Voxel-based morphometry patterns of atrophy in FTLD with mutations in MAPT or PGRN.
ABSTRACT: To compare patterns of gray matter loss in subjects with mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene to subjects with mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene.We identified all subjects seen at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, who had screened positive for mutations in PGRN or MAPT and had a head MRI. Twelve cases with mutations in the PGRN gene were matched by time from disease onset to scan to 12 subjects with mutations in the MAPT gene. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of gray matter loss in the PGRN and MAPT groups compared to a control cohort, and compared to each other. MAPT subjects were younger than the PGRN subjects; therefore, each group was also compared to a specific age-matched control group.Both PGRN and MAPT groups showed gray matter loss in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes compared to controls, although loss was predominantly identified in posterior temporal and parietal lobes in PGRN and anteromedial temporal lobes in MAPT. The MAPT group had greater loss compared to healthy subjects of the same age than the PGRN subjects when compared to healthy subjects of the same age. The MAPT subjects showed greater gray matter loss in the medial temporal lobes, insula, and putamen than the PGRN subjects.These results increase understanding of the biology of these disorders and suggest that patterns of atrophy on MRI may be useful to aid in the differentiation of groups of PGRN and MAPT mutation carriers.
Project description:To use a case-control study to assess and compare patterns of gray matter loss across groups of subjects with different mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene.We identified all subjects from Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, that screened positive for mutations in MAPT and had a head MRI (n = 22). Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of gray matter atrophy in groups of subjects with the IVS10+16, IVS10+3, N279K, S305N, P301L, and V337M mutations compared with age- and sex-matched controls.All MAPT groups showed gray matter loss in the anterior temporal lobes, with varying degrees of involvement of the frontal and parietal lobes. Within the temporal lobe, the subjects with IVS10+16, IVS10+3, N279K, and S305N mutations (mutations that influence the alternative splicing of tau pre-messenger RNA) all showed gray matter loss focused on the medial temporal lobes. In contrast to these groups, the subjects with P301L or V337M mutations (mutations that affect the structure of the tau protein) both showed gray matter loss focused on the lateral temporal lobes, with a relative sparing of the medial temporal lobe.There seem to be differences in patterns of temporal lobe atrophy across the MAPT mutations, which may aid in the differentiation of the different mutation carriers. Furthermore, there seems to be a possible association between mutation function and pattern of temporal lobe atrophy.
Project description:To determine whether functional connectivity is altered in subjects with mutations in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene who were asymptomatic but were destined to develop dementia, and to compare these findings to those in subjects with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD).In this case-control study, we identified 8 asymptomatic subjects with mutations in MAPT and 8 controls who screened negative for mutations in MAPT. Twenty-one subjects with a clinical diagnosis of bvFTD were also identified and matched to 21 controls. All subjects had resting-state fMRI. In-phase functional connectivity was assessed between a precuneus seed in the default mode network (DMN) and a fronto-insular cortex seed in the salience network, and the rest of the brain. Atlas-based parcellation was used to assess functional connectivity and gray matter volume across specific regions of interest.The asymptomatic MAPT subjects and subjects with bvFTD showed altered functional connectivity in the DMN, with reduced in-phase connectivity in lateral temporal lobes and medial prefrontal cortex, compared to controls. Increased in-phase connectivity was also observed in both groups in the medial parietal lobe. Only the bvFTD group showed altered functional connectivity in the salience network, with reduced connectivity in the fronto-insular cortex and anterior cingulate. Gray matter loss was observed across temporal, frontal, and parietal regions in bvFTD, but not in the asymptomatic MAPT subjects.Functional connectivity in the DMN is altered in MAPT subjects before the occurrence of both atrophy and clinical symptoms, suggesting that changes in functional connectivity are early features of the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in granulin (PGRN) and tau (MAPT), and hexanucleotide repeat expansions near the C9orf72 genes are the most prevalent genetic causes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although behavior, language and movement presentations are common, the relationship between genetic subgroup and movement disorder phenomenology is unclear. OBJECTIVE:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature characterizing the spectrum and prevalence of movement disorders in genetic frontotemporal lobar degeneration. METHODS:Electronic databases were searched using terms related to frontotemporal lobar degeneration and movement disorders. Articles were included when cases had a proven genetic cause. Study-specific prevalence estimates for clinical features were transformed using Freeman-Tukey arcsine transformation, allowing for pooled estimates of prevalence to be generated using random-effects models. RESULTS:The mean age at onset was earlier in those with MAPT mutations compared to PGRN (p<0.001) and C9orf72 (p = 0.024). 66.5% of subjects had an initial non-movement presentation that was most likely a behavioral syndrome (35.7%). At any point during the disease, parkinsonism was the most common movement syndrome reported in 79.8% followed by progressive supranuclear palsy (PSPS) and corticobasal (CBS) syndromes in 12.2% and 10.7%, respectively. The prevalence of movement disorder as initial presentation was higher in MAPT subjects (35.8%) compared to PGRN subjects (10.1). In those with a non-movement presentation, language disorder was more common in PGRN subjects (18.7%) compared to MAPT subjects (5.4%). SUMMARY:This represents the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of movement disorder phenomenology in genetic frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Standardized prospective collection of clinical information in conjunction with genetic characterization will be crucial for accurate clinico-genetic correlation.