Semi-automated quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT3DE) gives more accurate and reproducible left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction (EF) measurements than traditional two-dimensional methods. A new semi-automated tool (4DLVQ) for volume measurements in RT3DE has been developed. We sought to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of this method compared to a 3D echo standard. METHODS: LV end-diastolic volumes (EDV), end-systolic volumes (ESV), and EF measured using 4DLVQ were compared with a commercially available semi-automated analysis tool (TomTec 4D LV-Analysis ver. 2.2) in 35 patients. Repeated measurements were performed to investigate inter- and intra-observer variability. RESULTS: Average analysis time of the new tool was 141s, significantly shorter than 261s using TomTec (p < 0.001). Bland Altman analysis revealed high agreement of measured EDV, ESV, and EF compared to TomTec (p = NS), with bias and 95% limits of agreement of 2.1 +/- 21 ml, -0.88 +/- 17 ml, and 1.6 +/- 11% for EDV, ESV, and EF respectively. Intra-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 7.5 +/- 6.2 ml vs. 7.7 +/- 7.3 ml for EDV, 5.5 +/- 5.6 ml vs. 5.0 +/- 5.9 ml for ESV, and 3.0 +/- 2.7% vs. 2.1 +/- 2.0% for EF (p = NS). The inter-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 9.0 +/- 5.9 ml vs. 17 +/- 6.3 ml for EDV (p < 0.05), 5.0 +/- 3.6 ml vs. 12 +/- 7.7 ml for ESV (p < 0.05), and 2.7 +/- 2.8% vs. 3.0 +/- 2.1% for EF (p = NS). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the new analysis tool gives rapid and reproducible measurements of LV volumes and EF, with good agreement compared to another RT3DE volume quantification tool.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To compare Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Computed Tomography (CT) for the assessment of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular functional parameters. METHODS: Seventy nine patients underwent both Cardiac CT and Cardiac MR. Images were acquired using short axis (SAX) reconstructions for CT and 2D cine b-SSFP (balanced-steady state free precession) SAX sequence for MR, and evaluated using dedicated software. RESULTS: CT and MR images showed good agreement: LV EF (Ejection Fraction) (52 ?± ?14% for CT vs. 52? ± ?14% for MR; r? =? 0.73; p ?> ?0.05); RV EF (47 ?±? 12% for CT vs. 47?±?12% for MR; r ?= ?0.74; p?>?0.05); LV EDV (End Diastolic Volume) (74? ± ?21 ml/m² for CT vs. 76? ±? 25 ml/m² for MR; r? =? 0.59; p?>?0.05); RV EDV (84? ± ?25 ml/m² for CT vs. 80 ?±? 23 ml/m² for MR; r? =? 0.58; p?>?0.05); LV ESV (End Systolic Volume)(37? ± ?19 ml/m² for CT vs. 38 ?±? 23 ml/m² for MR; r ?= ?0.76; p ?> ?0.05); RV ESV (46? ± ?21 ml/m² for CT vs. 43 ?±? 18 ml/m² for MR; r? = ?0.70; p ?>? 0.05). Intra- and inter-observer variability were good, and the performance of CT was maintained for different EF subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac CT provides accurate and reproducible LV and RV volume parameters compared with MR, and can be considered as a reliable alternative for patients who are not suitable to undergo MR. KEY POINTS: • Cardiac-CT is able to provide Left and Right Ventricular function. • Cardiac-CT is accurate as MR for LV and RV volume assessment. • Cardiac-CT can provide accurate evaluation of coronary arteries and LV and RV function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We investigated the feasibility of left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume and function estimation using a first-pass gated 15O-water PET. This prospective study included 19 patients addressed for myocardial perfusion reserve assessment using 15O-water PET. PET data were acquired at rest and after regadenoson stress, and gated first-pass images were reconstructed over the time range corresponding to tracer first-pass through the cardiac cavities and post-processed using TomPool software; LV and RV were segmented using a semi-automated 4D immersion algorithm. LV volumes were computed using a count-based model and a fixed threshold at 30% of the maximal activity. RV volumes were computed using a geometrical model and an adjustable threshold that was set so as to fit LV and RV stroke volumes. Ejection curves were fitted using a deformable reference curve model. LV results were compared to those obtained using 99mTc-sestamibi gated myocardial SPECT in terms of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF). RESULTS:There was an excellent concordance between rest and stress PET in terms of EDV and ESV (Lin's coefficient ~ 0.85-0.90), SV (~ 0.80), and EF (~ 0.75) for both ventricles. Correlation with myocardial SPECT was high for LV EDV (Pearson's R = 0.89, p < 0.001) and ESV (R = 0.87, p < 0.001) and satisfying for LV SV (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and EF (R = 0.67, p < 0.001). Minimal LV ESV overestimation (+ 4 mL, p = 0.03) and EF underestimation (- 4%, p = 0.01) were observed using PET. CONCLUSIONS:Biventricular volume and function assessment are achievable using the first-pass PET, and LV parameters correlate well with those derived from gated myocardial SPECT.