Keratinocyte but not endothelial cell-specific overexpression of Tie2 leads to the development of psoriasis.
ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is initiated and maintained through a multifaceted interplay between keratinocytes, blood vessels, gene expression, and the immune system. One previous psoriasis model demonstrated that overexpression of the angiopoietin receptor Tie2 in endothelial cells and keratinocytes led to the development of a psoriasiform phenotype; however, the etiological significance of overexpression in each cell type alone was unclear. We have now engineered two new mouse models whereby Tie2 expression is confined to either endothelial cells or keratinocytes. Both lines of mice have significant increases in dermal vasculature but only the KC-Tie2-overexpressing mice developed a cutaneous psoriasiform phenotype. These mice spontaneously developed characteristic hallmarks of human psoriasis, including extensive acanthosis, increases in dermal CD4(+) T cells, infiltrating epidermal CD8(+) T cells, dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and increased expression of cytokines and chemokines associated with psoriasis, including interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukins 1alpha, 6, 12, 22, 23, and 17. Host-defense molecules, cathelicidin, beta-defensin, and S100A8/A9, were also up-regulated in the hyperproliferative skin. All of the phenotypic traits were completely reversed without any scarring following repression of the transgene and were significantly improved following treatment with the anti-psoriasis systemic therapeutic, cyclosporin A. Therefore, confining Tie2 overexpression solely to keratinocytes results in a mouse model that meets the clinical, histological, immunophenotypic, biochemical, and pharmacological criteria required for an animal model of human psoriasis.
Project description:There is ongoing debate regarding the initiation of psoriatic plaque as primarily arising from an anomaly in epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) or from abnormalities in immunocytes that secondarily activate otherwise normal KCs. In mice engineered to overexpress the angiopoietin receptor Tie2 in KCs, skin spontaneously develops the characteristic clinical, histological and immune cell phenotypes of psoriasis which can be reversed with either transgene repression or ciclosporin administration, suggesting key roles for both KCs and T cells in mediating the skin disease in this murine model.To determine if antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and macrophages alone are sufficient to sustain psoriasiform inflammation in the KC-Tie2 murine model of psoriasis.Clodronate liposomes were intradermally injected into involved dorsal skin of KC-Tie2 or control animals once a week for 6weeks and acanthosis, angiogenesis, immune cell infiltration and cytokine production were quantitated using immunohistochemistry and interactive image analyses, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).Clodronate liposome injection eliminated CD11c+, F4/80+ and CD11b+ cells in the skin and returned CD8+ T-cell numbers to control mouse levels. APC depletion in KC-Tie2 mouse skin resulted in resolution of the acanthotic skin phenotype, decreased dermal angiogenesis, and a return to control mouse levels for interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-23 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? expression and modest reductions in interferon-? and IL-17.These findings suggest a critical role for APCs and myeloid cell-derived IL-23 and TNF-? and underscore the importance of Th1 and Th17 T cells in maintaining the psoriasiform skin phenotype in the KC-Tie2 mouse model.
Project description:Nervous system involvement in psoriasis pathogenesis is supported by increases in nerve fiber numbers and neuropeptides in psoriatic skin and by reports detailing spontaneous plaque remission following nerve injury. Using the KC-Tie2 psoriasiform mouse model, we investigated the mechanisms by which nerve injury leads to inflammatory skin disease remission. Cutaneous nerves innervating dorsal skin of KC-Tie2 animals were surgically axotomized and beginning 1 day after denervation, CD11c(+) cell numbers decreased by 40% followed by a 30% improvement in acanthosis at 7 days and a 30% decrease in CD4(+) T-cell numbers by 10 days. Restoration of substance P (SP) signaling in denervated KC-Tie2 skin prevented decreases in CD11c(+) and CD4(+) cells, but had no effect on acanthosis; restoration of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling reversed the improvement in acanthosis and prevented denervated-mediated decreases in CD4(+) cells. Under innervated conditions, small-molecule inhibition of SP in KC-Tie2 animals resulted in similar decreases to those observed following surgical denervation for cutaneous CD11c(+) and CD4(+) cell numbers; whereas small-molecule inhibition of CGRP resulted in significant reductions in CD4(+) cell numbers and acanthosis. These data demonstrate that sensory nerve-derived peptides mediate psoriasiform dendritic cell and T-cell infiltration and acanthosis and introduce targeting nerve-immunocyte/KC interactions as potential psoriasis therapeutic treatment strategies.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 pathway is key for development of skin immunopathology. However, the role of keratinocytes and their crosstalk with immune cells at the onset of disease remains poorly understood. Here, we show that IL-36R-deficient (Il36r-/-) mice were protected from imiquimod-induced expansion of dermal IL-17-producing ?? T cells and psoriasiform dermatitis. Furthermore, IL-36R antagonist-deficient (Il36rn-/-) mice showed exacerbated pathology. TLR7 ligation on DCs induced IL-36-mediated crosstalk with keratinocytes and dermal mesenchymal cells that was crucial for control of the pathological IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 axis and disease development. Notably, mice lacking IL-23, IL-17, or IL-22 were less well protected from disease compared with Il36r-/- mice, indicating an additional distinct activity of IL-36 beyond induction of the pathological IL-23 axis. Moreover, while the absence of IL-1R1 prevented neutrophil infiltration, it did not protect from acanthosis and hyperkeratosis, demonstrating that neutrophils are dispensable for disease manifestation. These results highlight a central and unique IL-1-independent role for IL-36 in control of the IL-23/IL-17/IL-22 pathway and development of psoriasiform dermatitis.
