Motor- and tail-dependent targeting of dynein to microtubule plus ends and the cell cortex.
ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic dynein mediates spindle positioning in budding yeast by powering sliding of microtubules along the cell cortex. Although previous studies have demonstrated cortical and plus-end targeting of dynein heavy chain (Dyn1/HC), the regulation of its recruitment to these sites remains elusive.Here we show that separate domains of Dyn1/HC confer differential localization to the dynein complex. The N-terminal tail domain targets Dyn1/HC to cortical Num1 receptor sites, whereas the C-terminal motor domain targets Dyn1/HC to microtubule plus ends in a Bik1/CLIP-170- and Pac1/LIS1-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the isolated motor domain blocks plus-end targeting of Dyn1/HC, leading to a dominant-negative effect on dynein function. Overexpression of Pac1/LIS1, but not Bik1/CLIP-170, rescues the dominant negativity by restoring Dyn1/HC to plus ends. In contrast, the isolated tail domain has no inhibitory effect on Dyn1/HC targeting and function. However, cortical targeting of the tail construct is more robust than full-length Dyn1/HC and occurs independently of Bik1/CLIP-170 or Pac1/LIS1.Our results suggest that the cortical association domain is normally masked in the full-length dynein molecule. We propose that targeting of dynein to plus ends unmasks the tail, priming the motor for off-loading to cortical Num1 sites.
Project description:LIS1 is a critical regulator of dynein function during mitosis and organelle transport. Here, we investigated how Pac1, the budding yeast LIS1 homologue, regulates dynein targeting and activity during nuclear migration. We show that Pac1 and Dyn1 (dynein heavy chain) are dependent upon each other and upon Bik1 (budding yeast CLIP-170 homologue) for plus end localization, whereas Bik1 is independent of either. Dyn1, Pac1 and Bik1 interact in vivo at the plus ends, where an excess amount of Bik1 recruits approximately equal amounts of Pac1 and Dyn1. Overexpression of Pac1 enhanced plus end targeting of Dyn1 and vice versa, while affinity-purification of Dyn1 revealed that it exists in a complex with Pac1 in the absence of Bik1, leading us to conclude that the Pac1-Dyn1 complex preassembles in the cytoplasm prior to loading onto Bik1-decorated plus ends. Strikingly, we found that Pac1-overexpression augments cortical dynein activity through a mechanism distinct from loss of She1, a negative regulator of dynein-dynactin association. While Pac1-overexpression enhances the frequency of cortical targeting for dynein and dynactin, the stoichiometry of these complexes remains relatively unchanged at the plus ends compared to that in wild-type cells (?3 dynein to 1 dynactin). Loss of She1, however, enhances dynein-dynactin association at the plus ends and the cell cortex, resulting in an apparent 1:1 stoichiometry. Our results reveal differential regulation of cortical dynein activity by She1 and Pac1, and provide a potentially new regulatory step in the off-loading model for dynein function.
Project description:During mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitotic spindle moves into the mother-bud neck via dynein-dependent sliding of cytoplasmic microtubules along the cortex of the bud. Here we show that Pac1, the yeast homologue of the human lissencephaly protein LIS1, plays a key role in this process. First, genetic interactions placed Pac1 in the dynein/dynactin pathway. Second, cells lacking Pac1 failed to display microtubule sliding in the bud, resulting in defective mitotic spindle movement and nuclear segregation. Third, Pac1 localized to the plus ends (distal tips) of cytoplasmic microtubules in the bud. This localization did not depend on the dynein heavy chain Dyn1. Moreover, the Pac1 fluorescence intensity at the microtubule end was enhanced in cells lacking dynactin or the cortical attachment molecule Num1. Fourth, dynein heavy chain Dyn1 also localized to the tips of cytoplasmic microtubules in wild-type cells. Dynein localization required Pac1 and, like Pac1, was enhanced in cells lacking the dynactin component Arp1 or the cortical attachment molecule Num1. Our results suggest that Pac1 targets dynein to microtubule tips, which is necessary for sliding of microtubules along the bud cortex. Dynein must remain inactive until microtubule ends interact with the bud cortex, at which time dynein and Pac1 appear to be offloaded from the microtubule to the cortex.
