Cardiac-specific overexpression of caveolin-3 induces endogenous cardiac protection by mimicking ischemic preconditioning.
ABSTRACT: Caveolae, lipid-rich microdomains of the sarcolemma, localize and enrich cardiac-protective signaling molecules. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), the dominant isoform in cardiac myocytes, is a determinant of caveolar formation. We hypothesized that cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of Cav-3 would enhance the formation of caveolae and augment cardiac protection in vivo.Ischemic preconditioning in vivo increased the formation of caveolae. Adenovirus for Cav-3 increased caveolar formation and phosphorylation of survival kinases in cardiac myocytes. A transgenic mouse with cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of Cav-3 (Cav-3 OE) showed enhanced formation of caveolae on the sarcolemma. Cav-3 OE mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury had a significantly reduced infarct size relative to transgene-negative mice. Endogenous cardiac protection in Cav-3 OE mice was similar to wild-type mice undergoing ischemic preconditioning; no increased protection was observed in preconditioned Cav-3 OE mice. Cav-3 knockout mice did not show endogenous protection and showed no protection in response to ischemic preconditioning. Cav-3 OE mouse hearts had increased basal Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation comparable to wild-type mice exposed to ischemic preconditioning. Wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, attenuated basal phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and blocked cardiac protection in Cav-3 OE mice. Cav-3 OE mice had improved functional recovery and reduced apoptosis at 24 hours of reperfusion.Expression of caveolin-3 is both necessary and sufficient for cardiac protection, a conclusion that unites long-standing ultrastructural and molecular observations in the ischemic heart. The present results indicate that increased expression of caveolins, apparently via actions that depend on phosphoinositide 3-kinase, has the potential to protect hearts exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Project description:Cholesterol-rich caveolar microdomains and associated caveolins influence sarcolemmal ion channel and receptor function and protective stress signaling. However, the importance of membrane cholesterol content to cardiovascular function and myocardial responses to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and cardioprotective stimuli are unclear. We assessed the effects of graded cholesterol depletion with methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) and lifelong knockout (KO) or overexpression (OE) of caveolin-3 (Cav-3) on cardiac function, I/R tolerance, and opioid receptor (OR)-mediated protection. Langendorff-perfused hearts from young male C57Bl/6 mice were untreated or treated with 0.02-1.0 mM M?CD for 25 min to deplete membrane cholesterol and disrupt caveolae. Hearts were subjected to 25-min ischemia/45-min reperfusion, and the cardioprotective effects of morphine applied either acutely or chronically [sustained ligand-activated preconditioning (SLP)] were assessed. M?CD concentration dependently reduced normoxic contractile function and postischemic outcomes in association with graded (10-30%) reductions in sarcolemmal cholesterol. Cardioprotection with acute morphine was abolished with ?20 ?M M?CD, whereas SLP was more robust and only inhibited with ?200 ?M M?CD. Deletion of Cav-3 also reduced, whereas Cav-3 OE improved, myocardial I/R tolerance. Protection via SLP remained equally effective in Cav-3 KO mice and was additive with innate protection arising with Cav-3 OE. These data reveal the membrane cholesterol dependence of normoxic myocardial and coronary function, I/R tolerance, and OR-mediated cardioprotection in murine hearts (all declining with cholesterol depletion). In contrast, baseline function appears insensitive to Cav-3, whereas cardiac I/R tolerance parallels Cav-3 expression. Novel SLP appears unique, being less sensitive to cholesterol depletion than acute OR protection and arising independently of Cav-3 expression.
