Copper transport to the brain by the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier.
ABSTRACT: The mechanism of copper (Cu) transport into the brain is unclear. This study evaluated the main species and route of Cu transport into the brain using in situ brain perfusion technique, and assessed the levels of mRNA encoding Cu transporters using real time RT-PCR. Free (64)Cu uptake in rat choroid plexus (CP), where the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) is primarily located, is about 50 and 1000 times higher than (64)Cu-albumin and (64)Cu-ceruloplasmin uptake, respectively. The unidirectional transport rate constants (K(in)) for Cu in the CP and brain capillaries of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were 1034 and 319 microl/s/g, respectively, while K(in) in CSF and capillary-depleted parenchyma were much reduced, 0.8 and 112 microl/s/g, respectively. The K(in) in cerebellum was significantly lower than that in hippocampus. The mRNAs encoding Cu transporter-1 (Ctr1) and ATP7A were higher in the CP than those in brain capillaries and parenchyma, whereas ATP7B mRNA was higher in brain capillaries than those in the CP and brain parenchyma. Taken together, these data suggest that the expression of Cu transporters is higher in brain barriers than in brain parenchyma; the Cu transport into the brain is mainly achieved through the BBB as a free Cu ion and the BCB may serve as a main regulatory site of Cu in the CSF.
Project description:Regulation of cellular copper (Cu) homeostasis involves Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases), i.e., ATP7A and ATP7B. The question as to how these Cu-ATPases in brain barrier systems transport Cu, i.e., toward brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or blood, remained unanswered. This study was designed to characterize roles of Cu-ATPases in regulating Cu transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCB) and to investigate how exposure to toxic manganese (Mn) altered the function of Cu-ATPases, thereby contributing to the etiology of Mn-induced parkinsonian disorder. Studies by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and immunocytochemistry revealed that both Cu-ATPases expressed abundantly in BBB and BCB. Transport kinetic studies by in situ brain infusion and ventriculo-cisternal (VC) perfusion in Sprague Dawley rat suggested that the BBB was a major site for Cu entry into brain, whereas the BCB was a predominant route for Cu efflux from the CSF to blood. Confocal evidence showed that the presence of excess Cu or Mn in the choroid plexus cells led to ATP7A relocating toward the apical microvilli facing the CSF, but ATP7B toward the basolateral membrane facing blood. Mn exposure inhibited the production of both Cu-ATPases. Collectively, these data suggest that Cu is transported by the BBB from the blood to brain, which is mediated by ATP7A in brain capillary. By diffusion, Cu ions move from the interstitial fluid into the CSF, where they are taken up by the BCB. Within the choroidal epithelial cells, Cu ions are transported by ATP7B back to the blood. Mn exposure alters these processes, leading to Cu dyshomeostasis-associated neuronal injury.
Project description:Previous studies in this laboratory indicated that manganese (Mn) exposure in vitro increases the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by enhancing the binding of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) to iron responsive element-containing RNA. The current study further tested the hypothesis that in vivo exposure to Mn increased TfR expression at both blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB), which contributes to altered iron (Fe) homeostasis in the CSF. Groups of rats (10-11 each) received oral gavages at doses of 5 mg Mn/kg or 15 mg Mn/kg as MnCl(2) once daily for 30 days. Blood, CSF, and choroid plexus were collected and brain capillary fractions were separated from the regional parenchyma. Metal analyses showed that oral Mn exposure decreased concentrations of Fe in serum (-66%) but increased Fe in the CSF (+167%). Gel shift assay showed that Mn caused a dose-dependent increase of binding of IRP1 to iron responsive element-containing RNA in BCB in the choroid plexus (+70%), in regional BBB of capillaries of striatum (+39%), hippocampus (+56%), frontal cortex (+49%), and in brain parenchyma of striatum (+67%), hippocampus (+39%) and cerebellum (+28%). Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that Mn exposure significantly increased the expression of TfR mRNA in choroid plexus and striatum with concomitant reduction in the expression of ferritin (Ft) mRNA. Collectively, these data indicate that in vivo Mn exposure results in Fe redistribution in body fluids through regulating the expression of TfR and ferritin at BCB and selected regional BBB. The disrupted Fe transport by brain barriers may underlie the distorted Fe homeostasis in the CSF.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from inherited deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is characterized by glycosaminoglycan storage in most tissues, including brain. In these disorders, enzyme delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle to correction of lysosomal storage in the CNS. Prior studies suggested mouse brain is accessible to GUS in the first 2 weeks of life but not later. To explore a possible role for the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor in GUS transport across the BBB in neonatal mice, we compared brain uptake of phosphorylated GUS (P-GUS) and nonphosphorylated GUS (NP-GUS) in newborn and adult mice. (131)I-P-GUS was transported across the BBB after i.v. injection in 2-day-old mice. The brain influx rate (K(in)) of (131)I-P-GUS in 2-day-old mice was 0.21 microl/g.min and decreased with age. By 7 weeks of age, transport of (131)I-P-GUS was not significant. Capillary depletion revealed that 62% of the (131)I-P-GUS in brain was in brain parenchyma in 2-day-old mice. In addition, uptake of (131)I-P-GUS into brain was significantly reduced by coinjection of unlabeled P-GUS or M6P in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the K(in) of (131)I-NP-GUS (0.04 microl/g.min) was significantly lower than (131)I-P-GUS in 2-day-old mice. Transcardiac brain perfusion confirmed that neither (131)I-P-GUS nor (131)I-NP-GUS crossed the BBB in adult mice. These results indicate that (131)I-P-GUS transport into brain parenchyma in early postnatal life is mediated by the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor. This receptor-mediated transport is not observed in adult mice.