Project description:Cortically anchored dynein orients the spindle through interactions with astral microtubules. In budding yeast, dynein is offloaded to Num1 receptors from microtubule plus ends. Rather than walking toward minus ends, dynein remains associated with plus ends due in part to its association with Pac1/LIS1, an inhibitor of dynein motility. The mechanism by which dynein is switched from "off" at the plus ends to "on" at the cell cortex remains unknown. Here, we show that overexpression of the coiled-coil domain of Num1 specifically depletes dynein-dynactin-Pac1/LIS1 complexes from microtubule plus ends and reduces dynein-Pac1/LIS1 colocalization. Depletion of dynein from plus ends requires its microtubule-binding domain, suggesting that motility is required. An enhanced Pac1/LIS1 affinity mutant of dynein or overexpression of Pac1/LIS1 rescues dynein plus end depletion. Live-cell imaging reveals minus end-directed dynein-dynactin motility along microtubules upon overexpression of the coiled-coil domain of Num1, an event that is not observed in wild-type cells. Our findings indicate that dynein activity is directly switched "on" by Num1, which induces Pac1/LIS1 removal.
Project description:Proteins in the cytoplasmic dynein pathway accumulate at the microtubule plus end, giving the appearance of comets when observed in live cells. The targeting mechanism for NUDF (LIS1/Pac1) of Aspergillus nidulans, a key component of the dynein pathway, has not been clear. Previous studies have demonstrated physical interactions of NUDF/LIS1/Pac1 with both NUDE/NUDEL/Ndl1 and CLIP-170/Bik1. Here, we have identified the A. nidulans CLIP-170 homologue, CLIPA. The clipA deletion did not cause an obvious nuclear distribution phenotype but affected cytoplasmic microtubules in an unexpected manner. Although more microtubules failed to undergo long-range growth toward the hyphal tip at 32 degrees C, those that reached the hyphal tip were less likely to undergo catastrophe. Thus, in addition to acting as a growth-promoting factor, CLIPA also promotes microtubule dynamics. In the absence of CLIPA, green fluorescent protein-labeled cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain, p150(Glued) dynactin, and NUDF were all seen as plus-end comets at 32 degrees C. However, under the same conditions, deletion of both clipA and nudE almost completely abolished NUDF comets, although nudE deletion itself did not cause a dramatic change in NUDF localization. Based on these results, we suggest that CLIPA and NUDE both recruit NUDF to the microtubule plus end. The plus-end localization of CLIPA itself seems to be regulated by different mechanisms under different physiological conditions. Although the KipA kinesin (Kip2/Tea2 homologue) did not affect plus-end localization of CLIPA at 32 degrees C, it was required for enhancing plus-end accumulation of CLIPA at an elevated temperature (42 degrees C).
Project description:CLIP-170 is a plus-end tracking protein which may act as an anticatastrophe factor. It has been proposed to mediate the association of dynein/dynactin to microtubule (MT) plus ends, and it also binds to kinetochores in a dynein/dynactin-dependent fashion, both via its C-terminal domain. This domain contains two zinc finger motifs (proximal and distal), which are hypothesized to mediate protein-protein interactions. LIS1, a protein implicated in brain development, acts in several processes mediated by the dynein/dynactin pathway by interacting with dynein and other proteins. Here we demonstrate colocalization and direct interaction between CLIP-170 and LIS1. In mammalian cells, LIS1 recruitment to kinetochores is dynein/dynactin dependent, and recruitment there of CLIP-170 is dependent on its site of binding to LIS1, located in the distal zinc finger motif. Overexpression of CLIP-170 results in a zinc finger-dependent localization of a phospho-LIS1 isoform and dynactin to MT bundles, raising the possibility that CLIP-170 and LIS1 regulate dynein/dynactin binding to MTs. This work suggests that LIS1 is a regulated adapter between CLIP-170 and cytoplasmic dynein at sites involved in cargo-MT loading, and/or in the control of MT dynamics.
Project description:During filamentous fungus development, multinucleated hyphae employ a system for long-range nuclear migration to maintain an equal nuclear density. A decade ago the microtubule motor dynein was shown to play a central role in this process. Previous studies with Ashbya gossypii revealed extensive bidirectional movements and bypassings of nuclei, an autonomous cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT) cytoskeleton emanating from each nucleus, and pulling of nuclei by sliding of cMTs along the cortex. Here, we show that dynein is the sole motor for bidirectional movements and bypassing because these movements are concomitantly decreased in mutants carrying truncations of the dynein heavy-chain DYN1 promoter. The dynactin component Jnm1, the accessory proteins Dyn2 and Ndl1, and the potential dynein cortical anchor Num1 are also involved in the dynamic distribution of nuclei. In their absence, nuclei aggregate to different degrees, whereby the mutants with dense nuclear clusters grow extremely long cMTs. As in budding yeast, we found that dynein is delivered to cMT plus ends, and its activity or processivity is probably controlled by dynactin and Num1. Together with its role in powering nuclear movements, we propose that dynein also plays (directly or indirectly) a role in the control of cMT length. Those combined dynein actions prevent nuclear clustering in A. gossypii and thus reveal a novel cellular role for dynein.