Project description:Popeye domain containing1 (Popdc1), also named Bves, is an evolutionary conserved membrane protein. Despite its high expression level in the heart little is known about its membrane localization and cardiac functions. The study examined the hypothesis that Popdc1 might be associated with the caveolae and play a role in myocardial ischemia tolerance. To address these issues, we analyzed hearts and cardiomyocytes of wild type and Popdc1-null mice. Immunoconfocal microscopy revealed co-localization of Popdc1 with caveolin3 in the sarcolemma, intercalated discs and T-tubules and with costameric vinculin. Popdc1 was co-immunoprecipitated with caveolin3 from cardiomyocytes and from transfected COS7 cells and was co-sedimented with caveolin3 in equilibrium density gradients. Caveolae disruption by methyl-?-cyclodextrin or by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) abolished the cellular co-localization of Popdc1 with caveolin3 and modified their density co-sedimentation. The caveolin3-rich fractions of Popdc1-null hearts redistributed to fractions of lower buoyant density. Electron microscopy showed a statistically significant 70% reduction in caveolae number and a 12% increase in the average diameter of the remaining caveolae in the mutant hearts. In accordance with these changes, Popdc1-null cardiomyocytes displayed impaired [Ca(+2)]i transients, increased vulnerability to oxidative stress and no pharmacologic preconditioning. In addition, induction of I/R injury to Langendorff-perfused hearts indicated a significantly lower functional recovery in the mutant compared with wild type hearts while their infarct size was larger. No improvement in functional recovery was observed in Popdc1-null hearts following ischemic preconditioning. The results indicate that Popdc1 is a caveolae-associated protein important for the preservation of caveolae structural and functional integrity and for heart protection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Caveolae are involved in diverse cellular functions such as signal transduction, cholesterol homeostasis, endo- and transcytosis, and also may serve as entry sites for microorganisms. Hence, their occurrence in epithelium of the airways might be expected but, nonetheless, has not yet been examined. METHODS: Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR analysis of abraded tracheal epithelium and laser-assisted microdissection combined with subsequent mRNA analysis were used to examine the expression of cav-1 and cav-2, two major caveolar coat proteins, in rat tracheal epithelium. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry was performed to locate caveolae and cav-1 and -2 in the airway epithelium of rats, mice and humans. Electron-microscopic analysis was used for the identification of caveolae. CLSM-FRET analysis determined the interaction of cav-1alpha and cav-2 in situ. RESULTS: Western blotting and laser-assisted microdissection identified protein and transcripts, respectively, of cav-1 and cav-2 in airway epithelium. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of abraded tracheal epithelium revealed a higher expression of cav-2 than of cav-1. Immunoreactivities for cav-1 and for cav-2 were co-localized in the cell membrane of the basal cells and basolaterally in the ciliated epithelial cells of large airways of rat and human. However, no labeling for cav-1 or cav-2 was observed in the epithelial cells of small bronchi. Using conventional double-labeling indirect immunofluorescence combined with CLSM-FRET analysis, we detected an association of cav-1alpha and -2 in epithelial cells. The presence of caveolae was confirmed by electron microscopy. In contrast to human and rat, cav-1-immunoreactivity and caveolae were confined to basal cells in mice. Epithelial caveolae were absent in cav-1-deficient mice, implicating a requirement of this caveolar protein in epithelial caveolae formation. CONCLUSION: These results show that caveolae and caveolins are integral membrane components in basal and ciliated epithelial cells, indicating a crucial role in these cell types. In addition to their physiological role, they may be involved in airway infection.