Project description:Psoriasis patients experience chronic systemic skin inflammation and develop cardiovascular comorbidities that shorten their lifespan. Whether cardiovascular disease is improved by treatment with current biologics that target disease-specific pathways is unclear. KC-Tie2 mice develop psoriasiform skin inflammation with increases in IL-23 and IL-17A and proinflammatory monocytosis and neutrophilia that precedes development of carotid artery thrombus formation. To examine whether targeted blockade of IL-23 or IL-17A in KC-Tie2 psoriasis mice improves cardiovascular outcomes, mice were treated systemically for 6 weeks with antibodies targeting IL-17A, IL-17RA, IL-12/23p40, or IL-23p19. Skin inflammation; thrombosis clotting times; and percentage of splenic monocytes, neutrophils, and CD4 T cells were examined. Skin inflammation significantly improved in KC-Tie2 mice treated with each of the antibodies targeting IL-23, IL-17A, or IL-17RA, consistent with clinical efficacy observed in psoriasis patients. The time to occlusive thrombus formation lengthened in these mice and correlated with attenuated acanthosis. This decrease in skin inflammation paralleled decreases in splenic neutrophils (CD11b+Ly6G+) but not monocytes (CD11b+Ly6Chigh) or T cells (CD4+). Our data show that targeted inhibition of IL-23 or IL-17A improves psoriasis-like skin disease and also improves cardiovascular disease in mice.
Project description:The IL-36 family cytokines have emerged as important mediators of dermal inflammation in psoriasis and have been reported to provide a proinflammatory stimulus to a variety of immune and stromal cell subsets in the inflamed skin. However, it remains to be determined which cell type, if any, in the skin plays a predominant role in mediating IL-36 cytokines instructive role in disease. Here, we demonstrate that targeted deletion of Il36r in keratinocytes results in similar levels of protection from psoriasiform inflammation observed in "global" Il36r-deficient mice. Mice with deficiency in IL-36 receptor expression on keratinocytes had significantly decreased expression, comparable with Il36r-deficient mice, of established mediators of psoriatic inflammation, including, IL-17a, IL-23, IL-22, and a loss of chemokine-induced neutrophil and IL-17A-expressing ?? T-cell subset infiltration to the inflamed skin. These data demonstrate that keratinocytes are the primary orchestrating cell in mediating the effects of IL-36-driven dermal inflammation in the imiquimod model of psoriasiform inflammation and shed new light on the cell-specific roles of IL-36 cytokines during psoriatic disease.
Project description:Skin cells produce soluble factors which influence keratinocyte proliferation, angiogenesis, nerve innervation and immunocyte response.To test the hypothesis that epidermal-dermal interactions influence neural outgrowth, vascular survival, immunocyte recruitment and keratinocyte proliferation.We genetically manipulated the epidermis to express excess vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and/or angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and then examined the epidermal and dermal phenotypes. We compared these findings with those occurring following overexpression of the Ang1 receptor Tie2 in endothelial cells or keratinocytes.Keratinocyte-overexpression of Ang1 resulted in increased epidermal thickness compared to control littermates. Keratinocyte-specific overexpression of Ang1 or VEGF increased dermal angiogenesis compared to control animals and combined Ang1-VEGF lead to further increases. Cutaneous leukocyte examination revealed increases in CD4(+) T cell infiltration in mice with keratinocyte-specific overexpression of Ang1, VEGF and Ang1-VEGF combined; in contrast only keratinocyte-specific Ang1 overexpression increased cutaneous F4/80(+) macrophage numbers. Interestingly, combined keratinocyte-derived Ang1-VEGF overexpression reduced significantly the number of F4/80(+) and Cd11c(+) cells compared to mice overexpressing epidermal Ang1 alone. Endothelial cell-specific Tie2 overexpression increased dermal angiogenesis but failed to influence the epidermal and immune cell phenotypes. Keratinocyte-specific Tie2 expressing mice had the highest levels of CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD11c(+) cell numbers and acanthosis compared to all animals. Finally, increases in the number of cutaneous nerves were found in all transgenic mice compared to littermate controls.These findings demonstrate that change to one system (vascular or epidermal) results in change to other cutaneous systems and suggest that individual molecules can exert effects on multiple systems.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte activation is known to play a critical role in psoriasis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), an innate immune system sensor, is reported to affect keratinocyte function. We therefore hypothesized that IFI16 promotes psoriasis by modulating keratinocyte activation. In the present study, we cinfirmed that IFI16 was overexpressed in epidermal keratinocytes of psoriasis patients. In addition, psoriasis-related cytokines, including IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17 and IL-22, induced IFI16 up-regulation in keratinocytes via activation of STAT3 signaling. We also observed that IFI16 activated the TBK1-NF-?B signaling, leading to the production of CXCL10 and CCL20. Importantly, knocking down p204, which is reported as the mouse orthologous of human IFI16, inhibited epidermal hyperplasia in mice with imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. These findings indicate that IFI16 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may be a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Keratinocytes of psoriasis have anti-apoptotic properties including delayed apoptosis process, accelerated proliferation metabolism and postponed differentiation process. However, the specific mechanism leading to the abnormal biological behavior of keratinocytes remains unclear.