Investigation of candidate polymorphisms and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients on methotrexate.
ABSTRACT: We examined the association between candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease activity in RA patients on MTX.Our population was drawn from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS), a prospective, observational cohort of RA patients. A total of 556 participants were genotyped using the Affymetrix 100K platform. Two hundred and sixty-two participants were on MTX therapy, including 120 on MTX monotherapy. The primary outcome was the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28-CRP). High disease activity was defined as DAS28-CRP >3.2. Low disease activity was defined as DAS28-CRP < or =3.2. We studied three candidate alleles in the ATIC, ITPA and MTHFR genes for association with DAS28-CRP.Among participants on MTX monotherapy, those carrying the minor allele of ATIC SNP rs4673993 were more likely to have low disease activity (P = 0.01). None of the other SNPs was associated with disease activity. Among patients on any MTX (combination or monotherapy), the minor allele of ATIC rs4673993 was also associated with low disease activity (P = 0.04).In this cross-sectional analysis, ATIC SNP rs4673993 was associated with low disease activity in patients on MTX. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between ATIC polymorphisms, disease activity and treatment response.
Project description:To evaluate clinical remission with subcutaneous abatacept plus methotrexate (MTX) and abatacept monotherapy at 12?months in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and maintenance of remission following the rapid withdrawal of all RA treatment.In the Assessing Very Early Rheumatoid arthritis Treatment phase 3b trial, patients with early active RA were randomised to double-blind, weekly, subcutaneous abatacept 125?mg plus MTX, abatacept 125?mg monotherapy, or MTX for 12?months. Patients with low disease activity (Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 (C reactive protein (CRP)) <3.2) at month 12 entered a 12-month period of withdrawal of all RA therapy. The coprimary endpoints were the proportion of patients with DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 at month 12 and both months 12 and 18, for abatacept plus MTX versus MTX.Patients had <2?years of RA symptoms, DAS28 (CRP) ?3.2, anticitrullinated peptide-2 antibody positivity and 95.2% were rheumatoid factor positive. For abatacept plus MTX versus MTX, DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 was achieved in 60.9% versus 45.2% (p=0.010) at 12?months, and following treatment withdrawal, in 14.8% versus 7.8% (p=0.045) at both 12 and 18?months. DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 was achieved for abatacept monotherapy in 42.5% (month 12) and 12.4% (both months 12 and 18). Both abatacept arms had a safety profile comparable with MTX alone.Abatacept plus MTX demonstrated robust efficacy compared with MTX alone in early RA, with a good safety profile. The achievement of sustained remission following withdrawal of all RA therapy suggests an effect of abatacept's mechanism on autoimmune processes.NCT01142726.
Project description:To determine if withdrawing methotrexate (MTX) after 6 months of combination etanercept (ETN)+MTX, in MTX-inadequate responders with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is non-inferior to continuing ETN+MTX.Tumour necrosis factor-inhibitor naïve RA patients with disease activity score 28 (DAS28)?3.2, swollen joint count?3, despite stable MTX, were treated with ETN+MTX for 6 months, followed by randomisation to either continue ETN+MTX or switch to ETN monotherapy for an additional 18 months. The primary endpoint was change in DAS28 from 6-month randomisation to 12 months. The non-inferiority margin of change in DAS28 was 0.6, with prespecified analyses (DAS28<3.2 vs DAS28?3.2).205 patients were randomised. DAS28 was stable in patients on ETN+MTX and increased slightly in patients on ETN monotherapy from 6 to 12 months. Non-inferiority was not achieved, with an adjusted difference of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.7) between the ETN and the ETN+MTX groups, for the month 6-12 change in DAS28. However, patients who achieved low disease activity (LDA; DAS28<3.2) at 6 months had a similar disease activity at 12 months, whether on monotherapy or combination therapy (DAS28 change 0.7 ETN vs 0.57 ETN+MTX, p=0.8148). Conversely, for patients who did not reach LDA at 6 months, those on ETN monotherapy had increased disease activity at 12 months, while disease activity continued to decrease for patients on combination therapy, at 12 months (DAS28 change 0.4 ETN vs -0.4 ETN+MTX, p=0.0023).Non-inferiority was not achieved. Withdrawing MTX after 6 months of continuation ETN+MTX in MTX inadequate responders did not yield the same degree of improvement between 6 and 12 months compared with continuing ETN+MTX.ClinicalTrials.gov-NCT00654368.