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) may be accompanied by considerable alterations of left ventricular (LV) volume, depending on the particular phenotype. Two major types of HF have been identified, although heterogeneity within each category may be considerable. All variants of HF show substantially elevated LV filling pressures, which tend to induce changes in LV size and shape. Yet, one type of HF is characterized by near-normal values for LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and even a smaller end-systolic volume (ESV) than in matched groups of persons without cardiac disease. Furthermore, accumulating evidence indicates that, both in terms of shape and size, in men and women, the heart reacts differently to adaptive stimuli as well as to certain pharmacological interventions. Adjustments of ESV and EDV such as in HF patients are associated with (reverse) remodeling mechanisms. Therefore, it is logical to analyze HF subtypes in a graphical representation that relates ESV to EDV. Following this route, one may expect that the two major phenotypes of HF are identified as distinct entities localized in different areas of the LV volume domain. The precise coordinates of this position imply unique characteristics in terms of the actual operating point for LV volume regulation. Evidently, ejection fraction (EF; equal to 1 minus the ratio of ESV and EDV) carries little information within the LV volume representation. Thus far, classification of HF is based on information regarding EF combined with EDV. Our analysis shows that ESV in the two HF groups follows different patterns in dependency of EDV. This observation suggests that a superior HF classification system should primarily be founded on information embodied by ESV.
Project description:Autonomic dysfunction is a feature of chronic heart failure (HF). This study tested the hypothesis that chronic open-loop electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) improves LV structure and function in canines with chronic HF.Twenty-six canines with HF (EF ?35%) produced by intracoronary microembolizations were implanted with a bipolar cuff electrode around the right cervical vagus nerve and connected to an implantable pulse generator. The canines were enrolled in Control (n = 7) vs. VNS therapy (n = 7) or a crossover study, with crossovers occurring at 3 months (C × VNS, n = 6; VNS × C, n = 6). After 6 months of VNS, LVEF and LV end-systolic volume (ESV) were significantly improved compared with Control (?EF Control -4.6 ± 0.9% vs. VNS 6.0 ± 1.6%, P < 0.001) and (?ESV Control 8.3 ± 1.8 mL vs. VNS -3.0 ± 2.3 mL, P = 0.002. Plasma and tissue biomarkers were also improved. In the crossover study, VNS also resulted in a significant improvement in EF and ESV compared with Control (?EF Control -2.3 ± 0.65% vs. VNS 6.7 ± 1.1 mL, P < 0.001 and ?ESV Control 3.2 ± 1.2 mL vs. VNS -4.0 ± 0.9 mL, P < 0.001). Initiation of therapy in the Control group at 3 months resulted in a significant improvement in EF (Control -4.7 ± 1.4% vs. VNS 3.7 ± 0.74%, P < 0.001) and ESV (Control 1.5 ± 1.2 mL vs. NS -5.5 ± 1.6 mL, P = 0.003) by 6 months.In canines with HF, long-term, open-looped low levels of VNS therapy improves LV systolic function, prevents progressive LV enlargement, and improves biomarkers of HF when compared with control animals that did not receive therapy.
Project description:Manual delineation of the left ventricle is clinical standard for quantification of cardiovascular magnetic resonance images despite being time consuming and observer dependent. Previous automatic methods generally do not account for one major contributor to stroke volume, the long-axis motion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an automatic algorithm for time-resolved segmentation covering the whole left ventricle, including basal slices affected by long-axis motion.Ninety subjects imaged with a cine balanced steady state free precession sequence were included in the study (training set n = 40, test set n = 50). Manual delineation was reference standard and second observer analysis was performed in a subset (n = 25). The automatic algorithm uses deformable model with expectation-maximization, followed by automatic removal of papillary muscles and detection of the outflow tract.The mean differences between automatic segmentation and manual delineation were EDV -11 mL, ESV 1 mL, EF -3%, and LVM 4 g in the test set.The automatic LV segmentation algorithm reached accuracy comparable to interobserver for manual delineation, thereby bringing automatic segmentation one step closer to clinical routine. The algorithm and all images with manual delineations are available for benchmarking.
