Differential effect of extracellular acidosis on the release and dispersal of soluble and membrane proteins secreted from the Weibel-Palade body.
ABSTRACT: Proteins secreted from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) play important roles in regulating inflammatory and hemostatic responses. Inflammation is associated with the extracellular acidification of tissues and blood, conditions that can alter the behavior of secreted proteins. The effect of extracellular pH (pH(o)) on the release of von Willebrand factor (VWF), the VWF-propolypeptide (Proregion), interleukin-8, eotaxin-3, P-selectin, and CD63 from WPBs was investigated using biochemical approaches and by direct optical analysis of individual WPB fusion events in human endothelial cells expressing green or red fluorescent fusions of these different cargo proteins. Between pH(o) 7.4 and 7.0, ionomycin-evoked WPB exocytosis was characterized by the adhesion of VWF to the cell surface and the formation of long filamentous strands. The rapid dispersal of Proregion, interleukin-8, and eotaxin-3 into solution, and of P-selectin and CD63 into the plasma membrane, was unaltered over this pH(o) range. At pH(o) 6.8 or lower, Proregion remained associated with VWF, in many cases WPB failed to collapse fully and VWF failed to form filamentous strands. At pH(o) 6.5 dispersal of interleukin-8, eotaxin-3, and the membrane protein CD63 remained unaltered compared with that at pH(o) 7.4; however, P-selectin dispersal into the plasma membrane was significantly slowed. Thus, extracellular acidification to levels of pH(o) 6.8 or lower significantly alters the behavior of secreted VWF, Proregion, and P-selectin while rapid release of the small pro-inflammatory mediators IL-8 and eotaxin-3 is essentially unaltered. Together, these data suggest that WPB exocytosis during extracellular acidosis may favor the control of inflammatory processes.
Project description:Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) we measured the mobilities of EGFP-tagged soluble secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in individual Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) at early (immature) and late (mature) stages in their biogenesis. Membrane proteins (P-selectin, CD63, Rab27a) were also studied in individual WPBs. In the ER, soluble secretory proteins were mobile; however, following insertion into immature WPBs larger molecules (VWF, Proregion, tPA) and P-selectin became immobilised, whereas small proteins (ssEGFP, eotaxin-3) became less mobile. WPB maturation led to further decreases in mobility of small proteins and CD63. Acute alkalinisation of mature WPBs selectively increased the mobilities of small soluble proteins without affecting larger molecules and the membrane proteins. Disruption of the Proregion-VWF paracrystalline core by prolonged incubation with NH(4)Cl rendered P-selectin mobile while VWF remained immobile. FRAP of P-selectin mutants revealed that immobilisation most probably involves steric entrapment of the P-selectin extracellular domain by the Proregion-VWF paracrystal. Significantly, immobilisation contributed to the enrichment of P-selectin in WPBs; a mutation of P-selectin preventing immobilisation led to a failure of enrichment. Together these data shed new light on the transitions that occur for soluble and membrane proteins following their entry and storage into post-Golgi-regulated secretory organelles.
Project description:Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB) are endothelial cell (EC) specific secretory organelles containing Von Willebrand factor (VWF). The temperature-dependence of Ca(2+)-driven WPB exocytosis is not known, although indirect evidence suggests that WPB exocytosis may occur at very low temperatures. Here we quantitatively analyse the temperature-dependence of Ca(2+)-driven WPB exocytosis and release of secreted VWF from the cell surface of ECs using fluorescence microscopy of cultured human ECs containing fluorescent WPBs.Ca(2+)-driven WPB exocytosis occurred at all temperatures studied (7-37°C). The kinetics and extent of WPB exocytosis were strongly temperature-dependent: Delays in exocytosis increased from 0.92 s at 37°C to 134.2 s at 7°C, the maximum rate of WPB fusion decreased from 10.0±2.2 s(-1) (37°C) to 0.80±0.14 s(-1) (7°C) and the fractional extent of degranulation of WPBs in each cell from 67±3% (37°C) to 3.6±1.3% (7°C). A discrepancy was found between the reduction in Ca(2+)-driven VWF secretion and WPB exocytosis at reduced temperature; at 17°C VWF secretion was reduced by 95% but WPB exocytosis by 75-80%. This discrepancy arises because VWF dispersal from sites of WPB exocytosis is largely prevented at low temperature. In contrast VWF-propolypeptide (proregion) dispersal from WPBs, although slowed, was complete within 60-120 s. Novel antibodies to the cleaved and processed proregion were characterised and used to show that secreted proregion more accurately reports the secretion of WPBs at sub-physiological temperatures than assay of VWF itself.We report the first quantitative analysis of the temperature-dependence of WPB exocytosis. We provide evidence; by comparison of biochemical data for VWF or proregion secretion with direct analysis of WPB exocytosis at reduced temperature, that proregion is a more reliable marker for WPB exocytosis at reduced temperature, where VWF-EC adhesion is increased.
