Modulation of the oligomerization state of p53 by differential binding of proteins of the S100 family to p53 monomers and tetramers.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the ways S100B, S100A1, S100A2, S100A4, and S100A6 bind to the different oligomeric forms of the tumor suppressor p53 in vitro, using analytical ultracentrifugation and multiangle light scattering. It is established that members of the S100 protein family bind to the tetramerization domain (residues 325-355) of p53 when it is uncovered in the monomer, and so binding can disrupt the tetramer. We found a stoichiometry of one dimer of S100 bound to a monomer of p53. We discovered that some S100 proteins could also bind to the tetramer. S100B bound the tetramer and also disrupted the dimer by binding monomeric p53. S100A2 bound monomeric p53 as well as tetrameric, whereas S100A1 only bound monomeric p53. S100A6 bound more tightly to tetrameric than to monomeric p53. We also identified an additional binding site for S100 proteins in the transactivation domain (1-57) of p53. Based on our results and published observations in vivo, we propose a model for the binding of S100 proteins to p53 that can explain both activation and inhibition of p53-mediated transcription. Depending on the concentration of p53 and the member of the S100 family, binding can alter the balance between monomer and tetramer in either direction.
Project description:p53 binds to some members of the S100 family (S100B, S100A4, S100A2, and S100A1). We previously showed that both S100B and S100A4 bind to the p53 tetramerization domain, and consequently control its oligomerization state, but only S100B binds to the C-terminal negative regulatory domain (NRD). Here, we investigate other binding partners for p53 within the S100 family (S100A6 and S100A11), and show that binding to the p53 tetramerization domain seems to be a general feature of the S100 family, while binding to the NRD is a characteristic of a subset of the family.
Project description:Defective intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) handling is implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Novel approaches targeting both cardiac Ca(2+) release and reuptake processes, such as S100A1, have the potential to rescue the function of failing cardiac myocytes. Here, we show that two members of the S100 Ca(2+) binding protein family, S100A2 and S100A6 that share high sequence homology, differentially influence cardiac Ca(2+) handling and contractility. Cardiac gene expression of S100A2 significantly enhanced both contractile and relaxation performance of rodent and canine cardiac myocytes, mimicking the functional effects of its cardiac homologue, S100A1. To interrogate mechanism, Ca(2+) spark frequency, a measure of the gating of the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel, was found to be significantly increased by S100A2. Therapeutic testing showed that S100A2 rescued the contractile defects of failing cardiac myocytes. In contrast, cardiac expression of S100A6 had no significant effects on contractility or Ca(2+) handling. These data reveal novel differential effects of S100 proteins on cardiac myocyte performance that may be useful in application to diseased cardiac muscle.
Project description:It is well established that calcium binding leads to conformational changes in S100 proteins. These conformational changes are thought to activate the protein and render a protein conformation that is capable of binding other proteins. The basic quaternary structural motif of S100 proteins is a homodimer, however there is little information if higher order non-covalent oligomers are also formed and whether these oligomers are of functional relevance. To this end we performed equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation experiments for 16 S100 proteins (S100A1, S100A2, S100A3, S100A4, S100A5, S100A6, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, S100A12, S100A13, S100B, S100P, and S100Z) under reducing conditions in the absence and presence of calcium ions. We show that the addition of calcium promotes the formation of tetrameric structures which could be further enhanced under in vivo conditions where there is an additional effect of molecular crowding.