Project description:Left ventricular (LV) wall stress reduction is a cornerstone in treating heart failure. Large animal models and computer simulations indicate that adding non-contractile material to the damaged LV wall can potentially reduce myofiber stress. We sought to quantify the effects of a novel implantable hydrogel (Algisyl-LVR™) treatment in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting (i.e. Algisyl-LVR™+CABG) on both LV function and wall stress in heart failure patients.Magnetic resonance images obtained before treatment (n=3), and at 3 months (n=3) and 6 months (n=2) afterwards were used to reconstruct the LV geometry. Cardiac function was quantified using end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), regional wall thickness, sphericity index and regional myofiber stress computed using validated mathematical modeling. The LV became more ellipsoidal after treatment, and both EDV and ESV decreased substantially 3 months after treatment in all patients; EDV decreased from 264 ± 91 ml to 146 ± 86 ml and ESV decreased from 184 ± 85 ml to 86 ± 76 ml. Ejection fraction increased from 32 ± 8% to 47 ± 18% during that period. Volumetric-averaged wall thickness increased in all patients, from 1.06 ± 0.21 cm (baseline) to 1.3 ± 0.26 cm (3 months). These changes were accompanied by about a 35% decrease in myofiber stress at end-of-diastole and at end-of-systole. Post-treatment myofiber stress became more uniform in the LV.These results support the novel concept that Algisyl-LVR™+CABG treatment leads to decreased myofiber stress, restored LV geometry and improved function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent studies concerning left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) suggest that the extent of left ventricular (LV) hypertrabeculation has no impact on prognosis. The variety of methods of LV noncompacted myocardial mass (NCM) assessment may influence the results. Hence, we compared two methods of NCM estimation: largely observer-independent Hautvast's(H) computed algorithm-based approach and commonly used Jacquier's(J) method, and their associations with LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and ejection fraction (EF). METHODS:Cardiac magnetic resonance images of 77 persons (45±17yo) - 42 LVNC, 15 non-ischemic dilative cardiomyopathy, 20 control group were analyzed. LVNC patients were divided into the subgroup with normal (LVNCN) and high EDV (LVNCDCM). NCM and total left ventricular mass (LVM) were estimated by Hautvast's [excluding intertrabecular blood (ITB) and including papillary muscles (PMs) into NCM] and Jacquier's approach (including ITB and PMs, if unclearly distinguished, into NCM). RESULTS:The cut-off value of NCM for LVNC diagnosis was 22% (AUC 0.933) for NCMH/LVMH and 26% (AUC 0.883) for NCMJ/LVMJ. Inter- and intra-observer variability (estimated by coefficient of variation [CoV] and intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) of NCMH/LVMH appeared better than of NCMJ/LVMJ (CoV 4.3%, ICC 0.981 and CoV 4.9%, ICC 0.978; respectively for NCMH/LVMH, while for NCMJ/LVMJ: CoV 19.7%, ICC 0.15 and CoV 12.9%, ICC 0.504). In LVNCN subgroup, the correlation between EDV and NCMH was stronger than NCMJ (r = 0.677, p<0.001 vs. r = 0.480, p = 0.038; respectively). In LVNC the EDV correlated with NCMH/LVMH (r = 0.391, p<0.01), but not with NCMJ/LVMJ. In the overall group a relationship was present between EF and NCMH/LVMH (r = -0.449, p<0.001), but not NCMJ/LVMJ. Only NCMH/LVMH explained the variability of EDV (b 0.434, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Choosing a method of NCM assessment that is less observer-dependent might increase the reliability of results. The impact of method selection on the LV parameters and cut-off values for hypertrabeculation should be further investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In clinical practice and in clinical trials, echocardiography and scintigraphy are used the most for the evaluation of global left ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular (LV) volumes. Actually, poor quality imaging and geometrical assumptions are the main limitations of LVEF measured by echocardiography. Contrast agents and 3D echocardiography are new methods that may alleviate these potential limitations. METHODS: Therefore we sought to examine the accuracy of contrast 3D echocardiography for the evaluation of LV volumes and LVEF relative to MIBI gated SPECT as an independent reference. In 43 patients addressed for chest pain, contrast 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and MIBI gated SPECT were prospectively performed on the same day. The accuracy and the variability of LV volumes and LVEF measurements were evaluated. RESULTS: Due to good endocardial delineation, LV volumes and LVEF measurements by contrast RT3DE were feasible in 99% of the patients. The mean LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) of the group by scintigraphy was 143 +/- 65 mL and was underestimated by triplane contrast RT3DE (128 +/- 60 mL; p < 0.001) and less by full-volume contrast RT3DE (132 +/- 62 mL; p < 0.001). Limits of agreement with scintigraphy were similar for triplane andfull-volume, modalities with the best results for full-volume. Results were similar for calculation of LV end-systolic volume (LVESV). The mean LVEF was 44 +/- 16% with scintigraphy and was not significantly different with both triplane contrast RT3DE (45 +/- 15%) and full-volume contrast RT3DE (45 +/- 15%). There was an excellent correlation between two different observers for LVEDV, LVESV and LVEF measurements and inter observer agreement was also good for both contrast RT3DE techniques. CONCLUSION: Contrast RT3DE allows an accurate assessment of LVEF compared to the LVEF measured by SPECT, and shows low variability between observers. Although RT3DE triplane provides accurate evaluation of left ventricular function, RT3DE full-volume is superior to triplane modality in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