Project description:Bipolar spindle assembly critically depends on the microtubule plus-end-directed motor Eg5 that binds antiparallel microtubules and slides them in opposite directions. As such, Eg5 can produce the necessary outward force within the spindle that drives centrosome separation and inhibition of this antiparallel sliding activity results in the formation of monopolar spindles. Here, we show that upon depletion of the minus-end-directed motor dynein, or the dynein-binding protein Lis1, bipolar spindles can form in human cells with substantially less Eg5 activity, suggesting that dynein and Lis1 produce an inward force that counteracts the Eg5-dependent outward force. Interestingly, we also observe restoration of spindle bipolarity upon depletion of the microtubule plus-end-tracking protein CLIP-170. This function of CLIP-170 in spindle bipolarity seems to be mediated through its interaction with dynein, as loss of CLIP-115, a highly homologous protein that lacks the dynein-dynactin interaction domain, does not restore spindle bipolarity. Taken together, these results suggest that complexes of dynein, Lis1 and CLIP-170 crosslink and slide microtubules within the spindle, thereby producing an inward force that pulls centrosomes together.
Project description:Dynein is a microtubule motor that transports many different cargos in various cell types and contexts. How dynein is regulated to perform these activities with spatial and temporal precision remains unclear. Human dynein is regulated by autoinhibition, whereby intermolecular contacts limit motor activity. Whether this mechanism is conserved throughout evolution, whether it can be affected by extrinsic factors, and its role in regulating dynein function remain unclear. Here, we use a combination of negative stain electron microscopy, single-molecule assays, genetic, and cell biological techniques to show that autoinhibition is conserved in budding yeast, and plays a key role in coordinating in vivo dynein function. Moreover, we find that the Lissencephaly-related protein, LIS1 (Pac1 in yeast), plays an important role in regulating dynein autoinhibition. Our studies demonstrate that, rather than inhibiting dynein motility, Pac1/LIS1 promotes dynein activity by stabilizing the uninhibited conformation, which ensures appropriate dynein localization and activity in cells.
Project description:During mitosis in budding yeast, cortically anchored dynein exerts pulling forces on cytoplasmic microtubules, moving the mitotic spindle into the mother-bud neck. Anchoring of dynein requires the cortical patch protein Num1, which is hypothesized to interact with PI(4,5)P(2) via its C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Here we show that the PH domain and PI(4,5)P(2) are required for the cortical localization of Num1, but are not sufficient to mediate the cortical assembly of Num1 patches. A GFP fusion to the PH domain localizes to the cortex in foci containing approximately 2 molecules, whereas patches of full-length Num1-GFP contain approximately 14 molecules. A membrane targeting sequence containing the CAAX motif from the yeast Ras2 protein can compensate for the PH domain to target Num1 to the plasma membrane as discrete patches. The CAAX-targeted Num1 exhibits overlapping but largely distinct localization from wild-type Num1. However, it is fully functional in the dynein pathway. More importantly, cortical PI(4,5)P(2) is dispensable for the localization and function of the CAAX-targeted Num1. Together, these results demonstrate that cortical assembly of Num1 into functional dynein-anchoring patches is independent of its interaction with PI(4,5)P(2).
Project description:Cortical dynein generates pulling forces via microtubule (MT) end capture-shrinkage and lateral MT sliding mechanisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dynein attachment molecule Num1 interacts with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria to facilitate spindle positioning across the mother-bud neck, but direct evidence for how these cortical contacts regulate dynein-dependent pulling forces is lacking. We show that loss of Scs2/Scs22, ER tethering proteins, resulted in defective Num1 distribution and loss of dynein-dependent MT sliding, the hallmark of dynein function. Cells lacking Scs2/Scs22 performed spindle positioning via MT end capture-shrinkage mechanism, requiring dynein anchorage to an ER- and mitochondria-independent population of Num1, dynein motor activity, and CAP-Gly domain of dynactin Nip100/p150Glued subunit. Additionally, a CAAX-targeted Num1 rescued loss of lateral patches and MT sliding in the absence of Scs2/Scs22. These results reveal distinct populations of Num1 and underline the importance of their spatial distribution as a critical factor for regulating dynein pulling force.