Project description:Rationale: The ability to treat invalidating neurological diseases is impeded by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which inhibits the transport of most blood-borne substances into the brain parenchyma. Targeting the transferrin receptor (TfR) on the surface of brain capillaries has been a popular strategy to give a preferential accumulation of drugs or nanomedicines, but several aspects of this targeting strategy remain elusive. Here we report that TfR-targeted gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can accumulate in brain capillaries and further transport across the BBB to enter the brain parenchyma. Methods: We characterized our targeting strategy both in vitro using primary models of the BBB and in vivo using quantitative measurements of gold accumulation by inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry together with morphological assessments using light microscopy after silver enhancement and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results: We find that the uptake capacity is significantly modulated by the affinity and valency of the AuNP-conjugated antibodies. Specifically, antibodies with high and low affinities mediate a low and intermediate uptake of AuNPs into the brain, respectively, whereas a monovalent (bi-specific) antibody improves the uptake capacity remarkably. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that monovalent ligands may be beneficial for obtaining transcytosis of TfR-targeted nanomedicines across the BBB, which is relevant for future design of nanomedicines for brain drug delivery.
Project description:A versatile experimental model for the investigation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including the neuro-vascular unit, is the isolated brain microvessel preparation. Brain microvessels are primarily comprised of endothelial cells, but also include pericytes, pre-capillary arteriolar smooth muscle cells, astrocyte foot processes, and occasional nerve endings. These microvessels can be isolated from brain with a 3 h procedure, and the microvessels are free of brain parenchyma. Brain microvessels have been isolated from fresh animal brain, fresh human brain obtained at neurosurgery, as well as fresh or frozen autopsy human brain. Brain microvessels are the starting point for isolation of brain microvessel RNA, which then enables the production of BBB cDNA libraries and a genomics analysis of the brain microvasculature. Brain microvessels, combined with quantitative targeted absolute proteomics, allow for the quantitation of specific transporters or receptors expressed at the brain microvasculature. Brain microvessels, combined with specific antibodies and immune labeling of isolated capillaries, allow for the cellular location of proteins expressed within the neuro-vascular unit. Isolated brain microvessels can be used as an "in vitro" preparation of the BBB for the study of the kinetic parameters of BBB carrier-mediated transport (CMT) systems, or for the determination of dissociation constants of peptide binding to BBB receptor-mediated transport (RMT) systems expressed at either the animal or the human BBB. This review will discuss how the isolated brain microvessel model system has advanced our understanding of the organization and functional properties of the BBB, and highlight recent renewed interest in this 50 year old model of the BBB.
Project description:Whereas amyloid-? (A?) accumulates in the brain of normal animals dosed with low levels of copper (Cu), the mechanism is not completely known. Cu could contribute to A? accumulation by altering its clearance and/or its production. Because Cu homeostasis is altered in transgenic mice overexpressing A? precursor protein (APP), the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cu-induced A? accumulation in brains of normal mice and then to explore Cu's effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In aging mice, accumulation of Cu in brain capillaries was associated with its reduction in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), an A? transporter, and higher brain A? levels. These effects were reproduced by chronic dosing with low levels of Cu via drinking water without changes in A? synthesis or degradation. In human brain endothelial cells, Cu, at its normal labile levels, caused LRP1-specific down-regulation by inducing its nitrotyrosination and subsequent proteosomal-dependent degradation due in part to Cu/cellular prion protein/LRP1 interaction. In APP(sw/0) mice, Cu not only down-regulated LRP1 in brain capillaries but also increased A? production and neuroinflammation because Cu accumulated in brain capillaries and, unlike in control mice, in the parenchyma. Thus, we have demonstrated that Cu's effect on brain A? homeostasis depends on whether it is accumulated in the capillaries or in the parenchyma. These findings should provide unique insights into preventative and/or therapeutic approaches to control neurotoxic A? levels in the aging brain.