Project description:The effects of variations in exercise training on left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients shortly after myocardial infarction (MI) are important but poorly understood.Systematic review incorporating meta-analysis using meta-regression. Studies were identified via systematic searches of: OVID MEDLINE (1950 to 2009), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991 to 2009), AMED (1985 to 2009), EMBASE (1988 to 2009), PUBMED (1966 to 2009), SPORT DISCUS (1975 to 2009), SCOPUS (1950 to 2009) and WEB OF SCIENCE (1950 to 2009) using the medical subject headings: myocardial infarction, post myocardial infarction, post infarction, heart attack, ventricular remodeling, ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, left ventricular function, exercise, exercise therapy, kinesiotherapy, exercise training. Reference lists of all identified studies were also manually searched for further relevant studies. Studies selected were randomized controlled trials of exercise training interventions reporting ejection fraction (EF) and/or ventricular volumes in patients following recent MI (? 3 months) post-MI patients involving control groups. Studies were excluded if they were not randomized, did not have a 'usual-care' control (involving no exercise), evaluated a non-exercise intervention, or did not involve human subjects. Non-English studies were also excluded.After screening of 1029 trials, trials were identified that reported EF (12 trials, n = 647), End Systolic Volumes (ESV) (9 trials, n = 475) and End Diastolic Volumes (EDV) (10 trials, n = 512). Meta-regression identified that changes in EF effect size difference decreased as the time between MI and initiation of the exercise program lengthened, and increased as the duration of the program increased (Q = 25.48, df = 2, p < 0.01, R2 = 0.76). Greater reductions in ESV and EDV (as indicated by effect size decreases) occurred with earlier initiation of exercise training and with longer training durations (ESV: Q = 23.89, df = 2, p < 0.05, R2 = 0.79; EDV: Q = 27.42, df = 2, p < 0.01, R2 = 0.83). Differences remained following sensitivity analysis. Each week that exercise was delayed required an additional month of training to achieve the same level of benefit on LV remodeling.Exercise training has beneficial effects on LV remodeling in clinically stable post-MI patients with greatest benefits occurring when training starts earlier following MI (from one week) and lasts longer than 3 months.
Project description:Infants with single ventricular physiology have volume and pressure overload that adversely affect ventricular mechanics. The impact of superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (SCPA) on single left ventricles versus single right ventricles is not known.As part of the Pediatric Heart Network placebo-controlled trial of enalapril in infants with single ventricular physiology, echocardiograms were obtained before SCPA and at 14 months and analyzed in a core laboratory. Retrospective analysis of the following measurements included single ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), mass, mass-to-volume ratio (mass/volume), and ejection fraction. Qualitative assessment of atrioventricular valve regurgitation and assessment of diastolic function were also performed.A total of 156 participants underwent echocardiography at both time points. Before SCPA, mean ESV and mass Z scores were elevated (3.4 ± 3.7 and 4.2 ± 2.9, respectively) as were mean EDV and mass/volume Z scores (2.1 ± 2.5 and 2.0 ± 2.9, respectively). EDV, ESV, and mass decreased after SCPA, but mass/volume and the degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation did not change. Subjects with morphologic left ventricles demonstrated greater reductions in ventricular volumes and mass than those with right ventricles (mean change in Z score: left ventricular [LV] EDV, -1.9 ± 2.1; right ventricular EDV, -0.7 ± 2.5; LV ESV, -2.3 ± 2.9; right ventricular ESV, -0.9 ± 4.6; LV mass, -2.5 ± 2.8; right ventricular mass, -1.3 ± 2.6; P ? .03 for all). Approximately one third of patients whose diastolic function could be assessed had abnormalities at each time point.Decreases in ventricular size and mass occur in patients with single ventricle after SCPA, and the effect is greater in those with LV morphology. The remodeling process resulted in commensurate changes in ventricular mass and volume such that the mass/volume did not change significantly in response to the volume-unloading surgery.