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess gray matter and white matter tract diffusion in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SMD), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA).<h4>Methods</h4>This was a case-control study where 16 subjects with bvFTD, 7 with PNFA, and 4 with SMD were identified and matched by age and gender to 19 controls. All subjects had 3-T head MRI with a DTI sequence with diffusion encoding in 21 directions. Gray matter mean diffusivity (MD) was assessed using a region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-level approach, and voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of gray matter loss. White matter tract diffusivity (fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity) was assessed by placing ROIs on tracts of interest.<h4>Results</h4>In bvFTD, increased gray matter MD and gray matter loss were identified bilaterally throughout frontal and temporal lobes, with abnormal diffusivity observed in white matter tracts that connect to these regions. In SMD, gray matter loss and increased MD were identified predominantly in the left temporal lobe, with tract abnormalities observed in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus. In PNFA, gray matter loss and increased MD were observed in left inferior frontal lobe, insula, and supplemental motor area, with tract abnormalities observed in the superior longitudinal fasciculus.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The diffusivity of gray matter is increased in regions that are atrophic in frontotemporal dementia, suggesting disruption of the cytoarchitecture of remaining tissue. Furthermore, damage was identified in white matter tracts that interconnect these regions, supporting the hypothesis that these diseases involve different and specific brain networks.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are sensitive for tau or TDP-43 pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Neuroimaging analyses have revealed distinct distributions of disease in FTLD patients with genetic mutations. However, genetic influences on neuroanatomic structure in sporadic FTLD have not been assessed. In this report, we use novel multivariate tools, Eigenanatomy, and sparse canonical correlation analysis to identify associations between SNPs and neuroanatomic structure in sporadic FTLD. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed that rs8070723 (MAPT) was associated with gray matter variance in the temporal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analyses revealed that rs1768208 (MOBP), rs646776 (near SORT1), and rs5848 (PGRN) were associated with white matter variance in the midbrain and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In an independent autopsy series, we observed that rs8070723 and rs1768208 conferred significant risk of tau pathology relative to TDP-43, and rs646776 conferred increased risk of TDP-43 pathology relative to tau. Identified brain regions and SNPs may help provide an in vivo screen for underlying pathology in FTLD and contribute to our understanding of sporadic FTLD.
Project description:The aim of our study was to determine the utility of longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements as potential biomarkers in the main genetic variants of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), including microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and progranulin (GRN) mutations and C9ORF72 repeat expansions, as well as sporadic FTD.In this longitudinal study, 58 subjects were identified who had at least two MRI and MAPT mutations (n = 21), GRN mutations (n = 11), C9ORF72 repeat expansions (n = 11) or sporadic FTD (n = 15). A total of 198 serial MRI measurements were analyzed. Rates of whole brain atrophy were calculated using the boundary shift integral. Regional rates of atrophy were calculated using tensor-based morphometry. Sample size estimates were calculated.Progressive brain atrophy was observed in all groups, with fastest rates of whole brain atrophy in GRN, followed by sporadic FTD, C9ORF72 and MAPT. All variants showed greatest rates in the frontal and temporal lobes, with parietal lobes also strikingly affected in GRN. Regional rates of atrophy across all lobes were greater in GRN compared to the other groups. C9ORF72 showed greater rates of atrophy in the left cerebellum and right occipital lobe than MAPT, and sporadic FTD showed greater rates in the anterior cingulate than C9ORF72 and MAPT. Sample size estimates were lowest using temporal lobe rates in GRN, ventricular rates in MAPT and C9ORF72, and whole brain rates in sporadic FTD.These data support the utility of using rates of atrophy as outcome measures in future drug trials in FTD and show that different imaging biomarkers may offer advantages in the different variants of FTD.
Project description:Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a highly heritable condition with multiple genetic causes. In this study, similarities and differences of gray matter (GM) atrophy patterns were assessed among 3 common forms of genetic FTD (mutations in C9orf72, GRN, and MAPT). Participants from the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) cohort with a suitable volumetric T1 magnetic resonance imaging scan were included (319): 144 nonmutation carriers, 128 presymptomatic mutation carriers, and 47 clinically affected mutation carriers. Cross-sectional differences in GM volume between noncarriers and carriers were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. In the affected carriers, each genetic mutation group exhibited unique areas of atrophy but also a shared network involving the insula, orbitofrontal lobe, and anterior cingulate. Presymptomatic GM atrophy was observed particularly in the thalamus and cerebellum in the C9orf72 group, the anterior and medial temporal lobes in MAPT, and the posterior frontal and parietal lobes as well as striatum in GRN. Across all presymptomatic carriers, there were significant decreases in the anterior insula. These results suggest that although there are important differences in atrophy patterns for each group (which can be seen presymptomatically), there are also similarities (a fronto-insula-anterior cingulate network) that help explain the clinical commonalities of the disease.
