Scavenger receptor class B type I-mediated uptake of serum cholesterol is essential for optimal adrenal glucocorticoid production.
ABSTRACT: Impaired scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated uptake of HDL-cholesterol esters (HDL-CE) induces adrenal insufficiency in mice. Humans contain an alternative route of HDL-CE clearance, namely through the transfer by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to apolipoprotein B lipoproteins for subsequent uptake via the LDL receptor. In this study, we determined whether CETP can compensate for loss of adrenal SR-BI. Transgenic expression of human CETP (CETP Tg) in SR-BI knockout (KO) mice increased adrenal HDL-CE clearance from 33-58% of the control value. SR-BI KO/CETP Tg and SR-BI KO mice displayed adrenal hypertrophy due to equally high plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. Adrenal cholesterol levels and plasma corticosterone levels were 38-52% decreased in SR-BI KO mice with and without CETP expression. SR-BI KO/CETP Tg mice also failed to increase their corticosterone level after lipopolysaccharide challenge, leading to an identical >4-fold increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha response compared with controls. These data indicate that uptake of CE via other routes than SR-BI is not sufficient to generate the cholesterol pool needed for optimal adrenal steroidogenesis. In conclusion, we have shown that CETP-mediated transfer of HDL-CE is not able to reverse adrenal insufficiency in SR-BI knockout mice. Thus, SR-BI-mediated uptake of serum cholesterol is essential for optimal adrenal function.
Project description:Scavenger receptor SR-BI significantly contributes to HDL cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis in mice. However, the role of SR-BI may not be as pronounced in humans due to cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity. To address the impact of CETP expression on the adverse effects associated with SR-BI deficiency, we cross-bred our SR-BI conditional knock-out mouse model with CETP transgenic mice. CETP almost completely restored the abnormal HDL-C distribution in SR-BI-deficient mice. However, it did not normalize the elevated plasma free to total cholesterol ratio characteristic of hepatic SR-BI deficiency. Red blood cell and platelet count abnormalities observed in mice liver deficient for SR-BI were partially restored by CETP, but the elevated erythrocyte cholesterol to phospholipid ratio remained unchanged. Complete deletion of SR-BI was associated with diminished adrenal cholesterol stores, whereas hepatic SR-BI deficiency resulted in a significant increase in adrenal gland cholesterol content. In both mouse models, CETP had no impact on adrenal cholesterol metabolism. In diet-induced atherosclerosis studies, hepatic SR-BI deficiency accelerated aortic lipid lesion formation in both CETP-expressing (4-fold) and non-CETP-expressing (8-fold) mice when compared with controls. Impaired macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in mice deficient for SR-BI in liver, which was not corrected by CETP, most likely contributed by such an increase in atherosclerosis susceptibility. Finally, comparison of the atherosclerosis burden in SR-BI liver-deficient and fully deficient mice demonstrated that SR-BI exerted an atheroprotective activity in extra-hepatic tissues whether CETP was present or not. These findings support the contention that the SR-BI pathway contributes in unique ways to cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis susceptibility even in the presence of CETP.