Project description:The S100 protein family consists of small, dimeric proteins that exert their biological functions in response to changing calcium concentrations. S100B is the best-studied member and has been shown to interact with more than 20 binding partners in a calcium-dependent manner. The TRTK12 peptide, derived from the consensus binding sequence for S100B, has previously been found to interact with S100A1 and has been proposed to be a general binding partner of the S100 family. To test this hypothesis and gain a better understanding of the specificity of binding for the S100 proteins, 16 members of the human S100 family were screened against this peptide and its alanine variants. Novel interactions were found with only two family members, S100P and S100A2, indicating that TRTK12 selectively interacts with a small subset of the S100 proteins. Substantial promiscuity was observed in the binding site of S100B thereby accommodating variations in the peptide sequence, while S100A1, S100A2, and S100P exhibited larger differences in the binding constants for the TRTK12 alanine variants. This suggests that single-point substitutions can be used to selectively modulate the affinity of TRTK12 peptides for individual S100 proteins. This study has important implications for the rational drug design of inhibitors for the S100 proteins, which are involved in a variety of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:S100A2 and S100A6 interact with several target proteins in a Ca2+-regulated manner. However, the exact intracellular roles of the S100 proteins are unclear. In this study we identified Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein (Hop) and kinesin light chain (KLC) as novel targets of S100A2 and S100A6. Hop directly associates with Hsp70 and Hsp90 through the tetratricopeptide (TPR) domains and regulates Hop-Hsp70 and Hop-Hsp90 complex formation. We have found that S100A2 and S100A6 bind to the TPR domain of Hop, resulting in inhibition of the Hop-Hsp70 and Hop-Hsp90 interactions in vitro. Although endogenous Hsp70 and Hsp90 interact with Hop in resting Cos-7 cells, but not with S100A6, stimulation of these cells with ionomycin caused a Hop-S100A6 interaction, resulting in the dissociation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 from Hop. Similarly, glutathione S-transferase pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that S100A6 binds to the TPR domain of KLC, resulting in inhibition of the KLC-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein 1 (JIP-1) interaction in vitro. The transiently expressed JIP-1 interacts with KLC in resting Cos-7 cells but not with S100A6. Stimulation of these cells with ionomycin also caused a KLC-S100A6 interaction, resulting in dissociation of JIP-1 from KLC. These results strongly suggest that the S100 proteins modulate Hsp70-Hop-Hsp90 multichaperone complex formation and KLC-cargo interaction via Ca2+-dependent S100 protein-TPR protein complex formation in vivo as well as in vitro. Moreover, we have shown that S100A2 and S100A6 interact with another TPR protein Tom70 and regulate the Tom70-ligand interaction in vitro. Thus, our findings suggest a new intracellular Ca2+-signaling pathway via S100 proteins-TPR motif interactions.
Project description:As is typical for S100-target protein interactions, a Ca 2+-dependent conformational change in S100A1 is required to bind to a 12-residue peptide (TRTK12) derived from the actin-capping protein CapZ. In addition, the Ca 2+-binding affinity of S100A1 is found to be tightened (greater than threefold) when TRTK12 is bound. To examine the biophysical basis for these observations, we determined the solution NMR structure of TRTK12 in a complex with Ca 2+-loaded S100A1. When bound to S100A1, TRTK12 forms an amphipathic helix (residues N6 to S12) with several favorable hydrophobic interactions observed between W7, I10, and L11 of the peptide and a well-defined hydrophobic binding pocket in S100A1 that is only present in the Ca 2+-bound state. Next, the structure of S100A1-TRTK12 was compared to that of another S100A1-target complex (i.e., S100A1-RyRP12), which illustrated how the binding pocket in Ca 2+-S100A1 can accommodate peptide targets with varying amino acid sequences. Similarities and differences were observed when the structures of S100A1-TRTK12 and S100B-TRTK12 were compared, providing insights regarding how more than one S100 protein can interact with the same peptide target. Such comparisons, including those with other S100-target and S100-drug complexes, provide the basis for designing novel small-molecule inhibitors that could be specific for blocking one or more S100-target protein interactions.
Project description:S100A1 is a member of the S100 family of Ca2+-binding proteins and regulates several cellular processes, including those involved in Ca2+ signaling and cardiac and skeletal muscle function. In Alzheimer's disease, brain S100A1 is overexpressed and gives rise to disease pathologies, making it a potential therapeutic target. The 2.25 Å resolution crystal structure of Ca2+-S100A1 is solved here and is compared with the structures of other S100 proteins, most notably S100B, which is a highly homologous S100-family member that is implicated in the progression of malignant melanoma. The observed structural differences in S100A1 versus S100B provide insights regarding target protein-binding specificity and for targeting these two S100 proteins in human diseases using structure-based drug-design approaches.
