Proto-oncogene FBI-1 represses transcription of p21CIP1 by inhibition of transcription activation by p53 and Sp1.
ABSTRACT: Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptional repression of the p53 pathway revealed that FBI-1 represses transcription of ARF, Hdm2 (human analogue of mouse double minute oncogene), and p21CIP1 (hereafter indicated as p21) but not of p53. FBI-1 showed a more potent repressive effect on p21 than on p53. Our data suggested that FBI-1 is a master controller of the ARF-Hdm2-p53-p21 pathway, ultimately impinging on cell cycle arrest factor p21, by inhibiting upstream regulators at the transcriptional and protein levels. FBI-1 acted as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53 and Sp1 and was shown to bind the proximal Sp1-3 GC-box and the distal p53-responsive elements of p21. Repression involved direct binding competition of FBI-1 with Sp1 and p53. FBI-1 also interacted with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the promoter. FBI-1 caused cellular transformation, promoted cell cycle proliferation, and significantly increased the number of cells in S phase. FBI-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in many human solid tumors, particularly in adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. The role of FBI-1 as a master controller of the p53 pathway therefore makes it an attractive therapeutic target.
Project description:We found that ZBTB2, a POK family transcription factor, is a potent repressor of the ARF-HDM2-p53-p21 pathway important in cell cycle regulation. ZBTB2 repressed transcription of the ARF, p53, and p21 genes, but activated the HDM2 gene. In particular, ZBTB2 repressed transcription of the p21 gene by acting on the two distal p53 binding elements and the proximal Sp1 binding GC-box 5/6 elements. ZBTB2 directly interacted with Sp1 via its POZ domain and zinc fingers, which was important in the repression of transcription activation by Sp1. ZBTB2 and Sp1 competed with each other in binding to the GC-box 5/6 elements and the two p53 binding elements. ZBTB2 directly interacted with p53 via its zinc fingers, inhibiting p53 binding and repressing transcription activation by p53. The POZ domain, required for transcription repression, interacted with corepressors such as BCoR, NCoR, and SMRT. The interactions deacetylated histones Ac-H3 and -H4 at the proximal promoter. Although ectopic ZBTB2 stimulated cell proliferation, knock-down of ZBTB2 expression decreased cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. Overall, our data suggest that ZBTB2 is a potential proto-oncogenic master control gene of the p53 pathway and, in particular, is a potent transcription repressor of the cell cycle arrest gene p21 by inhibiting p53 and Sp1.
Project description:FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at bp -308 to -188 of the Rb promoter region. The Rb promoter also contains two Sp1 binding sites: GC-box 1 (bp -65 to -56) and GC-box 2 (bp -18 to -9), the latter of which is also bound by FBI-1. We found that FRE3 (bp -244 to -236) is also a Sp1 binding element. FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene not only by binding to the FREs, but also by competing with Sp1 at the GC-box 2 and the FRE3. By binding to the FREs and/or the GC-box, FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene through its POZ-domain, which recruits a co-repressor-histone deacetylase complex and deacetylates histones H3 and H4 at the Rb gene promoter. FBI-1 inhibits C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation by repressing Rb gene expression.
Project description:Collaborator of ARF (CARF), initially identified as a binding partner of ARF (Alternate Reading Frame), has been shown to activate ARF-p53 pathway by multiple ways including stabilization of ARF and p53 tumor suppressor proteins, and transcriptional repression of a p53 antagonist, HDM2. Level of CARF expression was shown to determine fate of cells. Whereas its knockdown caused apoptosis, its over- and super-expressions caused senescence and increase in malignant properties of cancer cells, respectively, and were closely linked to increase and decrease in p53 activity. Using p53-compromised cancer cells, we demonstrate that CARF induces growth arrest when wild type p53 is present and in p53-absence, it promotes carcinogenesis. Biochemical analyses on CARF-induced molecular signaling revealed that in p53-null cells, it caused transcriptional repression of p21(WAF1) leading to increase in CDK4, CDK6, pRb and E2F1 resulting in continued cell cycle progression. Furthermore, it instigated increase in migration and invasion of cancer cells that was marked by upregulation of MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, uPA, several interleukins and VEGF expression. Consistent with these findings, we found that human clinical samples of epithelial and glial cancers (frequently marked by loss of p53 function) possessed high level of CARF expression showing a relationship with cancer aggressiveness. The data demonstrated that CARF could be considered as a diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target in p53-compromised malignancies.
