A structure-based approach for detection of thiol oxidoreductases and their catalytic redox-active cysteine residues.
ABSTRACT: Cysteine (Cys) residues often play critical roles in proteins, for example, in the formation of structural disulfide bonds, metal binding, targeting proteins to the membranes, and various catalytic functions. However, the structural determinants for various Cys functions are not clear. Thiol oxidoreductases, which are enzymes containing catalytic redox-active Cys residues, have been extensively studied, but even for these proteins there is little understanding of what distinguishes their catalytic redox Cys from other Cys functions. Herein, we characterized thiol oxidoreductases at a structural level and developed an algorithm that can recognize these enzymes by (i) analyzing amino acid and secondary structure composition of the active site and its similarity to known active sites containing redox Cys and (ii) calculating accessibility, active site location, and reactivity of Cys. For proteins with known or modeled structures, this method can identify proteins with catalytic Cys residues and distinguish thiol oxidoreductases from the enzymes containing other catalytic Cys types. Furthermore, by applying this procedure to Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins containing conserved Cys, we could identify the majority of known yeast thiol oxidoreductases. This study provides insights into the structural properties of catalytic redox-active Cys and should further help to recognize thiol oxidoreductases in protein sequence and structure databases.
Project description:Thiol-dependent redox systems are involved in regulation of diverse biological processes, such as response to stress, signal transduction, and protein folding. The thiol-based redox control is provided by mechanistically similar, but structurally distinct families of enzymes known as thiol oxidoreductases. Many such enzymes have been characterized, but identities and functions of the entire sets of thiol oxidoreductases in organisms are not known. Extreme sequence and structural divergence makes identification of these proteins difficult. Thiol oxidoreductases contain a redox-active cysteine residue, or its functional analog selenocysteine, in their active sites. Here, we describe computational methods for in silico prediction of thiol oxidoreductases in nucleotide and protein sequence databases and identification of their redox-active cysteines. We discuss different functional categories of cysteine residues, describe methods for discrimination between catalytic and noncatalytic and between redox and non-redox cysteine residues and highlight unique properties of the redox-active cysteines based on evolutionary conservation, secondary and three-dimensional structures, and sporadic replacement of cysteines with catalytically superior selenocysteine residues.
Project description:Numerous cellular processes are subject to redox regulation, and thiol-dependent redox control, acting through reactive cysteine (Cys) residues, is among the major mechanisms of redox regulation. However, information on the sets of proteins that provide thiol-based redox regulation or are affected by it is limited. Here, we describe proteomic approaches to characterize proteins that contain reactive thiols and methods to identify redox Cys in these proteins. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model organism, we identified 284 proteins with exposed reactive Cys and determined the identities of 185 of these residues. We then characterized subsets of these proteins as in vitro targets of major cellular thiol oxidoreductases, thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, and found that these enzymes can control the redox state of a significant number of thiols in target proteins. We further examined common features of exposed reactive Cys and compared them with an unbiased control set of Cys using computational approaches. This analysis (i) validated the efficacy of targeting exposed Cys in proteins in their native, folded state, (ii) quantified the proportion of targets that can be redox regulated via thiol oxidoreductase systems, and (iii) revealed the theoretical range of the experimental approach with regard to protein abundance and physicochemical properties of reactive Cys. From these analyses, we estimate that approximately one-fourth of exposed Cys in the yeast proteome can be regarded as functional sites, either subject to regulation by thiol oxidoreductases or involved in structural disulfides and metal binding.
Project description:Selenocysteine (Sec) is found in active sites of several oxidoreductases in which this residue is essential for catalytic activity. However, many selenoproteins have fully functional orthologs, wherein cysteine (Cys) occupies the position of Sec. The reason why some enzymes evolve into selenoproteins if the Cys versions may be sufficient is not understood. Among three mammalian methionine-R-sulfoxide reductases (MsrBs), MsrB1 is a Sec-containing protein, whereas MsrB2 and MsrB3 contain Cys in the active site, making these enzymes an excellent system for addressing the question of why Sec is used in biological systems. In this study, we found that residues, which are uniquely conserved in Cys-containing MsrBs and which are critical for enzyme activity in MsrB2 and MsrB3, were not required for MsrB1, but increased the activity of its Cys mutant. Conversely, selenoprotein MsrB1 had a unique resolving Cys reversibly engaged in the selenenylsulfide bond. However, this Cys was not necessary for activities of either MsrB2, MsrB3, or the Cys mutant of MsrB1. We prepared Sec-containing forms of MsrB2 and MsrB3 and found that they were more than 100-fold more active than the natural Cys forms. However, these selenoproteins could not be reduced by the physiological electron donor, thioredoxin. Yet, insertion of the resolving Cys, which was conserved in MsrB1, into the selenoprotein form of MsrB3 restored the thioredoxin-dependent activity of this enzyme. These data revealed differences in catalytic mechanisms between selenoprotein MsrB1 and non-selenoproteins MsrB2 and MsrB3, and identified catalytic advantages and disadvantages of Sec- and Cys-containing proteins. The data also suggested that Sec- and Cys-containing oxidoreductases require distinct sets of active-site features that maximize their catalytic efficiencies and provide strategies for protein design with improved catalytic properties.