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy and safety of adalimumab plus methotrexate (ADA+MTX) compared with methotrexate monotherapy in achieving stable low disease activity (LDA; disease activity score (DAS28(CRP)) <3.2 at weeks 22 and 26) and clinical, radiographic and functional outcomes in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:1032 patients with active RA were randomly assigned 1:1 to ADA+MTX or placebo plus methotrexate (PBO+MTX) for 26 weeks. Treatment modifications were to be made in a subsequent study period based on the achievement of DAS28(CRP) <3.2 at weeks 22 and 26. Post-hoc analyses compared patients achieving stable remission using DAS28 and 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria with those achieving LDA but not remission. RESULTS:Among patients completing 6 months, 44% (207/466) ADA+MTX versus 24% (112/460) PBO+MTX patients achieved stable LDA at weeks 22 and 26 (p<0.001). Combination therapy was statistically superior to methotrexate in obtaining higher ACR20/50/70 responses, more clinical remissions, greater mean reductions in DAS28(CRP), no radiographic progression, and normal functional status at week 26 (p<0.001 for all). The only factor predicting stable LDA was disease activity at week 12. Patients achieving ACR/EULAR remission, particularly in the PBO+MTX group, had some advantage in radiographic outcomes compared with patients who only achieved LDA (but not remission). The overall frequency of adverse events was comparable between groups. There were more serious infections and deaths in the ADA+MTX group, with a possible age effect. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with ADA+MTX was significantly superior to methotrexate alone with respect to clinical, radiographic and functional outcomes in patients with early active RA. Before initiating treatment with adalimumab, individual patient evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio should be carefully considered.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Data from two double-blind, randomized, Phase III studies were analysed to investigate the ability of Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3, DAS28 (CRP), modified (M)-DAS28 (CRP) and Simplified or Clinical Disease Activity Indices to predict structural damage progression in RA. METHODS:This post hoc analysis included data from the 2-year Abatacept vs adaliMumab comParison in bioLogic-naïvE RA subjects with background MTX (AMPLE) trial in biologic-naïve patients with active RA (<5 years) and an inadequate response to MTX, and the 12-month treatment period of the Assessing Very Early Rheumatoid arthritis Treatment (AVERT) trial in MTX-naïve patients with early RA (?2 years) and poor prognostic indicators. Adjusted logistic regression analysis assessed the relationship between baseline disease activity and structural damage progression (defined as change from baseline greater than the smallest detectable change) at 12 and 24 months in AMPLE and 6 and 12 months in AVERT. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the impact of baseline disease activity on structural damage progression were calculated. RESULTS:Adjusted logistic regression analyses included all randomized and treated patients in AMPLE (N = 646) and those who received abatacept plus MTX or MTX monotherapy in AVERT (N = 235). Baseline Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3, DAS28 (CRP) and M-DAS28 (CRP) scores significantly predicted structural progression at months 12 and 24 in AMPLE (P < 0.05) and months 6 and 12 in AVERT (P < 0.01), and were stronger predictors than Simplified or Clinical Disease Activity Indices. CONCLUSION:In this post hoc analysis of two patient populations with RA, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3, DAS28 (CRP) and M-DAS28 (CRP) were good at predicting structural damage. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00929864 (AMPLE); NCT01142726 (AVERT).
Project description:Methotrexate (MTX) taken as monotherapy is recommended as the initial disease-modifying antirheumatic drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes of a blinded trial of initial MTX monotherapy with the option to step-up to combination therapy as compared to immediate combination therapy in patients with early, poor-prognosis RA.In the Treatment of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (TEAR) trial, 755 participants with early, poor-prognosis RA were randomized to receive MTX monotherapy or combination therapy (MTX plus etanercept or MTX plus sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine). Participants randomized to receive MTX monotherapy stepped-up to combination therapy at 24 weeks if the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) was ≥3.2.Attrition at 24 weeks was similar in the MTX monotherapy and combination groups. Of the 370 evaluable participants in the initial MTX group, 28% achieved low levels of disease activity and did not step-up to combination therapy (MTX monotherapy group). The mean ± SD DAS28-ESR in participants continuing to take MTX monotherapy at week 102 was 2.7 ± 1.2, which is similar to that in participants who were randomized to immediate combination therapy (2.9 ± 1.2). Participants who received MTX monotherapy had less radiographic progression at week 102 as compared to those who received immediate combination therapy (mean ± SD change in modified Sharp score 0.2 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 6.4). Participants assigned to initial MTX who required step-up to combination therapy at 24 weeks (72%) demonstrated similar DAS28-ESR values (3.5 ± 1.3 versus 3.2 ± 1.3 at week 48) and radiographic progression (change in modified Sharp score 1.2 ± 4.1 versus 1.1 ± 6.4 at week 102) as those assigned to immediate combination therapy. The results for either of the immediate combination approaches, whether triple therapy or MTX plus etanercept, were similar.These results in patients with early, poor prognosis RA validate the strategy of starting with MTX monotherapy. This study is the first to demonstrate in a blinded trial that initial MTX monotherapy with the option to step-up to combination therapy results in similar outcomes to immediate combination therapy. Approximately 30% of patients will not need combination therapy, and the 70% who will need it are clinically and radiographically indistinguishable from those who were randomized to receive immediate combination therapy.