<h4>Objectives</h4>We investigated the role of increased RPL22 expression in regulating the abnormal biological behavior of keratinocytes and the mechanism of regulation of RPL22 expression in skin lesions of psoriatic patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined clinical samples and utilized cytokine-induced cell and IMQ-treated mouse models. We determined the expression and functions of RPL22 <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>.<h4>Results</h4>We showed that RPL22 expression was significantly increased in the skin lesions of psoriasis patients and IMQ-treated psoriatic-like mice. Such increased expression is attributed to hyperacetylation of histone H3K27 in the promoter region of RPL22. Interestingly, overexpression of RPL22 enhanced keratinocyte proliferation by increasing cyclinD1 expression and accelerated CD4<sup>+</sup>T cells recruitment <i>via</i> upregulating CXCL10 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that RPL22 overexpression promoted psoriasiform phenotypes in IMQ-induced mouse skins.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggested that RPL22 regulates keratinocytes abnormal biological behavior and contributes to the development of psoriatic phenotypes. Thus, RPL22 might be a novel potential molecular target for treatment of psoriasis.
Project description:To improve the treatment of psoriasiform inflammation, we developed actively targeted nanocarriers loaded with the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor AN2728. <b>Methods:</b> Phospholipid-poly(lactic-<i>co</i>-glycolic acid) nanohybrids were prepared and conjugated with monovalent anti-desmoglein 3 antibody to bind keratinocytes. <b>Results:</b> The actively targeted nanohybrids were 229 nm in mean size with a nearly neutral surface charge. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed a 9-fold increase in keratinocyte uptake of targeted nanohybrids relative to non-targeted nanoparticles. The nanoparticles localized mainly in lysosomes after internalization. AN2728-loaded antibody-conjugated nanocarriers inhibited cytokine/chemokine overexpression in activated keratinocytes without affecting cell viability. The targeted nanohybrids also suppressed neutrophil migration by reducing CXCL1 and CXCL2 release from keratinocytes. Following subcutaneous administration in mice, the nanohybrids distributed to the epidermis and hair follicles. In a psoriasis-like skin mouse model, the actively targeted nanoparticles were superior to free drug and non-targeted nanoparticles in mitigating skin inflammation. Intervention with the targeted nanosystem reduced the epidermal thickness of the psoriasiform lesion from 191 to 42 µm, decreased the Psoriasis Area Severity Index by 74%, restored barrier function, and returned chemokine levels to baseline. <b>Conclusions:</b> Our developed nanosystem was safe and demonstrated efficient targeting properties for the treatment of cutaneous inflammation.
Project description:Glycerol is used in many skin care products because it improves skin function. Anecdotal reports by patients on the National Psoriasis Foundation website also suggest that glycerol may be helpful for the treatment of psoriasis, although to date no experimental data confirm this idea. Glycerol entry into epidermal keratinocytes is facilitated by aquaglyceroporins like aquaporin-3 (AQP3), and its conversion to phosphatidylglycerol, a lipid messenger that promotes keratinocyte differentiation, requires the lipid-metabolizing enzyme phospholipase-D2 (PLD2). To evaluate whether glycerol inhibits inflammation and psoriasiform lesion development in the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse model of psoriasis, glycerol's effect on psoriasiform skin lesions was determined in IMQ-treated wild-type and PLD2 knockout mice, with glycerol provided either in drinking water or applied topically. Psoriasis area and severity index, ear thickness and ear biopsy weight, epidermal thickness, and inflammatory markers were quantified. Topical and oral glycerol ameliorated psoriasiform lesion development in wild-type mice. Topical glycerol appeared to act as an emollient to induce beneficial effects, since even in PLD2 knockout mice topical glycerol application improved skin lesions. In contrast, the beneficial effects of oral glycerol required PLD2, with no improvement in psoriasiform lesions observed in PLD2 knockout mice. Our findings suggest that the ability of oral glycerol to improve psoriasiform lesions requires its PLD2-mediated conversion to phosphatidylglycerol, consistent with our previous report that phosphatidylglycerol itself improves psoriasiform lesions in this model. Our data also support anecdotal evidence that glycerol can ameliorate psoriasis symptoms and therefore might be a useful therapy alone or in conjunction with other treatments.