Use of the lambda Red-recombineering method for genetic engineering of Pantoea ananatis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pantoea ananatis, a member of the Enterobacteriacea family, is a new and promising subject for biotechnological research. Over recent years, impressive progress in its application to L-glutamate production has been achieved. Nevertheless, genetic and biotechnological studies of Pantoea ananatis have been impeded because of the absence of genetic tools for rapid construction of direct mutations in this bacterium. The lambda Red-recombineering technique previously developed in E. coli and used for gene inactivation in several other bacteria is a high-performance tool for rapid construction of precise genome modifications. RESULTS: In this study, the expression of lambda Red genes in P. ananatis was found to be highly toxic. A screening was performed to select mutants of P. ananatis that were resistant to the toxic affects of lambda Red. A mutant strain, SC17(0) was identified that grew well under conditions of simultaneous expression of lambda gam, bet, and exo genes. Using this strain, procedures for fast introduction of multiple rearrangements to the Pantoea ananatis genome based on the lambda Red-dependent integration of the PCR-generated DNA fragments with as short as 40 bp flanking homologies have been demonstrated. CONCLUSION: The lambda Red-recombineering technology was successfully used for rapid generation of chromosomal modifications in the specially selected P. ananatis recipient strain. The procedure of electro-transformation with chromosomal DNA has been developed for transfer of the marked mutation between different P. ananatis strains. Combination of these techniques with lambda Int/Xis-dependent excision of selective markers significantly accelerates basic research and construction of producing strains.
Project description:Recombineering is an in vivo genetic engineering technique involving homologous recombination mediated by phage recombination proteins. The use of recombineering methodology is not limited by size and sequence constraints and therefore has enabled the streamlined construction of bacterial strains and multi-component plasmids. Recombineering applications commonly utilize singleplex strategies and the parameters are extensively tested. However, singleplex recombineering is not suitable for the modification of several loci in genome recoding and strain engineering exercises, which requires a multiplex recombineering design. Defining the main parameters affecting multiplex efficiency especially the insertion of multiple large genes is necessary to enable efficient large-scale modification of the genome. Here, we have tested different recombineering operational parameters of the lambda phage Red recombination system and compared singleplex and multiplex recombineering of large gene sized DNA cassettes. We have found that optimal multiplex recombination required long homology lengths in excess of 120 bp. However, efficient multiplexing was possible with only 60 bp of homology. Multiplex recombination was more limited by lower amounts of DNA than singleplex recombineering and was greatly enhanced by use of phosphorothioate protection of DNA. Exploring the mechanism of multiplexing revealed that efficient recombination required co-selection of an antibiotic marker and the presence of all three Red proteins. Building on these results, we substantially increased multiplex efficiency using an ExoVII deletion strain. Our findings elucidate key differences between singleplex and multiplex recombineering and provide important clues for further improving multiplex recombination efficiency.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis, a bacterium that is well known for its phytopathogenic characteristics, has been isolated from a myriad of ecological niches and hosts. Infection of agronomic crops, such as maize and rice, can result in substantial economic losses. In the last few years, much of the research performed on P. ananatis has been based on the sequencing and analysis of the genomes of strains isolated from different environments and with different lifestyles. In this review, we summarize the advances made in terms of pathogenicity determinants of phytopathogenic strains of P. ananatis and how this bacterium is able to adapt and survive in such a wide variety of habitats. The diversity and adaptability of P. ananatis can largely be attributed to the plasticity of its genome and the integration of mobile genetic elements on both the chromosome and plasmid. Furthermore, we discuss the recent interest in this species in various biotechnological applications. TAXONOMY:Domain Bacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Family Enterobacteriaceae; genus Pantoea; species ananatis. DISEASE SYMPTOMS:Pantoea ananatis causes disease on a wide range of plants, and symptoms can range from dieback and stunted growth in Eucalyptus seedlings to chlorosis and bulb rotting in onions. DISEASE CONTROL:Currently, the only methods of control of P. ananatis on most plant hosts are the use of resistant clones and cultivars or the eradication of infected plant material. The use of lytic bacteriophages on certain host plants, such as rice, has also achieved a measure of success.