Project description:Lymphangiogenesis allows prostate cancer (PCa) lymphatic metastasis, which is associated with poor prognosis and short survival rates. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a membrane protein localized in caveolae, but also exists in non-caveolar, cellular or extracellular forms. Cav-1 is overexpressed in PCa, promotes prostate tumour progression and metastasis. We investigated the effect of caveolar and non-caveolar Cav-1 on PCa lymphangiogenic potential. Cav-1 was down-regulated in PC3 and DU145, and ectopically expressed in LNCaP cells. The effect of PCa cell conditioned media on lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) viability, chemotaxis, chemokinesis and differentiation was assessed. The effect of Cav-1 on PCa cell expression of lymphangiogenesis-modulators VEGF-A and VEGF-C was assessed using qPCR and ELISA of the conditioned medium. Non-caveolar Cav-1, whether exogenous or endogenous (in LNCaP and PC3 cells, respectively) enhanced LEC proliferation, migration and differentiation. In contrast, caveolar Cav-1 (in DU145 cells) did not significantly affect PCa cell lymphangiogenic potential. The effect of non-caveolar Cav-1 on LECs was mediated by increased expression of VEGF-A as demonstrated by neutralization by anti-VEGF-A antibody. This study unveils for the first time a crucial role for non-caveolar Cav-1 in modulating PCa cell expression of VEGF-A and subsequent LEC proliferation, migration and tube formation.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) and protein S-nitrosylation (SNO) play important roles in ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-induced cardioprotection. Mitochondria are key regulators of preconditioning, and most proteins showing an increase in SNO with IPC are mitochondrial. The aim of this study was to address how IPC transduces NO/SNO signaling to mitochondria in the heart.In this study using Langendorff perfused mouse hearts, we found that IPC-induced cardioprotection was blocked by treatment with either N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a constitutive NO synthase inhibitor), ascorbic acid (a reducing agent to decompose SNO), or methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD, a cholesterol sequestering agent to disrupt caveolae). IPC not only activated AKT/eNOS signaling but also led to translocation of eNOS to mitochondria. M?CD treatment disrupted caveolar structure, leading to dissociation of eNOS from caveolin-3 and blockade of IPC-induced activation of the AKT/eNOS signaling pathway. A significant increase in mitochondrial SNO was found in IPC hearts compared to perfusion control, and the disruption of caveolae by M?CD treatment not only abolished IPC-induced cardioprotection, but also blocked the IPC-induced increase in SNO.These results provide mechanistic insight into how caveolae/eNOS/NO/SNO signaling mediates cardioprotection induced by IPC.Altogether these results suggest that caveolae transduce eNOS/NO/SNO cardioprotective signaling in the heart.
Project description:The noble gas helium (He) induces cardioprotection in vivo through unknown molecular mechanisms. He can interact with and modify cellular membranes. Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched invaginations of the plasma-membrane-containing caveolin (Cav) proteins that are critical in protection of the heart. Mice (C57BL/6J) inhaled either He gas or adjusted room air. Functional measurements were performed in the isolated Langendorff perfused heart at 24 h post He inhalation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry (EPR) of samples was carried out at 24 h post He inhalation. Immunoblotting was used to detect Cav-1/3 expression in whole-heart tissue, exosomes isolated from platelet free plasma (PFP) and membrane fractions. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy analysis of cardiac tissue and serum function and metabolomic analysis were performed. In contrast to cardioprotection observed in in vivo models, the isolated Langendorff perfused heart revealed no protection after He inhalation. However, levels of Cav-1/3 were reduced 24 h after He inhalation in whole-heart tissue, and Cav-3 was increased in exosomes from PFP. Addition of serum to muscle cells in culture or naïve ventricular tissue increased mitochondrial metabolism without increasing reactive oxygen species generation. Primary and lipid metabolites determined potential changes in ceramide by He exposure. In addition to direct effects on myocardium, He likely induces the release of secreted membrane factors enriched in caveolae. Our results suggest a critical role for such circulating factors in He-induced organ protection.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adrenoceptors can associate with cardiac caveolae. To investigate the function of vascular caveolae, adrenoceptor-mediated effects were compared in the saphenous artery of caveolin-1 knockout (cav-1KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Electronmicroscopy was used to detect caveolae. Real-Time quantitative PCR was used for adrenoceptor subtypes. Catecholamine-evoked contractions and relaxations were studied in arterial segments. KEY RESULTS: Caveolae were found in arterial smooth muscle from WT but not from cav-1KO mice. Arterial mRNA levels for the adrenoceptors alpha1A, alpha1B, alpha1D, beta1, beta2 and beta3 were similar in cav-1KO and WT. (-)-Noradrenaline contracted cav-1KO (-log EC50M=7.1) and WT (-log EC50M=7.3) arteries through prazosin-sensitive receptors. Maximum (-)-noradrenaline-evoked contractions were greater in cav-1KO than WT arteries. (-)-Isoprenaline relaxed WT arteries (-log EC50M=7.3) more potently than cav-1KO arteries (-log EC50M=6.8); the effects were antagonized partially and similarly by the beta2-selective antagonist ICI118551 (50 nM). The (-)-isoprenaline-evoked relaxation was partially antagonized by the beta1-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist CGP20712 (300 nM) in WT but not cav-1KO arteries. The beta3-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist L748337 (100 nM) partially antagonized the relaxant effects of (-)-isoprenaline in cav-1KO but not in WT arteries. BRL37344 partially relaxed arteries through beta3-adrenoceptors in cav-1KO but not WT. The relaxant effects of BRL37344 were decreased by the NO synthase inhibitor OmegaL-nitroarginine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The function of arterial alpha1- and beta2-adrenoceptors is similar in cav-1KO and WT mice. beta1-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation in WT is lost in cav-1KO and replaced by the appearance of beta3-adrenoceptors.