Project description:Increasing HDL levels is a potential strategy for the treatment of atherosclerosis.ITX5061, a molecule initially characterized as a p38 MAPK inhibitor, increased HDL-C levels by 20% in a human population of hypertriglyceridemic subjects with low HDL levels. ITX5061 also moderately increased apoA-I but did not affect VLDL/LDL cholesterol or plasma triglyceride concentrations. ITX5061 increased HDL-C in WT and human apoA-I transgenic mice, and kinetic experiments showed that ITX5061 decreased the fractional catabolic rate of HDL-CE and reduced its hepatic uptake. In transfected cells, ITX5061 inhibited SR-BI-dependent uptake of HDL-CE. Moreover, ITX5061 failed to increase HDL-C levels in SR-BI(-/-) mice. To assess effects on atherosclerosis, ITX5061 was given to atherogenic diet-fed Ldlr(+/-) mice with or without CETP expression for 18 weeks. In both the control and CETP-expressing groups, ITX5061-treated mice displayed reductions of early atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic arch -40%, P<0.05), and a nonsignificant trend to reduced lesion area in the proximal aorta.Our data indicate that ITX5061 increases HDL-C levels by inhibition of SR-BI activity. This suggests that pharmacological inhibition of SR-BI has the potential to raise HDL-C and apoA-I levels without adverse effects on VLDL/LDL cholesterol levels in humans.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Determine the impact of CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) on the route of cholesterol elimination in mice. Approach and Results: We adapted our protocol for biliary cholesterol secretion with published methods for measuring transintestinal cholesterol elimination. Bile was diverted and biliary lipid secretion maintained by infusion of bile acid. The proximal small bowel was perfused with bile acid micelles. In high-fat, high-cholesterol-fed mice, the presence of a CETP transgene increased biliary cholesterol secretion at the expense of transintestinal cholesterol elimination. The increase in biliary cholesterol secretion was not associated with increases in hepatic SR-BI (scavenger receptor BI) or ABCG5 (ATP-binding cassette G5) ABCG8. The decline in intestinal cholesterol secretion was associated with an increase in intestinal Niemann-Pick disease, type C1, gene-like 1 mRNA. Finally, we followed the delivery of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) or LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesteryl esters (CE) from plasma to bile and intestinal perfusates. HDL-CE favored the biliary pathway. Following high-fat feeding, the presence of CETP directed HDL-CE away from the bile and towards the intestine. The presence of CETP increased LDL-CE delivery to bile, whereas the appearance of LDL-CE in intestinal perfusate was near the lower limit of detection. CONCLUSIONS:Biliary and intestinal cholesterol secretion can be simultaneously measured in mice and used as a model to examine factors that alter cholesterol elimination. Plasma factors, such as CETP, alter the route of cholesterol elimination from the body. Intestinal and biliary cholesterol secretion rates are independent of transhepatic or transintestinal delivery of HDL-CE, whereas LDL-CE was eliminated almost exclusively in the hepatobiliary pathway.
Project description:Lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the postprandial phase is associated with both quantitative and qualitative remodeling of HDL particle subspecies that may influence their anti-atherogenic functions in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We evaluated the capacity of whole plasma or isolated HDL particles to mediate cellular free cholesterol (FC) efflux, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer, and selective hepatic CE uptake during the postprandial phase in subjects displaying type IIB hyperlipidemia (n = 16). Postprandial, large HDL2 displayed an enhanced capacity to mediate FC efflux via both scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-dependent (+12%; P < 0.02) and ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1)-dependent (+31%; P < 0.008) pathways in in vitro cell systems. In addition, the capacity of whole postprandial plasma (4 h and 8 h postprandially) to mediate cellular FC efflux via the ABCA1-dependent pathway was significantly increased (+19%; P < 0.0003). Concomitantly, postprandial lipemia was associated with elevated endogenous CE transfer rates from HDL2 to apoB lipoproteins and with attenuated capacity (-17%; P < 0.02) of total HDL to deliver CE to hepatic cells. Postprandial lipemia enhanced SR-BI and ABCG1-dependent efflux to large HDL2 particles. However, postprandial lipemia is equally associated with deleterious features by enhancing formation of CE-enriched, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles through the action of CETP and by reducing the direct return of HDL-CE to the liver.