Project description:Inflammatory chemokines can be selectively released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) during kiss-and-run exocytosis. Such selectivity may arise from molecular size filtering by the fusion pore, however differential intra-WPB cargo re-mobilisation following fusion-induced structural changes within the WPB may also contribute to this process. To determine whether WPB cargo molecules are differentially re-mobilised, we applied FRAP to residual post-fusion WPB structures formed after transient exocytosis in which some or all of the fluorescent cargo was retained. Transient fusion resulted in WPB collapse from a rod to a spheroid shape accompanied by substantial swelling (>2 times by surface area) and membrane mixing between the WPB and plasma membranes. Post-fusion WPBs supported cumulative WPB exocytosis. To quantify diffusion inside rounded organelles we developed a method of FRAP analysis based on image moments. FRAP analysis showed that von Willebrand factor-EGFP (VWF-EGFP) and the VWF-propolypeptide-EGFP (Pro-EGFP) were immobile in post-fusion WPBs. Because Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP (small soluble cargo proteins) were largely depleted from post-fusion WPBs, we studied these molecules in cells preincubated in the weak base NH4Cl which caused WPB alkalinisation and rounding similar to that produced by plasma membrane fusion. In these cells we found a dramatic increase in mobilities of Eotaxin-3-EGFP and ssEGFP that exceeded the resolution of our method (? 2.4 µm2/s mean). In contrast, the membrane mobilities of EGFP-CD63 and EGFP-Rab27A in post-fusion WPBs were unchanged, while P-selectin-EGFP acquired mobility. Our data suggest that selective re-mobilisation of chemokines during transient fusion contributes to selective chemokine secretion during transient WPB exocytosis. Selective secretion provides a mechanism to regulate intravascular inflammatory processes with reduced risk of thrombosis.
Project description:Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are secretory granules that contain von Willebrand factor and P-selectin, molecules that regulate hemostasis and inflammation, respectively. The presence of CD63/LAMP3 in the limiting membrane of WPBs has led to their classification as lysosome-related organelles. Many lysosome-related organelles contain intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) enriched in CD63 that are secreted into the extracellular environment during cell activation to mediate intercellular communication. To date, there are no reports that WPBs contain or release ILVs. By light microscopy and live-cell imaging, we show that CD63 is enriched in microdomains within WPBs. Extracellular antibody recycling studies showed that CD63 in WPB microdomains can originate from the plasma membrane. By cryo-electron tomography of frozen-hydrated endothelial cells, we identify internal vesicles as novel structural features of the WPB lumen. By live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we directly observe the exocytotic release of EGFP-CD63 ILVs as discrete particles from individual WPBs. WPB exocytosis provides a novel route for release of ILVs during endothelial cell stimulation.
Project description:Background:Synthesis of the hemostatic protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) drives formation of endothelial storage organelles called Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). In the absence of VWF, angiogenic and inflammatory mediators that are costored in WPBs are subject to alternative trafficking routes. In patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD), partial or complete absence of VWF/WPBs may lead to additional bleeding complications, such as angiodysplasia. Studies addressing the role of VWF using VWD patient-derived blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) have reported conflicting results due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of patient-derived BOECs. Objective:To generate a VWF-deficient endothelial cell model using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genome engineering of blood outgrowth endothelial cells. Methods:We used CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 editing in single-donor cord blood-derived BOECs (cbBOECs) to generate clonal VWF -/- cbBOECs. Clones were selected using high-throughput screening, VWF mutations were validated by sequencing, and cells were phenotypically characterized. Results:Two VWF -/- BOEC clones were obtained and were entirely devoid of WPBs, while their overall cell morphology was unaltered. Several WPB proteins, including CD63, syntaxin-3 and the cargo proteins angiopoietin (Ang)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 showed alternative trafficking and secretion in the absence of VWF. Interestingly, Ang-2 was relocated to the cell periphery and colocalized with Tie-2. Conclusions:CRISPR editing of VWF provides a robust method to create VWF- deficient BOECs that can be directly compared to their wild-type counterparts. Results obtained with our model system confirmed alternative trafficking of several WPB proteins in the absence of VWF and support the theory that increased Ang-2/Tie-2 interaction contributes to angiogenic abnormalities in VWD patients.
Project description:Endothelial cells selectively release cargo stored in Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) to regulate vascular function, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that histamine evokes the release of the proinflammatory ligand, P-selectin, while diverting WPBs carrying non-inflammatory cargo away from the plasma membrane to the microtubule organizing center. This differential trafficking is dependent on Rab46 (CRACR2A), a newly identified Ca2+-sensing GTPase, which localizes to a subset of P-selectin-negative WPBs. After acute stimulation of the H1 receptor, GTP-bound Rab46 evokes dynein-dependent retrograde transport of a subset of WPBs along microtubules. Upon continued histamine stimulation, Rab46 senses localized elevations of intracellular calcium and evokes dispersal of microtubule organizing center-clustered WPBs. These data demonstrate for the first time that a Rab GTPase, Rab46, integrates G protein and Ca2+ signals to couple on-demand histamine signals to selective WPB trafficking.
