and implementation science by supporting that low initial readiness was not a barrier for this aspect of tobacco-free workplace program implementation when resources and clinician training sessions were provided.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Decreases in smoking prevalence from recent decades have slowed, and national goals to reduce tobacco use remain unmet. Healthcare providers, including those in physician and dental teams, have access to evidence-based guidelines to help patients quit smoking. Translation of those guidelines into practice, however, remains low. Approaches that involve screening for drug use, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) are a promising, practical solution.<h4>Purpose</h4>This study examined whether dentists and dental hygienists would assess interest in quitting, deliver a brief tobacco intervention, and refer to a tobacco quitline more frequently as reported by patients if given computer-assisted guidance in an electronic patient record versus a control group providing usual care.<h4>Design</h4>A blocked, group-randomized trial was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011. Randomization was conducted at the clinic level. Patients nested within clinics represented the lowest-level unit of observation.<h4>Setting/participants</h4>Participants were patients in HealthPartners dental clinics.<h4>Intervention</h4>Intervention clinics were given a computer-assisted tool that suggested scripts for patient discussions. Usual care clinics provided care without the tool.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Primary outcomes were post-appointment patient reports of the provider assessing interest in quitting, delivering a brief intervention, and referring them to a quitline.<h4>Results</h4>Patient telephone surveys (72% response rate) indicated that providers assessed interest in quitting (control 70% vs intervention 87%, p=0.0006); discussed specific strategies for quitting (control 26% vs intervention 47%, p=0.003); and referred the patient to a tobacco quitline (control 17% vs intervention 37%, p=0.007) more frequently with the support of a computer-assisted tool integrated into the electronic health record.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Clinical decision support embedded in electronic health records can effectively help providers deliver tobacco interventions. These results build on evidence in medical settings supporting this approach to improve provider-delivered tobacco cessation.<h4>Trial registration</h4>This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.govNCT01584882.
Project description:The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown.To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes.A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors.Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening.Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI,?1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI,?1.19-1.79).Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange follow-up were relatively low. Our findings confirm the need for and benefit of clinicians taking more active intervention steps in helping patients who undergo screening to quit smoking.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pregnancy is an opportunity for health providers to support women to stop smoking. OBJECTIVES:Identify the pooled prevalence for health providers in providing components of smoking cessation care to women who smoke during pregnancy. DESIGN:A systematic review synthesising original articles that reported on (1) prevalence of health providers' performing the 5As ('Ask', 'Advise', 'Assess', 'Assist', 'Arrange'), prescribing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and (2) factors associated with smoking cessation care. DATA SOURCES:MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases searched using 'smoking', 'pregnancy' and 'health provider practices'. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:Studies included any design except interventions (self-report, audit, observed consultations and women's reports), in English, with no date restriction, up to June 2017. PARTICIPANTS:Health providers of any profession. DATA EXTRACTION, APPRAISAL AND ANALYSIS:Data were extracted, then appraised with the Hawker tool. Meta-analyses pooled percentages for performing each of the 5As and prescribing NRT, using, for example, 'often/always' and 'always/all'. Meta-regressions were performed of 5As for 'often/always'. RESULTS:Of 3933 papers, 54 were included (n=29?225 participants): 33 for meta-analysis. Health providers included general practitioners, obstetricians, midwives and others from 10 countries. Pooled percentages of studies reporting practices 'often/always' were: 'Ask' (n=9) 91.6% (95% CI 88.2% to 95%); 'Advise' (n=7) 90% (95% CI 72.5% to 99.3%), 'Assess' (n=3) 79.2% (95% CI 76.5% to 81.8%), 'Assist (cessation support)' (n=5) 59.1% (95% CI 56% to 62.2%), 'Arrange (referral)' (n=6) 33.3% (95% CI 20.4% to 46.2%) and 'prescribing NRT' (n=6) 25.4% (95% CI 12.8% to 38%). Heterogeneity (I2) was 95.9%-99.1%. Meta-regressions for 'Arrange' were significant for year (p=0.013) and country (p=0.037). CONCLUSIONS:Health providers 'Ask', 'Advise' and 'Assess' most pregnant women about smoking. 'Assist', 'Arrange' and 'prescribing NRT' are reported at lower rates: strategies to improve these should be considered. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42015029989.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 5As [Ask, Assess, Advise, Agree, Assist] of Obesity Management Team study was a randomized controlled trial of an intervention that was implemented and evaluated to help primary care providers improve clinical practice for obesity management. This paper presents health care provider perspectives of the impacts of the intervention on individual provider and team practices. METHODS:This study reports a thematic network analysis of qualitative data collected during the 5As Team study, which involved 24 chronic disease teams affiliated with family practices in a Primary Care Network in Alberta. Qualitative data from 28 primary care providers (registered nurses/nurse practitioners [n = 14], dietitians [n = 7] and mental health workers [n = 7]) in the intervention arm were collected through semistructured interviews, field notes, practice facilitator diaries and 2 evaluation workshop questionnaires. RESULTS:Providers internalized 5As Team intervention concepts, deepening self-evaluation and changing clinical reasoning around obesity. Providers perceived that this internalization changed the provider-patient relationship positively. The intervention changed relations between providers, increasing interdisciplinary understanding, collaboration and discovery of areas for improvement. This personal and interpersonal evolution effected change to the entire Primary Care Network. INTERPRETATION:The 5As Team intervention had multiple impacts on providers and teams to improve obesity management in primary care. Improved provider confidence and capability is a precondition of developing effective patient interventions. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no.: NCT01967797.
Project description:Thirty percent of all cancers are directly attributable to smoking, yet tobacco cessation treatment is not commonly provided at cancer clinics.To assess current tobacco cessation practices among Wisconsin cancer clinics and to measure their receptivity to onsite training and technical assistance to increase their delivery of evidence-based tobacco cessation treatment.An online survey to assess current tobacco use identification and treatment clinical practice at 16 Wisconsin cancer clinics affiliated with the Wisconsin Oncology Network.Fifteen clinics responded to the survey and 11 agreed to onsite academic detailing. Most clinics reported that they identify tobacco users, but fewer advised smokers to quit or provided evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments.Less than half of Wisconsin cancer clinics consistently seize the oncology visit to address tobacco use, and the majority of cancer clinics are receptive to onsite academic detailing to increase the frequency and effectiveness of their tobacco cessation interventions.