Project description:High-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), mediated cellular uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol controls HDL structure and plasma HDL and biliary cholesterol levels. In SR-BI knockout (KO) mice, an unusually high plasma unesterified-to-total cholesterol ratio (UC:TC) and abnormally large HDL particles apparently contribute to pathology, including female infertility, susceptibility to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and anemia. Here we examined the influence of SR-BI deficiency on platelets.The high plasma UC:TC ratio in SR-BI KO mice was correlated with platelet abnormalities, including high cholesterol content, abnormal morphologies, high clearance rates, and thrombocytopenia. One day after platelets from wild-type mice were infused into SR-BI KO mice, they exhibited abnormally high cholesterol content and clearance rates similar to those of endogenous platelets. Platelets from SR-BI KO mice exhibited in vitro a blunted aggregation response to the agonist ADP but a normal response to PAR4.In SR-BI KO mice abnormal circulating lipoproteins, particularly their high UC:TC ratio-rather than the absence of SR-BI in platelets themselves-induce defects in platelet structure and clearance, together with a mild defect in function.
Project description:The LDL receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) play physiological roles in LDL and HDL metabolism in vivo. In this study, we explored HDL metabolism in LDLR-deficient mice in comparison with WT littermates. Murine HDL was radiolabeled in the protein ((125)I) and in the cholesteryl ester (CE) moiety ([(3)H]). The metabolism of (125)I-/[(3)H]HDL was investigated in plasma and in tissues of mice and in murine hepatocytes. In WT mice, liver and adrenals selectively take up HDL-associated CE ([(3)H]). In contrast, in LDLR(-/-) mice, selective HDL CE uptake is significantly reduced in liver and adrenals. In hepatocytes isolated from LDLR(-/-) mice, selective HDL CE uptake is substantially diminished compared with WT liver cells. Hepatic and adrenal protein expression of lipoprotein receptors SR-BI, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was analyzed by immunoblots. The respective protein levels were identical both in hepatic and adrenal membranes prepared from WT or from LDLR(-/-) mice. In summary, an LDLR deficiency substantially decreases selective HDL CE uptake by liver and adrenals. This decrease is independent from regulation of receptor proteins like SR-BI, CD36, and LRP1. Thus, LDLR expression has a substantial impact on both HDL and LDL metabolism in mice.
Project description:The HDL receptor scavenger receptor, class B type I (SR-BI) controls the structure and fate of plasma HDL. Female SR-BI KO mice are infertile, apparently because of their abnormal cholesterol-enriched HDL particles. We examined the growth and meiotic progression of SR-BI KO oocytes and found that they underwent normal germinal vesicle breakdown; however, SR-BI KO eggs, which had accumulated excess cholesterol in vivo, spontaneously activated, and they escaped metaphase II (MII) arrest and progressed to pronuclear, MIII, and anaphase/telophase III stages. Eggs from fertile WT mice were activated when loaded in vitro with excess cholesterol by a cholesterol/methyl-?-cyclodextrin complex, phenocopying SR-BI KO oocytes. In vitro cholesterol loading of eggs induced reduction in maturation promoting factor and MAPK activities, elevation of intracellular calcium, extrusion of a second polar body, and progression to meiotic stages beyond MII. These results suggest that the infertility of SR-BI KO females is caused, at least in part, by excess cholesterol in eggs inducing premature activation and that cholesterol can activate WT mouse eggs to escape from MII arrest. Analysis of SR-BI KO female infertility raises the possibility that abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism might underlie some cases of human female infertility of unknown etiology.
Project description:The role of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) in endothelial cells (EC) was examined in several novel transgenic mouse models expressing SR-BI in endothelium of mice with normal C57Bl6/N, apoE-KO, or Scarb1-KO backgrounds. Mice were also created expressing SR-BI exclusively in endothelium and liver. Endothelial expression of the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene had no significant effect on plasma lipoprotein levels in mice on a normal chow diet but on an atherogenic diet, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and protected mice against atherosclerosis. In 8-month-old apoE-KO mice fed a normal chow diet, the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene decreased aortic lesions by 24%. Mice expressing SR-BI only in EC and liver had a 1.5 ± 0.1-fold increase in plasma cholesterol compared to mice synthesizing SR-BI only in liver. This elevation was due mostly to increased HDL-C. In EC culture studies, SR-BI was found to be present in both basolateral and apical membranes but greater cellular uptake of cholesterol from HDL was found in the basolateral compartment. In summary, enhanced expression of SR-BI in EC resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile and decreased atherosclerosis, suggesting a possible role for endothelial SR-BI in the flux of cholesterol across EC.