Project description:The endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are coated with glycocalyx, on the luminal side, and with the basement membrane and astrocyte endfeet, on the abluminal side. However, it is unclear how exactly the glycocalyx and extravascular structures contribute to BBB properties. We used two-photon microscopy in anesthetized mice to record passive transport of four different-sized molecules-sodium fluorescein (376 Da), Alexa Fluor (643 Da), 40-kDa dextran, and 150-kDa dextran-from blood to brain, at the level of single cortical capillaries. Both fluorescein and Alexa penetrated nearly the entire glycocalyx volume, but the dextrans penetrated less than 60% of the volume. This suggested that the glycocalyx was a barrier for large but not small molecules. The estimated permeability of the endothelium was the same for fluorescein and Alexa but several-fold lower for the larger dextrans. In the extravascular compartment, co-localized with astrocyte endfeet, diffusion coefficients of the dyes were an order of magnitude lower than in the brain parenchyma. This suggested that the astrocyte endfeet and basement membrane also contributed to BBB properties. In conclusion, the passive transport of small and large hydrophilic molecules through the BBB was determined by three separate barriers: the glycocalyx, the endothelium, and the extravascular compartment. All three barriers must be taken into account in drug delivery studies and when considering BBB dysfunction in disease states.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of probenecid on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G). Two groups of rats received an exponential infusion of M3G over 4 h to reach a target plasma concentration of 65 microM on two consecutive days. Probenecid was co-administered in the treatment group on day 2. Microdialysis was used to estimate unbound M3G concentrations in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) and blood. In vivo recovery of M3G was calculated with retrodialysis by drug, preceding the drug administration. The BBB transport was modelled using NONMEM. In the probenecid group, the ratio of the steady-state concentration of unbound M3G in brain ECF to that in blood was 0.08+/-0.02 in the absence and 0.16+/-0.05 in the presence of probenecid (P=0.001). In the control group, no significant difference was found in this ratio between the 2 days (0.11+/-0.05 and 0.10+/-0.02, respectively). The process that appears to be mainly influenced by probenecid is influx clearance into the brain (0.11 microl min(-1) g-brain(-1) vs 0.17 microl min(-1) g-brain(-1), in the absence vs presence of probenecid, P:<0.001). The efflux clearance was 1.15 microl min(-1) g-brain(-1). The half-life of M3G was 81+/-25 min in brain ECF vs 22+/-2 min in blood (P<0.0001). Blood pharmacokinetics was not influenced by probenecid. In conclusion, a probenecid-sensitive transport system is involved in the transport of M3G across the BBB.
Project description:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of brain capillary endothelial cells and has an important role in maintaining homeostasis of the brain separating the blood from the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS). It is widely known that disruption of the BBB occurs in various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Annexin A1 (ANXA1), an anti-inflammatory messenger, is expressed in brain endothelial cells and regulates the BBB integrity. However, its role and mechanism for protecting BBB in AD have not been identified. We found that ?-Amyloid 1-42 (A?42)-induced BBB disruption was rescued by human recombinant ANXA1 (hrANXA1) in the murine brain endothelial cell line bEnd.3. Also, ANXA1 was decreased in the bEnd.3 cells, the capillaries of 5XFAD mice, and the human serum of patients with AD. To find out the mechanism by which ANXA1 recovers the BBB integrity in AD, the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway was examined in both A?42-treated bEnd.3 cells and the capillaries of 5XFAD mice as RhoA was activated in both cases. RhoA inhibitors alleviated A?42-induced BBB disruption and constitutively overexpressed RhoA-GTP (active form of RhoA) attenuated the protective effect of ANXA1. When pericytes were cocultured with bEnd.3 cells, A?42-induced RhoA activation of bEnd.3 cells was inhibited by the secretion of ANXA1 from pericytes. Taken together, our results suggest that ANXA1 restores A?42-induced BBB disruption through inhibition of RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway and we propose ANXA1 as a therapeutic reagent, protecting against the breakdown of the BBB in AD.
Project description:Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a novel nanocarriers with interesting physical and chemical properties. Here we investigate the ability of amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-NH3(+)) to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) in vitro using a co-culture BBB model comprising primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBEC) and primary rat astrocytes, and in vivo following a systemic administration of radiolabelled f-MWNTs. Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that MWNTs-NH3(+) crossed the PBEC monolayer via energy-dependent transcytosis. MWNTs-NH3(+) were observed within endocytic vesicles and multi-vesicular bodies after 4 and 24 h. A complete crossing of the in vitro BBB model was observed after 48 h, which was further confirmed by the presence of MWNTs-NH3(+) within the astrocytes. MWNT-NH3(+) that crossed the PBEC layer was quantitatively assessed using radioactive tracers. A maximum transport of 13.0 ± 1.1% after 72 h was achieved using the co-culture model. f-MWNT exhibited significant brain uptake (1.1 ± 0.3% injected dose/g) at 5 min after intravenous injection in mice, after whole body perfusion with heparinized saline. Capillary depletion confirmed presence of f-MWNT in both brain capillaries and parenchyma fractions. These results could pave the way for use of CNTs as nanocarriers for delivery of drugs and biologics to the brain, after systemic administration.