Project description:Mechanical stretch of cardiac muscle modulates action potential propagation velocity, causing potentially arrhythmogenic conduction slowing. The mechanisms by which stretch alters cardiac conduction remain unknown, but previous studies suggest that stretch can affect the conformation of caveolae in myocytes and other cell types. We tested the hypothesis that slowing of action potential conduction due to cardiac myocyte stretch is dependent on caveolae. Cardiac action potential propagation velocities, measured by optical mapping in isolated mouse hearts and in micropatterned mouse cardiomyocyte cultures, decreased reversibly with volume loading or stretch, respectively (by 19±5% and 26±4%). Stretch-dependent conduction slowing was not altered by stretch-activated channel blockade with gadolinium or by GsMTx-4 peptide, but was inhibited when caveolae were disrupted via genetic deletion of caveolin-3 (Cav3 KO) or membrane cholesterol depletion by methyl-?-cyclodextrin. In wild-type mouse hearts, stretch coincided with recruitment of caveolae to the sarcolemma, as observed by electron microscopy. In myocytes from wild-type but not Cav3 KO mice, stretch significantly increased cell membrane capacitance (by 98±64%), electrical time constant (by 285±149%), and lipid recruitment to the bilayer (by 84±39%). Recruitment of caveolae to the sarcolemma during physiologic cardiomyocyte stretch slows ventricular action potential propagation by increasing cell membrane capacitance.
Project description:The mechanisms of controlling airway smooth muscle (ASM) tone are of utmost clinical importance as inappropriate constriction is a hallmark in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Receptors for acetylcholine and serotonin, two relevant mediators in this context, appear to be incorporated in specialized, cholesterol-rich domains of the plasma membrane, termed caveolae due to their invaginated shape. The structural protein caveolin-1 partly accounts for anchoring of these receptors. We here determined the role of the other major caveolar protein, caveolin-3 (cav-3), in orchestrating cholinergic and serotonergic ASM responses, utilizing newly generated cav-3 deficient mice. Cav-3 deficiency fully abrogated serotonin-induced constriction of extrapulmonary airways in organ baths while leaving intrapulmonary airways unaffected, as assessed in precision cut lung slices. The selective expression of cav-3 in tracheal, but not intrapulmonary bronchial epithelial cells, revealed by immunohistochemistry, might explain the differential effects of cav-3 deficiency on serotonergic ASM constriction. The cholinergic response of extrapulmonary airways was not altered, whereas a considerable increase was observed in cav-3-/- intrapulmonary bronchi. Thus, cav-3 differentially organizes serotonergic and cholinergic signaling in ASM through mechanisms that are specific for airways of certain caliber and anatomical position. This may allow for selective and site-specific intervention in hyperreactive states.
Project description:Caveolae are abundant cell-surface organelles involved in lipid regulation and endocytosis. We used comparative proteomics to identify PTRF (also called Cav-p60, Cavin) as a putative caveolar coat protein. PTRF-Cavin selectively associates with mature caveolae at the plasma membrane but not Golgi-localized caveolin. In prostate cancer PC3 cells, and during development of zebrafish notochord, lack of PTRF-Cavin expression correlates with lack of caveolae, and caveolin resides on flat plasma membrane. Expression of PTRF-Cavin in PC3 cells is sufficient to cause formation of caveolae. Knockdown of PTRF-Cavin reduces caveolae density, both in mammalian cells and in the zebrafish. Caveolin remains on the plasma membrane in PTRF-Cavin knockdown cells but exhibits increased lateral mobility and accelerated lysosomal degradation. We conclude that PTRF-Cavin is required for caveola formation and sequestration of mobile caveolin into immobile caveolae.