Project description:The gene encoding p53 mediates a major tumor suppression pathway that is frequently altered in human cancers. p53 function is kept at a low level during normal cell growth and is activated in response to various cellular stresses. The MDM2 oncoprotein plays a key role in negatively regulating p53 activity by either direct repression of p53 transactivation activity in the nucleus or promotion of p53 degradation in the cytoplasm. DNA damage and oncogenic insults, the two best-characterized p53-dependent checkpoint pathways, both activate p53 through inhibition of MDM2. Here we report that the human homologue of MDM2, HDM2, binds to ribosomal protein L11. L11 binds a central region in HDM2 that is distinct from the ARF binding site. We show that the functional consequence of L11-HDM2 association, like that with ARF, results in the prevention of HDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation, subsequently restoring p53-mediated transactivation, accumulating p21 protein levels, and inducing a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest by canceling the inhibitory function of HDM2. Interference with ribosomal biogenesis by a low concentration of actinomycin D is associated with an increased L11-HDM2 interaction and subsequent p53 stabilization. We suggest that L11 functions as a negative regulator of HDM2 and that there might exist in vivo an L11-HDM2-p53 pathway for monitoring ribosomal integrity.
Project description:The expression of tumor suppressor Arf is tightly repressed during normal cell growth at a young age and is activated by oncogenic insults, and during aging, results in p53 activation and cell-cycle arrest to prevent hyperproliferation. The mechanisms of both transcriptional repression and activation of Arf are not understood. We show that p53 binds to and represses Arf expression and that this repression requires the function of both histone deacetylases (HDAC) and polycomb group (PcG) proteins. Inactivation of p53 leads to increased Arf transcription in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cultured in vitro and in tissues and organs of p53 null mice. Activation of endogenous p53 enhances Arf repression, and reintroduction of p53 back into p53 null MEFs restores Arf repression. Both DNA binding and transactivation activities of p53 are required for Arf repression. We show that p53 is required for both HDAC and PcG to repress Arf expression. Bindings of both HDAC and PcG to Arf are disrupted by inactivation of p53 and can be restored in p53 null MEFs by the reintroduction of wild-type, but not mutant, p53. These results indicate that p53 recruits both HDAC and PcG to Arf locus to repress its expression, and this repression constitutes a second feedback loop in p53 regulation.
Project description:Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein 4 (AP-4) is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that binds to E-box elements. AP-4 has received increasing attention for its regulatory role in cell growth and development, including transcriptional repression of the human homolog of murine double minute 2 (HDM2), an important oncoprotein controlling cell growth and survival, by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that AP-4 binds to an E-box located in the HDM2-P2 promoter and represses HDM2 transcription in a p53-independent manner. Incremental truncations of AP-4 revealed that the C-terminal Gln/Pro-rich domain was essential for transcriptional repression of HDM2. To further delineate the molecular mechanism(s) of AP-4 transcriptional control and its potential implications, we used DNA-affinity purification followed by complementary quantitative proteomics, cICAT and iTRAQ labeling methods, to identify a previously unknown E-box-bound AP-4 protein complex containing 75 putative components. The two labeling methods complementarily quantified differentially AP-4-enriched proteins, including the most significant recruitment of DNA damage response proteins, followed by transcription factors, transcriptional repressors/corepressors, and histone-modifying proteins. Specific interaction of AP-4 with CCCTC binding factor, stimulatory protein 1, and histone deacetylase 1 (an AP-4 corepressor) was validated using AP-4 truncation mutants. Importantly, inclusion of trichostatin A did not alleviate AP-4-mediated repression of HDM2 transcription, suggesting a previously unidentified histone deacetylase-independent repression mechanism. In contrast, the complementary quantitative proteomics study suggested that transcription repression occurs via coordination of AP-4 with other transcription factors, histone methyltransferases, and/or a nucleosome remodeling SWI.SNF complex. In addition to previously known functions of AP-4, our data suggest that AP-4 participates in a transcriptional-regulating complex at the HDM2-P2 promoter in response to DNA damage.