Project description:Redox regulation of cellular processes is an important mechanism that operates in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Much of the redox control is provided by thiol oxidoreductases: proteins that employ cysteine residues for redox catalysis. We wanted to identify thiol oxidoreductases on a genome-wide scale and use this information to obtain insights into the general principles of thiol-based redox control.Thiol oxidoreductases were identified by three independent methods that took advantage of the occurrence of selenocysteine homologs of these proteins and functional linkages among thiol oxidoreductases revealed by comparative genomics. Based on these searches, we describe thioredoxomes, which are sets of thiol oxidoreductases in organisms. Their analyses revealed that these proteins are present in all living organisms, generally account for 0.5%-1% of the proteome and that their use correlates with proteome size, distinguishing these proteins from those involved in core metabolic functions. We further describe thioredoxomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans, including proteins which have not been characterized previously. Thiol oxidoreductases occur in various cellular compartments and are enriched in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol.We developed bioinformatics methods and used them to characterize thioredoxomes on a genome-wide scale, which in turn revealed properties of thioredoxomes.These data provide information about organization and properties of thiol-based redox control, whose use is increased with the increase in complexity of organisms. Our data also show an essential combined function of a set of thiol oxidoreductases, and of thiol-based redox regulation in general, in all living organisms.
Project description:Bacillithiol (BSH) is the major low-molecular-weight thiol of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we used OxICAT and Voronoi redox treemaps to quantify hypochlorite-sensitive protein thiols in S. aureus USA300 and analyzed the role of BSH in protein S-bacillithiolation.The OxICAT analyses enabled the quantification of 228 Cys residues in the redox proteome of S. aureus USA300. Hypochlorite stress resulted in >10% increased oxidation of 58 Cys residues (25.4%) in the thiol redox proteome. Among the highly oxidized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)-sensitive proteins are five S-bacillithiolated proteins (Gap, AldA, GuaB, RpmJ, and PpaC). The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase Gap represents the most abundant S-bacillithiolated protein contributing 4% to the total Cys proteome. The active site Cys151 of Gap was very sensitive to overoxidation and irreversible inactivation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or NaOCl in vitro. Treatment with H2O2 or NaOCl in the presence of BSH resulted in reversible Gap inactivation due to S-bacillithiolation, which could be regenerated by the bacilliredoxin Brx (SAUSA300_1321) in vitro. Molecular docking was used to model the S-bacillithiolated Gap active site, suggesting that formation of the BSH mixed disulfide does not require major structural changes. Conclusion and Innovation: Using OxICAT analyses, we identified 58 novel NaOCl-sensitive proteins in the pathogen S. aureus that could play protective roles against the host immune defense and include the glycolytic Gap as major target for S-bacillithiolation. S-bacillithiolation of Gap did not require structural changes, but efficiently functions in redox regulation and protection of the active site against irreversible overoxidation in S. aureus. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 410-430.
Project description:Methionine sulfoxide reductases are key enzymes that repair oxidatively damaged proteins. Two distinct stereospecific enzyme families are responsible for this function: MsrA (methionine-S-sulfoxide reductase) and MsrB (methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase). In the present study, we identified multiple selenoprotein MsrA sequences in organisms from bacteria to animals. We characterized the selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Chlamydomonas MsrA and found that this protein exhibited 10-50-fold higher activity than either its cysteine (Cys) mutant form or the natural mouse Cys-containing MsrA, making this selenoenzyme the most efficient MsrA known. We also generated a selenoprotein form of mouse MsrA and found that the presence of Sec increased the activity of this enzyme when a resolving Cys was mutated in the protein. These data suggest that the presence of Sec improves the reduction of methionine sulfoxide by MsrAs. However, the oxidized selenoprotein could not always be efficiently reduced to regenerate the active enzyme. Overall, this study demonstrates that sporadically evolved Sec-containing forms of methionine sulfoxide reductases reflect catalytic advantages provided by Sec in these and likely other thiol-dependent oxidoreductases.