Project description:In most patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Disease Activity Score 28-joint count C reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) is lower than DAS28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), suggesting that use of the DAS28-ESR cut-off to assess high disease activity (HDA) with DAS28-CRP may underestimate the number of patients with HDA. We determined the DAS28-CRP value corresponding to the validated DAS28-ESR cut-off for HDA.Baseline data were pooled from 2 clinical studies evaluating etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) or MTX in early RA; DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR were obtained, allowing the determination of the DAS28-CRP HDA value best corresponding to the DAS28-ESR cut-off of >5.1.At baseline, as expected, fewer patients had HDA by DAS28-CRP than DAS28-ESR; DAS28-CRP>5.1 and DAS28-ESR>5.1 had only modest agreement (κ coefficients 0.45-0.54). Mean DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR were 5.7 and 6.2, respectively, in the ETN+MTX group (n=571), and 6.0 and 6.5 in the MTX group (n=262). A DAS28-CRP cut-off of 4.6 corresponded to a DAS28-ESR cut-off of 5.1.We have shown that a DAS28-CRP of 4.6 corresponds to 5.1 for DAS28-ESR. Since this is substantially lower than the DAS28-ESR cut-off of 5.1, using 5.1 as the cut-off for DAS28-CRP underestimates disease activity in RA.NCT00195494; NCT00913458.
Project description:CONCERTO was a randomised, double-blind, parallel-armed study of methotrexate (MTX) in combination with adalimumab to assess whether an increasing trend of efficacy and decreased safety exists when increasing MTX dose in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Early, biologic and MTX-naive RA patients (N=395) were evenly randomised to open-label adalimumab (40 mg every other week) plus weekly blinded 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg MTX for 26 weeks. Clinical, radiographic and functional outcomes were analysed using two-sided linear trend tests or one-way analysis of covariance.Statistically significant increasing trends were observed in the proportion of patients achieving the primary endpoint, 28-joint count disease activity score with C reactive protein (DAS28(CRP)) <3.2 (42.9%, 44.0%, 56.6% and 60.2% for 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg/week MTX, respectively), DAS28(CRP) <2.6 and American College of Rheumatology 50/70/90 responses with increasing doses of MTX in combination with adalimumab. No statistical differences in minimal clinically important differences in physical function were detected. Statistically significant trends for achieving low disease activity and remission were demonstrated with increasing MTX dose by validated clinical indices; differences comparing 10 and 20 mg MTX were minimal. Adalimumab serum concentrations increased with ascending dose up to 10 mg MTX. More patients experienced infectious adverse events with increasing MTX dose.Increasing doses of MTX in combination with adalimumab demonstrated a statistically significant trend in improved clinical outcomes that mimicked the adalimumab pharmacokinetic profile. In early RA patients initiating adalimumab combination therapy, efficacy of 10 and 20 mg/week MTX appeared equivalent.
