Multiple redox-active chlorophylls in the secondary electron-transfer pathways of oxygen-evolving photosystem II.
ABSTRACT: Photosystem II (PS II) is unique among photosynthetic reaction centers in having secondary electron donors that compete with the primary electron donors for reduction of P680(+). We have characterized the photooxidation and dark decay of the redox-active accessory chlorophylls (Chl) and beta-carotenes (Car) in oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes by near-IR absorbance and EPR spectroscopies at cryogenic temperatures. In contrast to previous results for Mn-depleted PS II, multiple near-IR absorption bands are resolved in the light-minus-dark difference spectra of oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes including two fast-decaying bands at 793 and 814 nm and three slow-decaying bands at 810, 825, and 840 nm. We assign these bands to chlorophyll cation radicals (Chl(+)). The fast-decaying bands observed after illumination at 20 K could be generated again by reilluminating the sample. Quantization by EPR gives a yield of 0.85 radicals per PS II, and the yield of oxidized cytochrome b 559 by optical difference spectroscopy is 0.15 per PS II. Potential locations of Chl(+) and Car(+) species, and the pathways of secondary electron transfer based on the rates of their formation and decay, are discussed. This is the first evidence that Chls in the light-harvesting proteins CP43 and CP47 are oxidized by P680(+) and may have a role in Chl fluorescence quenching. We also suggest that a possible role for negatively charged lipids (phosphatidyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol identified in the PS II structure) could be to decrease the redox potential of specific Chl and Car cofactors. These results provide new insight into the alternate electron-donation pathways to P680(+).
Project description:Secondary electron transfer in photosystem II (PSII), which occurs when water oxidation is inhibited, involves redox-active carotenoids (Car), as well as chlorophylls (Chl), and cytochrome b 559 (Cyt b 559), and is believed to play a role in photoprotection. CarD2 may be the initial point of secondary electron transfer because it is the closest cofactor to both P680, the initial oxidant, and to Cyt b 559, the terminal secondary electron donor within PSII. In order to characterize the role of CarD2 and to determine the effects of perturbing CarD2 on both the electron-transfer events and on the identity of the redox-active cofactors, it is necessary to vary the properties of CarD2 selectively without affecting the ten other Car per PSII. To this end, site-directed mutations around the binding pocket of CarD2 (D2-G47W, D2-G47F, and D2-T50F) have been generated in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Characterization by near-IR and EPR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that CarD2 is one of the redox-active carotenoids in PSII. There is a specific perturbation of the Car(?+) near-IR spectrum in all three mutated PSII samples, allowing the assignment of the spectral signature of Car D2 (?+) ; Car D2 (?+) exhibits a near-IR peak at 980 nm and is the predominant secondary donor oxidized in a charge separation at low temperature in ferricyanide-treated wild-type PSII. The yield of secondary donor radicals is substantially decreased in PSII complexes isolated from each mutant. In addition, the kinetics of radical formation are altered in the mutated PSII samples. These results are consistent with oxidation of CarD2 being the initial step in secondary electron transfer. Furthermore, normal light levels during mutant cell growth perturb the shape of the Chl(?+) near-IR absorption peak and generate a dark-stable radical observable in the EPR spectra, indicating a higher susceptibility to photodamage further linking the secondary electron-transfer pathway to photoprotection.
Project description:Photosystem II (PS II) contains two redox-active tyrosine residues on the donor side at symmetrical positions to the primary donor, P680. TyrZ, part of the water-oxidizing complex, is a preferential fast electron donor while TyrD is a slow auxiliary donor to P680+. We used PS II membranes from spinach which were depleted of the water oxidation complex (Mn-depleted PS II) to study electron donation from both tyrosines by time-resolved EPR spectroscopy under visible and far-red continuous light and laser flash illumination. Our results show that under both illumination regimes, oxidation of TyrD occurs via equilibrium with TyrZ• at pH 4.7 and 6.3. At pH 8.5 direct TyrD oxidation by P680+ occurs in the majority of the PS II centers. Under continuous far-red light illumination these reactions were less effective but still possible. Different photochemical steps were considered to explain the far-red light-induced electron donation from tyrosines and localization of the primary electron hole (P680+) on the ChlD1 in Mn-depleted PS II after the far-red light-induced charge separation at room temperature is suggested.