Project description:Selenocysteine (Sec, U) insertion into proteins is directed by translational recoding of specific UGA codons located upstream of a stem-loop structure known as Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element. Selenoproteins with known functions are oxidoreductases containing a single redox-active Sec in their active sites. In this work, we identified a family of selenoproteins, designated SelL, containing two Sec separated by two other residues to form a UxxU motif. SelL proteins show an unusual occurrence, being present in diverse aquatic organisms, including fish, invertebrates, and marine bacteria. Both eukaryotic and bacterial SelL genes use single SECIS elements for insertion of two Sec. In eukaryotes, the SECIS is located in the 3' UTR, whereas the bacterial SelL SECIS is within a coding region and positioned at a distance that supports the insertion of either of the two Sec or both of these residues. SelL proteins possess a thioredoxin-like fold wherein the UxxU motif corresponds to the catalytic CxxC motif in thioredoxins, suggesting a redox function of SelL proteins. Distantly related SelL-like proteins were also identified in a variety of organisms that had either one or both Sec replaced with Cys. Danio rerio SelL, transiently expressed in mammalian cells, incorporated two Sec and localized to the cytosol. In these cells, it occurred in an oxidized form and was not reducible by DTT. In a bacterial expression system, we directly demonstrated the formation of a diselenide bond between the two Sec, establishing it as the first diselenide bond found in a natural protein.
Project description:Proteins of the ERV1/ALR family are encoded by all eukaryotes and cytoplasmic DNA viruses for which substantial sequence information is available. Nevertheless, the roles of these proteins are imprecisely known. Multiple alignments of ERV1/ALR proteins indicated an invariant C-X-X-C motif, but no similarity to the thioredoxin fold was revealed by secondary structure predictions. We chose a virus model to investigate the role of these proteins as thiol oxidoreductases. When cells were infected with a mutant vaccinia virus in which the E10R gene encoding an ERV1/ALR family protein was repressed, the disulfide bonds of three other viral proteins-namely, the L1R and F9L proteins and the G4L glutaredoxin-were completely reduced. The same outcome occurred when Cys-43 or Cys-46, the putative redox cysteines of the E10R protein, was mutated to serine. These two cysteines were disulfide bonded during a normal virus infection but not if the synthesis of other viral late proteins was inhibited or the E10R protein was expressed by itself in uninfected cells, suggesting a requirement for an upstream viral thiol oxidoreductase. Remarkably, the cysteine-containing domains of the E10R and L1R viral membrane proteins and the glutaredoxin are in the cytoplasm, in which assembly of vaccinia virions occurs, rather than in the oxidizing environment of the endoplasmic reticulum. These data indicated a viral pathway of disulfide bond formation in which the E10R protein has a central role. By extension, the ERV1/ALR family may represent a ubiquitous class of cellular thiol oxidoreductases that interact with glutaredoxins or thioredoxins.
Project description:In bacillithiol (BSH)-utilizing organisms, protein S-bacillithiolation functions as a redox switch in response to oxidative stress and protects critical Cys residues against overoxidation. In Bacillus subtilis, both the redox-sensing repressor OhrR and the methionine synthase MetE are redox controlled by S-bacillithiolation in vivo. Here, we identify pathways of protein de-bacillithiolation and test the hypothesis that YphP(BrxA) and YqiW(BrxB) act as bacilliredoxins (Brx) to remove BSH from OhrR and MetE mixed disulfides.We present evidence that the BrxA and BrxB paralogs have de-bacillithiolation activity. This Brx activity results from attack of the amino-terminal Cys residue in a CGC motif on protein BSH-mixed disulfides. B. subtilis OhrR DNA-binding activity is eliminated by S-thiolation on its sole Cys residue. Both the BrxA and BrxB bacilliredoxins mediate de-bacillithiolation of OhrR accompanied by the transfer of BSH to the amino-terminal cysteine of their CGC active site motif. In vitro studies demonstrate that BrxB can restore DNA-binding activity to OhrR which is S-bacillithiolated, but not to OhrR that is S-cysteinylated. MetE is most strongly S-bacillithiolated at Cys719 in vitro and can be efficiently de-bacillithiolated by both BrxA and BrxB.We demonstrate that BrxA and BrxB function in the reduction of BSH mixed protein disulfides with two natural substrates (MetE, OhrR). These results provide biochemical evidence for a new class of bacterial redox-regulatory proteins, the bacilliredoxins, which function analogously to glutaredoxins. Bacilliredoxins function in concert with other thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases to maintain redox homeostasis in response to disulfide stress conditions.
Project description:Selenocysteine (Sec) residues occur in thiol oxidoreductase families, and functionally characterized selenoenzymes typically have a single Sec residue used directly for redox catalysis. However, how new Sec residues evolve and whether non-catalytic Sec residues exist in proteins is not known. Here, we computationally identified several genes with multiple Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) elements, one of which was a methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase (MsrB) homolog from Metridium senile that has four in-frame UGA codons and two nearly identical SECIS elements. One of the UGA codons corresponded to the conserved catalytic Sec or Cys in MsrBs, whereas the three other UGA codons evolved recently and had no homologs with Sec or Cys in these positions. Metabolic (75)Se labeling showed that all four in-frame UGA codons supported Sec insertion and that both SECIS elements were functional and collaborated in Sec insertion at each UGA codon. Interestingly, recombinant M. senile MsrB bound iron, and further analyses suggested the possibility of binding an iron-sulfur cluster by the protein. These data show that Sec residues may appear transiently in genes containing SECIS elements and be adapted for non-catalytic functions.