Project description:Considering a lack of efficacy data in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) presenting without classical markers of poor prognosis, we compared methotrexate (MTX) with or without step-down glucocorticoids in the CareRA trial.Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naïve patients with eRA were stratified into a low-risk group based on prognostic markers that included non-erosiveness, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies and rheumatoid factor negativity and low disease activity (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on C-reactive protein (DAS28(CRP)) ?3.2). Patients were randomized to 15 mg of MTX weekly (MTX with tight step-up (MTX-TSU)) or 15 mg of MTX weekly with prednisone bridging, starting at 30 mg and tapered to 5 mg daily from week 6 (COmbinatie therapie bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA Slim)). A TSU approach was applied. Outcomes assessed were DAS28(CRP)-determined remission, cumulative disease activity, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores and adverse events (AEs) after 16 treatment weeks.We analyzed 43 COBRA Slim and 47 MTX-TSU patients and found that 65.1% in the COBRA Slim group and 46.8% in the MTX-TSU group reached remission (P?=?0.081). Mean?±?standard deviation area under the curve values of DAS28(CRP) were 13.84?±?4.58 and 11.18?±?4.25 for the MTX-TSU and COBRA Slim patients, respectively (P?=?0.006). More COBRA Slim patients had an HAQ score of 0 (51.2% versus 23.4%, P?=?0.006) at week 16. Therapy-related AEs between groups did not differ.In patients with low-risk eRA, MTX with step-down glucocorticoid bridging seems more efficacious than MTX step-up monotherapy, with a comparable number of AEs observed over the first 16 treatment weeks.EU Clinical Trials Register Identifier: EudraCT number 2008-007225-39 . Registered 5 November 2008.
Project description:Aiming at rapid decrease of disease activity, there has been a trend to start with higher doses of methotrexate (MTX) in patients newly diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), both as monotherapy and in combination with other antirheumatic drugs. We aimed to study the relationship between clinical response and MTX dose as monotherapy or combination therapy in patients with early RA.Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with early RA, from a large international observational database, the METEOR database, were selected if MTX was part of their initial treatment. Patients were divided into four groups: MTX monotherapy, MTX?+?convention synthetic (cs)DMARDs, MTX?+?glucocorticoids or MTX?+?biologic (b)DMARDs. MTX dose was dichotomized: low dose ?10 mg/week; high dose ?15 mg/week. Linear mixed model analyses for the Disease Activity Score (DAS), DAS in 28 joints (DAS28) and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were performed in each medication group, with MTX dose and time as covariates. Outcomes were assessed from baseline until 3-6 months follow up. Associations were adjusted for potential confounding by indication using propensity score (PS) modelling.For patients starting MTX monotherapy (n?=?523), MTX?+?csDMARDs (n?=?266) or MTX?+?glucocorticoids (n?=?615), the PS-adjusted effects of MTX dose (high versus low) on the DAS, DAS28 and HAQ were small and not clinically meaningful. Patients starting MTX?+?bDMARDs were disregarded due to low numbers (n =11).In patients newly diagnosed with RA, no clinical benefit of high compared to low initial MTX doses was found for MTX monotherapy or for MTX combination therapy with csDMARDs or glucocorticoids.
Project description:Objectives: Methotrexate (MTX) is the first line treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but nevertheless 30% of patients experience MTX inefficacy. Our aim was to develop a clinical pharmacogenetic model to predict which RA patients will not respond to MTX monotherapy. We also assessed whether this model can be generalized to other populations by validating it on a group of Serbian RA patients. Methods: In 110 RA Slovenian patients, data on clinical factors and 34 polymorphisms in MTX pathway were analyzed by Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) penalized regression to select variables associated with the disease activity as measured by Disease Activity Score (DAS28) score after 6 months of MTX monotherapy. A clinical pharmacogenetic index was constructed from penalized regression coefficients with absolute value above 0.05. This index was cross-validated and also independently validated on 133 Serbian RA patients. Results: A clinical pharmacogenetic index for prediction of DAS28 after 6 months of MTX monotherapy in Slovenian RA patients consisted of DAS28 score at diagnosis, presence of erosions, MTX dose, Solute Carrier Family 19 Member 1 (SLC19A1) rs1051266, Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) rs2306283, Thymidylate Synthase (TYMS), and Adenosine Monophosphate Deaminase 1 (AMPD1) rs17602729. It correctly classified 69% of Slovenian patients as responders or nonresponders and explained 30% of variability in DAS28 after 6 months of MTX monotherapy. Testing for validity in another population showed that it classified correctly only 22.5% of Serbian RA patients. Conclusions: We developed a clinical pharmacogenetic model for DAS28 after 6 months of MTX monotherapy in Slovenian RA patients by combining clinical and genetic variables. The clinical pharmacogenetic index developed for Slovenian patients did not perform well on Serbian patients, presumably due to the differences in patients' characteristics and clinical management between the two groups.