Project description:The scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) binds high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and mediates selective delivery of cholesteryl esters (CEs) to the liver and steroidogenic cells of the adrenal glands and gonads. Although it is clear that the large extracellular domain (ECD) of SR-BI binds HDL, the role of ECD in the selective HDL-CE transport remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a combination of mutational and chemical approaches to systematically evaluate the contribution of cysteine residues, especially six cysteine residues of ECD, in SR-BI-mediated selective HDL-CE uptake, intracellular trafficking, and SR-BI dimerization. Pretreatment of SR-BI-overexpressing COS-7 cells with a disulfide (S-S) bond reducing agent, ?-mercaptoethanol (100 mM) or dithiothreitol (DTT) (10 mM), modestly but significantly impaired SR-BI-mediated selective HDL-CE uptake. Treatment of SR-BI-overexpressing COS-7 cells with the optimal doses of membrane permeant alkyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents, positively charged MTSEA or neutral MMTS, that specifically react with the free sulfhydryl group of cysteine reduced the rate of SR-BI-mediated selective HDL-CE uptake, indicating that certain intracellular free cysteine residues may also be critically involved in the selective cholesterol transport process. In contrast, use of membrane impermeant MTS reagent, positively charged MTSET and negatively charged MTSES, showed no such effect. Next, the importance of eight cysteine residues in SR-BI expression, cell surface expression, dimer formation, and selective HDL-derived CE transport was evaluated. These cysteine residues were replaced either singly or in pairs with serine, and the mutant SR-BIs were expressed in either COS-7 or CHO cells. Four mutations, C280S, C321S, C323S, and C334S, of the ECD, either singly or in various pair combinations, resulted in significant decreases in SR-BI (HDL) binding activity, selective CE uptake, and trafficking to the cell surface. Surprisingly, we found that mutation of the two remaining cysteine residues, C251 and C384 of the ECD, had no effect on either SR-BI expression or function. Other cysteine mutations and substitutions were also without effect. Western blot data indicated that single and double mutations at C280, C321, C323, and C334 residues strongly favor dimer formation. However, they are rendered nonfunctional presumably because of mutation-induced formation of aberrant disulfide linkages resulting in inhibition of optimal HDL binding and, thus, selective HDL-CE uptake. These results provide novel insights into the functional role of four cysteine residues, C280, C321, C323, and C334, of the SR-BI ECD in SR-BI expression and trafficking to the cell surface, its dimerization, and associated selective CE transport function.
Project description:High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are athero-protective, primarily because of their ability to promote cholesterol flux from peripheral tissues to the liver by reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The delivery of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into cells is mediated by the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a promising target for enhancing whole body cholesterol disposal and preventing cardiovascular disease. A detailed understanding of the structural determinants underlying proper SR-BI/HDL alignment that supports the selective uptake of HDL-CE into cells remains lacking. To this end, we exploited CD36, a class B scavenger receptor with a predicted topology similar to that of SR-BI that binds HDL but is unable to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-CE. We generated a series of SR-BI/CD36 chimeric receptors that span the extracellular (EC) domain of SR-BI to delineate regions that are essential for SR-BI's cholesterol transport functions. All 16 SR-BI/CD36 chimeras were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, and their plasma membrane localization was confirmed. The majority of SR-BI/CD36 chimeric receptors displayed significant reductions in their ability to (i) bind HDL, (ii) deliver HDL-CE to cells, (iii) mediate efflux of free cholesterol (FC) to HDL, and (iv) redistribute plasma membrane domains of FC. We also demonstrated that changes in SR-BI function were independent of receptor oligomerization. Altogether, we have identified discrete subdomains, particularly in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the EC domain of SR-BI, that are critical for productive receptor-ligand interactions and the various cholesterol transport functions of SR-BI.