Project description:Increasing evidence links proteins of the S100 family to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). S100 proteins are EF-hand calcium-binding proteins with intra- and extracellular functions related to regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and trace metal homeostasis, and are important modulators of inflammatory responses. For example, S100A6, S100A8, and S100B expression levels were found increased in inflammatory diseases, but also neurodegenerative disorders, and S100A8/A9 complexes may provide a mechanistic link between amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque formation and neuroinflammation. On the other hand, S100B, a proinflammatory protein that is chronically up-regulated in AD and whose elevation precedes plaque formation, was recently shown to suppress Aβ aggregation. Here, we report expression of S100A6 and S100B in astrocytes and less so in neurons, and low level of expression of S100A8 in both neurons and glial cells in vitro. In vivo, S100A8 expression is almost absent in the brain of aged wildtype mice, while S100A6 and S100B are expressed in all brain regions and most prominently in the cortex and cerebellum. S100B seems to be enriched in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. In contrast, in the brain of APP23 mice, a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease, S100B, S100A6, and S100A8 show co-localization with Aβ plaques, compatible with astrocyte activation, and the expression level of S100A8 is increased in neural cells. While S100A6 and S100B are enriched in the periphery of plaques where less fibrillar Aβ is found, S100A8 is more intense within the center of the inclusion. In vitro assays show that, similarly to S100B, S100A6, and S100A8 also delay Aβ aggregation suggesting a regulatory action over protein aggregation. We posit that elevated expression levels and overlapping spatial distribution of brain S100 proteins and plaques translates functional relationships between these inflammatory mediators and AD pathophysiology processes that uncover important molecular mechanisms linking the aggregation and neuroinflammation cascades.
Project description:Transcription factor SOX9 (sex-determining region Y-type high mobility group box 9) and its coactivators SOX5 and SOX6 (the SOX trio) induce early-stage chondrocyte differentiation and suppress its terminal stage. To identify possible targets of the SOX trio, we carried out a microarray analysis and identified S100A1 and S100B as possible target molecules. S100 protein expression was localized in late proliferative and pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes of the mouse growth plate. Overexpression of S100A1, S100B or their combination in cultured chondrogenic cells did not induce early differentiation, but suppressed hypertrophic differentiation and mineralization. Silencing of both S100A1 and S100B stimulated terminal differentiation and reversed the SOX-trio-mediated inhibition. Finally, luciferase reporter, electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that transcription of both S100 proteins is induced by the SOX trio, and also identified their respective enhancer elements in the 5'-end flanking region. We conclude that S100A1 and S100B are transcriptional targets of the SOX trio and mediate its inhibition of terminal differentiation of chondrocytes.
Project description:Deregulated expression of genes encoding members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins has been associated with the malignant progression of multiple tumour types. Using a pharmacological expression reactivation approach, we screened 16 S100 genes for evidence of epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood. Four family members (S100A2, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A10) demonstrated evidence of upregulated expression in multiple medulloblastoma cell lines, following treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Subsequent analysis revealed methylation of critical CpG sites located within these four genes in an extended cell line panel. Assessment of these genes in the non-neoplastic cerebellum (from which medulloblastomas develop) revealed strong somatic methylation affecting S100A2 and S100A4, whereas S100A6 and S100A10 were unmethylated. Assessed against these normal tissue-specific methylation states, S100A6 and S100A10 demonstrated tumour-specific hypermethylation in medulloblastoma primary tumours (5 out of 40 and 4 out of 35, respectively, both 12%) and cell lines (both 7 out of 9, 78%), which was associated with their transcriptional silencing. Moreover, S100A6 hypermethylation was significantly associated with the aggressive large cell/anaplastic morphophenotype (P=0.026). In contrast, pro-metastatic S100A4 displayed evidence of hypomethylation relative to the normal cerebellum in a significant proportion primary tumours (7 out of 41, 17%) and cell lines (3 out of 9, 33%), which was associated with its elevated expression. In summary, these data characterise complex patterns of somatic methylation affecting S100 genes in the normal cerebellum and demonstrate their disruption causing epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 family members in medulloblastoma development. Epigenetic events affecting S100 genes have potential clinical utility and merit further investigation as molecular biomarkers for this disease.