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis is the causative agent of sheath and grain rot in rice. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P. ananatis strain PA13, originally isolated from a diseased rice grain.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis is a widespread phytopathogen with a broad host range. Despite its ability to infect economically important crops, such as maize, rice and onion, relatively little is known about how this bacterium infects and colonizes host tissue or spreads within and between hosts. To study the role of motility in pathogenicity, we analysed both swimming and twitching motility in P. ananatis LMG 20103. Genetic recombineering was used to construct four mutants affected in motility. Two flagellar mutants were disrupted in the flgK and motA genes, required for flagellar assembly and flagellar rotation, respectively. Similarly, two twitching motility mutants were generated, impaired in the structure (pilA) and functioning (pilT) of the type IV pili. The role of swimming and twitching motility during the infection cycle of P. ananatis in onion seedlings was determined by comparing the mutant- and wild-type strains using several in vitro and in planta assays. From the results obtained, it was evident that flagella aid P. ananatis in locating and attaching to onion leaf surfaces, as well as in pathogenicity, whereas twitching motility is instrumental in the spread of the bacteria on the surface once attachment has occurred. Both swimming and twitching motility contribute towards the ability of P. ananatis to cause disease in onions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The development of modern producer strains with metabolically engineered pathways poses special problems that often require manipulating many genes and expressing them individually at different levels or under separate regulatory controls. The construction of plasmid-less marker-less strains has many advantages for the further practical exploitation of these bacteria in industry. Such producer strains are usually constructed by sequential chromosome modifications including deletions and integration of genetic material. For these purposes complex methods based on in vitro and in vivo recombination processes have been developed. RESULTS: Here, we describe the new scheme of insertion of the foreign DNA for step-by-step construction of plasmid-less marker-less recombinant E. coli strains with chromosome structure designed in advance. This strategy, entitled as Dual-In/Out, based on the initial Red-driven insertion of artificial phi80-attB sites into desired points of the chromosome followed by two site-specific recombination processes: first, the phi80 system is used for integration of the recombinant DNA based on selective marker-carrier conditionally-replicated plasmid with phi80-attP-site, and second, the lambda system is used for excision of inserted vector part, including the plasmid ori-replication and the marker, flanked by lambda-attL/R-sites. CONCLUSION: The developed Dual-In/Out strategy is a rather straightforward, but convenient combination of previously developed recombination methods: phages site-specific and general Red/ET-mediated. This new approach allows us to detail the design of future recombinant marker-less strains, carrying, in particular, rather large artificial insertions that could be difficult to introduce by usually used PCR-based Recombineering procedure. The developed strategy is simple and could be particularly useful for construction of strains for the biotechnological industry.
Project description:The lambda Red recombineering technology has been used extensively in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium for easy PCR-mediated generation of deletion mutants, but less so in pathogenic species of E. coli such as EHEC and EPEC. Our early experiments with the use of lambda Red in EHEC and EPEC have led to sporadic results, leading to the present study to identify factors that might improve the efficiency of Red recombineering in these pathogenic strains of E. coli.In this report, we have identified conditions that optimize the use of lambda Red for recombineering in EHEC and EPEC. Using plasmids that contain a Ptac-red-gam operon and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication, we have generated multiple mutations (both marked and unmarked) in known virulence genes. In addition, we have easily deleted five O157-specific islands (O-islands) of EHEC suspected of containing virulence factors. We have examined the use of both PCR-generated substrates (40 bp of flanking homology) and plasmid-derived substrates (approximately 1 kb of flanking homology); both work well and each have their own advantages. The establishment of the hyper-rec phenotype requires only a 20 minute IPTG induction period of red and gam. This recombinogenic window is important as constitutive expression of red and gam induces a 10-fold increase in spontaneous resistance to rifampicin. Other factors such as the orientation of the drug marker in recombination substrates and heat shock effects also play roles in the success of Red-mediated recombination in EHEC and EPEC.The lambda Red recombineering technology has been optimized for use in pathogenic species of E. coli, namely EHEC and EPEC. As demonstration of this technology, five O-islands of EHEC were easily and precisely deleted from the chromosome by electroporation with PCR-generated substrates containing drug markers flanked with 40 bp of target DNA. These results should encourage the use of lambda Red recombineering in these and other strains of pathogenic bacteria for faster identification of virulence factors and the speedy generation of bacterial mutants for vaccine development.