Project description:Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, are one of the pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether patterns of gray matter atrophy from antemortem MRI correlate with Braak staging of NFT pathology.Eighty-three subjects with Braak stage III through VI, a pathologic diagnosis of low- to high-probability AD, and MRI within 4 years of death were identified. Voxel-based morphometry assessed gray matter atrophy in each Braak stage compared with 20 pathologic control subjects (Braak stages 0 through II).In pairwise comparisons with Braak stages 0 through II, a graded response was observed across Braak stages V and VI, with more severe and widespread loss identified at Braak stage VI. No regions of loss were identified in Braak stage III or IV compared with Braak stages 0 through II. The lack of findings in Braak stages III and IV could be because Braak stage is based on the presence of any NFT pathology regardless of severity. Actual NFT burden may vary by Braak stage. Therefore, tau burden was assessed in subjects with Braak stages 0 through IV. Those with high tau burden showed greater gray matter loss in medial and lateral temporal lobes than those with low tau burden.Patterns of gray matter loss are associated with neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, specifically with NFT burden at Braak stages III and IV and with Braak stage itself at higher stages. This validates three-dimensional patterns of atrophy on MRI as an approximate in vivo surrogate indicator of the full brain topographic representation of the neurodegenerative aspect of Alzheimer disease pathology.
Project description:Mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene are a major source of inherited frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) spectrum disorders associated with TDP-43 proteinopathy. We use structural MRI to identify regions of baseline differences and longitudinal changes in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in presymptomatic GRN mutation carriers (pGRN+) compared to young controls (yCTL).Cognitively intact first-degree relatives of symptomatic GRN+ FTD patients with identified GRN mutations (pGRN+; N?=?11, mean age?=?41.4) and matched yCTL (N?=?11, mean age?=?53.6) were identified. They completed a MRI session with T1-weighted imaging to assess GM density (GMD) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess fractional anisotropy (FA). Participants completed a follow-up session with T1 and DWI imaging (pGRN+ mean interval 2.20?years; yCTL mean interval 3.27?years). Annualized changes of GMD and FA were also compared.Relative to yCTL, pGRN+ individuals displayed reduced GMD at baseline in bilateral orbitofrontal, insular, and anterior temporal cortices. pGRN+ also showed greater annualized GMD changes than yCTL at follow-up in right orbitofrontal and left occipital cortices. We also observed reduced FA at baseline in bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, left corticospinal tract, and frontal corpus callosum in pGRN+ relative to yCTL, and pGRN+ displayed greater annualized longitudinal FA change in right superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontal corpus callosum.Longitudinal MRI provides evidence of progressive GM and WM changes in pGRN+ participants relative to yCTL. Structural MRI illustrates the natural history of presymptomatic GRN carriers, and may provide an endpoint during disease-modifying treatment trials for pGRN+ individuals at risk for FTD.
Project description:Frontotemporal dementia is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss in the frontal and temporal lobes. Despite progress in understanding which genes are associated with the aetiology of frontotemporal dementia, the biological basis of how mutations in these genes lead to cell loss in specific cortical regions remains unclear. In this work we combined gene expression data for 16,772 genes from the Allen Institute for Brain Science atlas with brain maps of gray matter atrophy in symptomatic C9orf72, GRN and MAPT mutation carriers obtained from the Genetic Frontotemporal dementia Initiative study. No significant association was seen between C9orf72, GRN and MAPT expression and the atrophy patterns in the respective genetic groups. After adjusting for spatial autocorrelation, between 1,000 and 5,000 genes showed a negative or positive association with the atrophy pattern within each individual genetic group, with the most significantly associated genes being TREM2, SSBP3 and GPR158 (negative association in C9orf72, GRN and MAPT respectively) and RELN, MXRA8 and LPA (positive association in C9orf72, GRN and MAPT respectively). An overrepresentation analysis identified a negative association with genes involved in mitochondrial function, and a positive association with genes involved in vascular and glial cell function in each of the genetic groups. A set of 423 and 700 genes showed significant positive and negative association, respectively, with atrophy patterns in all three maps. The gene set with increased expression in spared cortical regions was enriched for neuronal and microglial genes, while the gene set with increased expression in atrophied regions was enriched for astrocyte and endothelial cell genes. Our analysis suggests that these cell types may play a more active role in the onset of neurodegeneration in frontotemporal dementia than previously assumed, and in the case of the positively-associated cell marker genes, potentially through emergence of neurotoxic astrocytes and alteration in the blood-brain barrier respectively.