Project description:Water oxidation by photosystem (PS) II in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms is a major source of energy on the earth, leading to the production of a stable reductant. Mechanisms generating a high oxidation potential for water oxidation have been a major focus of photosynthesis research. This potential has not been estimated directly but has been measured by the redox potential of the primary electron acceptor, pheophytin (Phe) a. However, the reported values for Phe a are still controversial. Here, we measured the redox potential of Phe a under physiological conditions (pH 7.0; 25 degrees C) in two cyanobacteria with different special pair chlorophylls (Chls): Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, whose special pair for PS II consists of Chl a, and Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017, whose special pair for PS II consists of Chl d. We obtained redox potentials of -536 +/- 8 mV for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and -478 +/- 24 mV for A. marina on PS II complexes in the presence of 1.0 M betaine. The difference in the redox potential of Phe a between the two species closely corresponded with the difference in the light energy absorbed by Chl a versus Chl d. We estimated the potentials of the special pair of PS II to be 1.20 V and 1.18 V for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (P680) and A. marina (P713), respectively. This clearly indicates conservation in the properties of water-oxidation systems in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, irrespective of the special-pair chlorophylls.
Project description:beta-Carotene radicals produced in the hexagonal pores of the molecular sieve Cu(II)-MCM-41 were studied by ENDOR and visible/near-IR spectroscopies. ENDOR studies showed that neutral radicals of beta-carotene were produced in humid air under ambient fluorescent light. The maximum absorption wavelengths of the neutral radicals were measured and were additionally predicted by using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. An absorption peak at 750 nm, assigned to the neutral radical with a proton loss from the 4(4') position of the beta-carotene radical cation in Cu(II)-MCM-41, was also observed in photosystem II (PS II) samples using near-IR spectroscopy after illumination at 20 K. This peak was previously unassigned in PS II samples. The intensity of the absorption peak at 750 nm relative to the absorption of chlorophyll radical cations and beta-carotene radical cations increased with increasing pH of the PS II sample, providing further evidence that the absorption peak is due to the deprotonation of the beta-carotene radical cation. Based on a consideration of possible proton acceptors that are adjacent to beta-carotene molecules in photosystem II, as modeled in the X-ray crystal structure of Guskov et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2009, 16, 334-342, an electron-transfer pathway from a beta-carotene molecule with an adjacent proton acceptor to P680*+ is proposed.
Project description:Antenna complexes are key components of plant photosynthesis, the process that converts sunlight, CO2, and water into oxygen and sugars. We report the first (to our knowledge) femtosecond transient absorption study on the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes CP26 (Lhcb5) and CP24 (Lhcb6) of Photosystem II. The complexes are excited at three different wavelengths in the chlorophyll (Chl) Qy region. Both complexes show a single subpicosecond Chl b to Chl a transfer process. In addition, a reduction in the population of the intermediate states (in the 660-670 nm range) as compared to light-harvesting complex II is correlated in CP26 to the absence of both Chls a604 and b605. However, Chl forms around 670 nm are still present in the Chl a Qy range, which undergoes relaxation with slow rates (10-15 ps). This reduction in intermediate-state amplitude CP24 shows a distinctive narrow band at 670 nm connected with Chls b and decaying to the low-energy Chl a states in 3-5 ps. This 670 nm band, which is fully populated in 0.6 ps together with the Chl a low-energy states, is proposed to originate from Chl 602 or 603. In this study, we monitored the energy flow within two minor complexes, and our results may help elucidate these structures in the future.
Project description:Selective 2-photon excitation (TPE) of carotenoid dark states, Car S(1), shows that in the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII), the extent of electronic interactions between carotenoid dark states (Car S(1)) and chlorophyll (Chl) states, phi(Coupling)(Car S(1)-Chl), correlates linearly with chlorophyll fluorescence quenching under different experimental conditions. Simultaneously, a linear correlation between both Chl fluorescence quenching and phi(Coupling)(Car S(1)-Chl) with the intensity of red-shifted bands in the Chl Q(y) and carotenoid absorption was also observed. These results suggest quenching excitonic Car S(1)-Chl states as origin for the observed effects. Furthermore, real time measurements of the light-dependent down- and up-regulation of the photosynthetic activity and phi(Coupling)(Car S(1)-Chl) in wild-type and mutant (npq1, npq2, npq4, lut2 and WT+PsbS) Arabidopsis thaliana plants reveal that also in vivo the quenching parameter NPQ correlates always linearly with the extent of electronic Car S(1)-Chl interactions in any adaptation status. Our in vivo measurements with Arabidopsis variants show that during high light illumination, phi(Coupling)(Car S(1)-Chl) depends on the presence of PsbS and zeaxanthin (Zea) in an almost identical way as NPQ. In summary, these results provide clear evidence for a very close link between electronic Car S(1)-Chl interactions and the regulation of photosynthesis. These findings support a photophysical mechanism in which short-living, low excitonic carotenoid-chlorophyll states serve as traps and dissipation valves for excess excitation energy.