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis AJ13355 is a newly identified member of the Enterobacteriaceae family with promising biotechnological applications. This bacterium is able to grow at an acidic pH and is resistant to saturating concentrations of L-glutamic acid, making this organism a suitable host for the production of L-glutamate. In the current study, the complete genomic sequence of P. ananatis AJ13355 was determined. The genome was found to consist of a single circular chromosome consisting of 4,555,536 bp [DDBJ: AP012032] and a circular plasmid, pEA320, of 321,744 bp [DDBJ: AP012033]. After automated annotation, 4,071 protein-coding sequences were identified in the P. ananatis AJ13355 genome. For 4,025 of these genes, functions were assigned based on homologies to known proteins. A high level of nucleotide sequence identity (99%) was revealed between the genome of P. ananatis AJ13355 and the previously published genome of P. ananatis LMG 20103. Short colinear regions, which are identical to DNA sequences in the Escherichia coli MG1655 chromosome, were found to be widely dispersed along the P. ananatis AJ13355 genome. Conjugal gene transfer from E. coli to P. ananatis, mediated by homologous recombination between short identical sequences, was also experimentally demonstrated. The determination of the genome sequence has paved the way for the directed metabolic engineering of P. ananatis to produce biotechnologically relevant compounds.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis B1-9 is an endophytic Gram-negative rhizobacterium that was isolated for its ability to promote plant growth and improve crop yield in the field. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. ananatis B1-9. Comparison of this sequence to the sequenced genome of a plant-pathogenic P. ananatis strain, LMG20103, indicated that the pathogenesis-related genes were absent, but a subset of gene functions that may be related to its plant growth promotion were present.
Project description:Precise and fluent genetic manipulation is still limited to only a few prokaryotes. Ideally the highly advanced technologies available in Escherichia coli could be broadly applied. Our efforts to apply lambda Red technology, widely termed 'recombineering', in Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus yielded only limited success. Consequently we explored the properties of an endogenous Photorhabdus luminescens lambda Red-like operon, Plu2934/Plu2935/Plu2936. Bioinformatic and functional tests indicate that Plu2936 is a 5'-3' exonuclease equivalent to Red? and Plu2935 is a single strand annealing protein equivalent to Red?. Plu2934 dramatically enhanced recombineering efficiency. Results from bioinformatic analysis and recombineering assays suggest that Plu2934 may be functionally equivalent to Red?, which inhibits the major endogenous E. coli nuclease, RecBCD. The recombineering utility of Plu2934/Plu2935/Plu2936 was demonstrated by engineering Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus genomes, including the activation of the 49-kb non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) gene cluster plu2670 by insertion of a tetracycline inducible promoter. After tetracycline induction, novel secondary metabolites were identified. Our work unlocks the potential for bioprospecting and functional genomics in the Photorhabdus, Xenorhabdus and related genomes.
Project description:Lambda Red recombineering is a powerful technique for making targeted genetic changes in bacteria. However, many applications are limited by the frequency of recombination. Previous studies have suggested that endogenous nucleases may hinder recombination by degrading the exogenous DNA used for recombineering. In this work, we identify ExoVII as a nuclease which degrades the ends of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) oligonucleotides and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cassettes. Removing this nuclease improves both recombination frequency and the inheritance of mutations at the 3' ends of ssDNA and dsDNA. Extending this approach, we show that removing a set of five exonucleases (RecJ, ExoI, ExoVII, ExoX, and Lambda Exo) substantially improves the performance of co-selection multiplex automatable genome engineering (CoS-MAGE). In a given round of CoS-MAGE with ten ssDNA oligonucleotides, the five nuclease knockout strain has on average 46% more alleles converted per clone, 200% more clones with five or more allele conversions, and 35% fewer clones without any allele conversions. Finally, we use these nuclease knockout strains to investigate and clarify the effects of oligonucleotide phosphorothioation on recombination frequency. The results described in this work provide further mechanistic insight into recombineering, and substantially improve recombineering performance.