Project description:Arf, Hdm2, and p53 regulate the tumor-suppressor pathway that is most frequently disrupted in human cancer. In the absence of tumorigenic stress, Hdm2 actively attenuates p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by mediating ubiquitination-dependent degradation of p53. Mitogenic stress activates Arf, which indirectly activates p53 by binding to and nullifying the anti-p53 activities of Hdm2. Small conserved domains within Arf and Hdm2 mediate their direct interaction. Individually, these domains are intrinsically unstructured and, when combined in vitro, cofold into bimolecular oligomeric structures that resemble amyloid fibrils in some features. Detailed structural characterization of Hdm2/Arf complexes has previously been hampered by their heterogeneity and large size. Here, we report that a nine-residue fragment of the N-terminus of mouse Arf (termed "A1-mini") cofolds specifically with the Arf-binding domain of Hdm2 to form bimolecular oligomers. We characterized these unprecedented structures using analytical ultracentrifugation and NMR spectroscopy, providing insights into their structural organization. The A1-mini peptide not only binds specifically to Hdm2 in vitro but also recapitulates the nucleolar localization features of full-length Arf in cells. Furthermore, larger fragments of Arf that contain the A1-mini segment have previously been shown to activate p53 in mouse and human cells. Our studies provide the first insights into the molecular basis through which Arf nullifies the p53-inhibiting activity of Hdm2, indirectly activating the tumor-suppressor function of p53 in mammalian cells.
Project description:Malignant gliomas are the most common and the most lethal primary brain tumors in adults. Among malignant gliomas, 60%-80% show loss of P14ARF tumor suppressor activity due to somatic alterations of the INK4A/ARF genetic locus. The tumor suppressor activity of P14ARF is in part a result of its ability to prevent the degradation of P53 by binding to and sequestering HDM2. However, the subsequent finding of P14ARF loss in conjunction with TP53 gene loss in some tumors suggests the protein may have other P53-independent tumor suppressor functions. Here, we report what we believe to be a novel tumor suppressor function for P14ARF as an inhibitor of tumor-induced angiogenesis. We found that P14ARF mediates antiangiogenic effects by upregulating expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) in a P53-independent fashion. Mechanistically, this regulation occurred at the gene transcription level and was controlled by HDM2-SP1 interplay, where P14ARF relieved a dominant negative interaction of HDM2 with SP1. P14ARF-induced expression of TIMP3 inhibited endothelial cell migration and vessel formation in response to angiogenic stimuli produced by cancer cells. The discovery of this angiogenesis regulatory pathway may provide new insights into P53-independent P14ARF tumor-suppressive mechanisms that have implications for the development of novel therapies directed at tumors and other diseases characterized by vascular pathology.
Project description:PLK1 is a critical mediator of G?/M cell cycle transition that is inactivated and depleted as part of the DNA damage-induced G?/M checkpoint. Here we show that downregulation of PLK1 expression occurs through a transcriptional repression mechanism and that p53 is both necessary and sufficient to mediate this effect. Repression of PLK1 by p53 occurs independently of p21 and of arrest at G?/S where PLK1 levels are normally repressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner through a CDE/CHR element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that p53 is present on the PLK1 promoter at two distinct sites termed p53RE1 and p53RE2. Recruitment of p53 to p53RE2, but not to p53RE1, is stimulated in response to DNA damage and/or p53 activation and is coincident with repression-associated changes in the chromatin. Downregulation of PLK1 expression by p53 is relieved by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, and involves recruitment of histone deacetylase to the vicinity of p53RE2, further supporting a transcriptional repression mechanism. Additionally, wild type, but not mutant, p53 represses expression of the PLK1 promoter when fused upstream of a reporter gene. Silencing of PLK1 expression by RNAi interferes with cell cycle progression consistent with a role in the p53-mediated checkpoint. These data establish PLK1 as a direct transcriptional target of p53, independently of p21, that is required for efficient G?/M arrest.
Project description:Perturbation of DNA replication initiation arrests human cells in G1, pointing towards an origin activation checkpoint. We used RNAi against Cdc7 kinase to inhibit replication initiation and dissect this checkpoint in fibroblasts. We show that the checkpoint response is dependent on three axes coordinated through the transcription factor FoxO3a. In arrested cells, FoxO3a activates the ARF-?Hdm2-?p53 ? p21 pathway and mediates p15(INK4B) upregulation; p53 in turn activates expression of the Wnt/?-catenin signalling antagonist Dkk3, leading to Myc and cyclin D1 downregulation. The resulting loss of CDK activity inactivates the Rb-E2F pathway and overrides the G1-S transcriptional programme. Fibroblasts concomitantly depleted of Cdc7/FoxO3a, Cdc7/p15, Cdc7/p53 or Cdc7/Dkk3 can bypass the arrest and proceed into an abortive S phase followed by apoptosis. The lack of redundancy between the checkpoint axes and reliance on several tumour suppressor proteins commonly inactivated in human tumours provides a mechanistic basis for the cancer-cell-specific killing observed with emerging Cdc7 inhibitors.