Project description:Two symmetrically positioned redox active tyrosine residues are present in the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center. One of them, TyrZ, is oxidized in the ns-micros time scale by P680+ and reduced rapidly (micros to ms) by electrons from the Mn complex. The other one, TyrD, is stable in its oxidized form and seems to play no direct role in enzyme function. Here, we have studied electron donation from these tyrosines to the chlorophyll cation (P680+) in Mn-depleted PSII from plants and cyanobacteria. In particular, a mutant lacking TyrZ was used to investigate electron donation from TyrD. By using EPR and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, we show that reduced TyrD is capable of donating an electron to P680+ with t1/2 approximately equal to 190 ns at pH 8.5 in approximately half of the centers. This rate is approximately 10(5) times faster than was previously thought and similar to the TyrZ donation rate in Mn-depleted wild-type PSII (pH 8.5). Some earlier arguments put forward to rationalize the supposedly slow electron donation from TyrD (compared with that from TyrZ) can be reassessed. At pH 6.5, TyrZ (t1/2 = 2-10 micros) donates much faster to P680+ than does TyrD (t1/2 > 150 micros). These different rates may reflect the different fates of the proton released from the respective tyrosines upon oxidation. The rapid rate of electron donation from TyrD requires at least partial localization of P680+ on the chlorophyll (PD2) that is located on the D2 side of the reaction center.
Project description:Thin-layer cell spectroelectrochemistry, featuring rigorous potential control and rapid redox equilibration within the cell, was used to measure the redox potential E(m)(Phe a/Phe a(-)) of pheophytin (Phe) a, the primary electron acceptor in an oxygen-evolving photosystem (PS) II core complex from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Interferences from dissolved O(2) and water reductions were minimized by airtight sealing of the sample cell added with dithionite and mercury plating on the gold minigrid working electrode surface, respectively. The result obtained at a physiological pH of 6.5 was E(m)(Phe a/Phe a(-)) = -505 + or - 6 mV vs. SHE, which is by approximately 100 mV more positive than the values measured approximately 30 years ago at nonphysiological pH and widely accepted thereafter in the field of photosynthesis research. Using the P680* - Phe a free energy difference, as estimated from kinetic analyses by previous authors, the present result would locate the E(m)(P680/P680(+)) value, which is one of the key parameters but still resists direct measurements, at approximately +1,210 mV. In view of these pieces of information, a renewed diagram is proposed for the energetics in PS II.
Project description:In the photosynthetic photosystem II, electrons are transferred from the manganese-containing oxygen evolving complex (OEC) to the oxidized primary electron-donor chlorophyll P680(•+) by a proton-coupled electron transfer process involving a tyrosine-histidine pair. Proton transfer from the tyrosine phenolic group to a histidine nitrogen positions the redox potential of the tyrosine between those of P680(•+) and the OEC. We report the synthesis and time-resolved spectroscopic study of a molecular triad that models this electron transfer. The triad consists of a high-potential porphyrin bearing two pentafluorophenyl groups (PF(10)), a tetracyanoporphyrin electron acceptor (TCNP), and a benzimidazole-phenol secondary electron-donor (Bi-PhOH). Excitation of PF(10) in benzonitrile is followed by singlet energy transfer to TCNP (? = 41 ps), whose excited state decays by photoinduced electron transfer (? = 830 ps) to yield Bi-PhOH-PF(10)(•+)-TCNP(•-). A second electron transfer reaction follows (? < 12 ps), giving a final state postulated as BiH(+)-PhO(•)-PF(10)-TCNP(•-), in which the phenolic proton now resides on benzimidazole. This final state decays with a time constant of 3.8 ?s. The triad thus functionally mimics the electron transfers involving the tyrosine-histidine pair in PSII. The final charge-separated state is thermodynamically capable of water oxidation, and its long lifetime suggests the possibility of coupling systems such as this system to water oxidation catalysts for use in artificial photosynthetic fuel production.
Project description:Chemical or electrochemical one-electron oxidation of 5-N-arylaminothiazoles was found to afford stable radical cations. For chemical oxidation, 1?equivalent of [(4-BrC6H4)3N][SbCl6] (Magic Blue, MB) was added to CH2Cl2 solutions of the thiazoles, and the thus-obtained radicals showed light absorption in the near-infrared region. Electrochemical oxidation also led to bathochromic shifts in the absorption bands, and the obtained spectra were similar to those derived from the chemically oxidized species. These radicals afforded electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra that are consistent with the notion of stable nitrogen radicals (half-life?385?h). The EPR spectrum of a thiazole containing 4-dimethylaminophenyl groups on the nitrogen atom at the 5-position changed significantly upon adding >3?equivalents of MB. Details of the electronic structures of the experimentally obtained radical cations were generated from theoretical calculations.