Project description:Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are endothelial secretory organelles that contain VWF, P-selectin and CD63. Release of VWF from WPBs is crucial for platelet adhesion during primary hemostasis. Endosomal trafficking of proteins like CD63 to WPBs during maturation is dependent on the AP-3 complex. Mutations in the AP3B1 gene, which encodes the AP-3 β1 subunit, result in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 2 (HPS-2), a rare genetic disorder that leads to neutropenia and a mild bleeding diathesis. This is caused by abnormal granule formation in neutrophils and platelets due to defects in trafficking of cargo to secretory organelles. The impact of these defects on the secretory pathway of the endothelium is largely unknown. In this study we have investigated the role of AP-3-dependent mechanisms in trafficking of proteins during WPB maturation in endothelial cells. An ex vivo patient-derived endothelial model of HPS-2 was established using blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) that were isolated from an HPS-2 patient with compound heterozygous mutations in AP3B1. HPS-2 BOECs and CRISPR/Cas9-engineered AP3B1-/- BOECs contain WPBs that are entirely devoid of CD63, indicative of disrupted endosomal trafficking to the WPB membrane. HPS-2 BOECs have impaired Ca2+- and cAMP-mediated WPB exocytosis. Whole proteome analysis of HPS-2 BOECs revealed that apart from AP-3β1 also the AP-3µ1 subunit and the v-SNARE VAMP8 were depleted. Stimulus-induced VWF secretion was impaired in CRISPR/Cas9-engineered VAMP8-/- BOECs. Our data show that defects in AP-3 dependent maturation of WPBs impairs WPB exocytosis by affecting the recruitment of the WPB-localized member of the SNARE fusion machinery VAMP8.
Project description:In endothelial cells, the multifunctional blood glycoprotein von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is stored for rapid exocytic release in specialized secretory granules called Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). Electron cryomicroscopy at the thin periphery of whole, vitrified human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is used to directly image WPBs and their interaction with a 3D network of closely apposed membranous organelles, membrane tubules, and filaments. Fourier analysis of images and tomographic reconstruction show that VWF is packaged as a helix in WPBs. The helical signature of VWF tubules is used to identify VWF-containing organelles and characterize their paracrystalline order in low dose images. We build a 3D model of a WPB in which individual VWF helices can bend, but in which the paracrystalline packing of VWF tubules, closely wrapped by the WPB membrane, is associated with the rod-like morphology of the granules.
Project description:At the acidic pH of the trans-Golgi and Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), but not at the alkaline pH of secretion, the C-terminal ?1350 residues of von Willebrand factor (VWF) zip up into an elongated, dimeric bouquet. Six small domains visualized here for the first time between the D4 and cystine-knot domains form a stem. The A2, A3, and D4 domains form a raceme with three pairs of opposed, large, flower-like domains. N-terminal VWF domains mediate helical tubule formation in WPBs and template N-terminal disulphide linkage between VWF dimers, to form ultralong VWF concatamers. The dimensions we measure in VWF at pH 6.2 and 7.4, and the distance between tubules in nascent WPB, suggest that dimeric bouquets are essential for correct VWF dimer incorporation into growing tubules and to prevent crosslinking between neighbouring tubules. Further insights into the structure of the domains and flexible segments in VWF provide an overall view of VWF structure important for understanding both the biogenesis of ultralong concatamers at acidic pH and flow-regulated changes in concatamer conformation in plasma at alkaline pH that trigger hemostasis.
Project description:Weibel-Palade body (WPB) exocytosis underlies hormone-evoked VWF secretion from endothelial cells (ECs). We identify new endogenous components of the WPB: Rab3B, Rab3D, and the Rab27A/Rab3 effector Slp4-a (granuphilin), and determine their role in WPB exocytosis. We show that Rab3B, Rab3D, and Rab27A contribute to Slp4-a localization to WPBs. siRNA knockdown of Slp4-a, MyRIP, Rab3B, Rab3D, Rab27A, or Rab3B/Rab27A, or overexpression of EGFP-Slp4-a or EGFP-MyRIP showed that Slp4-a is a positive and MyRIP a negative regulator of WPB exocytosis and that Rab27A alone mediates these effects. We found that ECs maintain a constant amount of cellular Rab27A irrespective of the WPB pool size and that Rab27A (and Rab3s) cycle between WPBs and a cytosolic pool. The dynamic redistribution of Rab proteins markedly decreased the Rab27A concentration on individual WPBs with increasing WPB number per cell. Despite this, the probability of WPB release was independent of WPB pool size showing that WPB exocytosis is not determined simply by the absolute amount of Rab27A and its effectors on WPBs. Instead, we propose that the probability of release is determined by the fractional occupancy of WPB-Rab27A by Slp4-a and MyRIP, with the balance favoring exocytosis.