Cdc14 inhibition by the spindle assembly checkpoint prevents unscheduled centrosome separation in budding yeast.
ABSTRACT: The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance mechanism that delays anaphase onset and mitotic exit in response to the lack of kinetochore attachment. The target of the SAC is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC) bound to its Cdc20 activator. The Cdc20/APC complex is in turn required for sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of securin, thus relieving inhibition of separase that unties sister chromatids. Separase is also involved in the Cdc-fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) pathway of nucleolar release and activation of the Cdc14 phosphatase, which regulates several microtubule-linked processes at the metaphase/anaphase transition and also drives mitotic exit. Here, we report that the SAC prevents separation of microtubule-organizing centers (spindle pole bodies [SPBs]) when spindle assembly is defective. Under these circumstances, failure of SAC activation causes unscheduled SPB separation, which requires Cdc20/APC, the FEAR pathway, cytoplasmic dynein, and the actin cytoskeleton. We propose that, besides inhibiting sister chromatid separation, the SAC preserves the accurate transmission of chromosomes also by preventing SPBs to migrate far apart until the conditions to assemble a bipolar spindle are satisfied.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inhibits anaphase progression in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but cells can eventually override mitotic arrest by a process known as mitotic slippage or adaptation. This is a problem for cancer chemotherapy using microtubule poisons. RESULTS: Here we describe mitotic slippage in yeast bub2? mutant cells that are defective in the repression of precocious telophase onset (mitotic exit). Precocious activation of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdh1 caused mitotic slippage in the presence of nocodazole, while the SAC was still active. APC/C-Cdh1, but not APC/C-Cdc20, triggered anaphase progression (securin degradation, separase-mediated cohesin cleavage, sister-chromatid separation and chromosome missegregation), in addition to telophase onset (mitotic exit), during mitotic slippage. This demonstrates that an inhibitory system not only of APC/C-Cdc20 but also of APC/C-Cdh1 is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments. CONCLUSIONS: The sequential activation of APC/C-Cdc20 to APC/C-Cdh1 during mitosis is central to accurate mitosis. Precocious activation of APC/C-Cdh1 in metaphase (pre-anaphase) causes mitotic slippage in SAC-activated cells. For the prevention of mitotic slippage, concomitant inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 may be effective for tumor therapy with mitotic spindle poisons in humans.
Project description:Activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)) by Cdc20 is delayed by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). When all kinetochores come under tension, the SAC is turned off and APC/C(Cdc20) degrades cyclin B and securin, which activates separase . The latter then cleaves cohesin holding sister chromatids together . Because cohesin cleavage also destroys the tension responsible for turning off the SAC, cells must possess a mechanism to prevent SAC reactivation during anaphase, which could be conferred by a dependence of the SAC on Cdk1 [3-5]. To test this, we analyzed mouse oocytes and embryos expressing nondegradable cyclin B together with a Cdk1-resistant form of separase. After biorientation and SAC inactivation, APC/C(Cdc20) activates separase but the resulting loss of (some) cohesion is accompanied by SAC reactivation and APC/C(Cdc20) inhibition, which aborts the process of further securin degradation. Cyclin B is therefore the only APC/C(Cdc20) substrate whose degradation at the onset of anaphase is necessary to prevent SAC reactivation. The mutual activation of tension sensitive SAC and Cdk1 creates a bistable system that ensures complete activation of separase and total downregulation of Cdk1 when all chromosomes have bioriented.
Project description:Sister chromatid attachment during meiosis II (MII) is maintained by securin-mediated inhibition of separase. In maternal ageing, oocytes show increased inter-sister kinetochore distance and premature sister chromatid separation (PSCS), suggesting aberrant separase activity. Here, we find that MII oocytes from aged mice have less securin than oocytes from young mice and that this reduction is mediated by increased destruction by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) during meiosis I (MI) exit. Inhibition of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) kinase, Mps1, during MI exit in young oocytes replicates this phenotype. Further, over-expression of securin or Mps1 protects against the age-related increase in inter-sister kinetochore distance and PSCS. These findings show that maternal ageing compromises the oocyte SAC-APC/C axis leading to a decrease in securin that ultimately causes sister chromatid cohesion loss. Manipulating this axis and/or increasing securin may provide novel therapeutic approaches to alleviating the risk of oocyte aneuploidy in maternal ageing.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is required to block sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic apparatus. The SAC prevents cells from entering anaphase by inhibiting the ubiquitylation of cyclin B1 and securin by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. The target of the SAC is the essential APC/C activator Cdc20. It is unclear how the SAC inactivates Cdc20 but most current models suggest that Cdc20 forms a stable complex with the Mad2 checkpoint protein. Here we show that most Cdc20 is not in a complex with Mad2; instead Mad2 is required for Cdc20 to form a complex with another checkpoint protein, BubR1. We further show that during the SAC, the APC/C ubiquitylates Cdc20 to target it for degradation. Thus, ubiquitylation of human Cdc20 is not required to release it from the checkpoint complex, but to degrade it to maintain mitotic arrest.
Project description:In the dividing eukaryotic cell, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures that each daughter cell inherits an identical set of chromosomes. The SAC coordinates the correct attachment of sister chromatid kinetochores to the mitotic spindle with activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), the E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for initiating chromosome separation. In response to unattached kinetochores, the SAC generates the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which inhibits the APC/C and delays chromosome segregation. By cryo-electron microscopy, here we determine the near-atomic resolution structure of a human APC/C–MCC complex (APC/C(MCC)). Degron-like sequences of the MCC subunit BubR1 block degron recognition sites on Cdc20, the APC/C coactivator subunit responsible for substrate interactions. BubR1 also obstructs binding of the initiating E2 enzyme UbcH10 to repress APC/C ubiquitination activity. Conformational variability of the complex enables UbcH10 association, and structural analysis shows how the Cdc20 subunit intrinsic to the MCC (Cdc20(MCC)) is ubiquitinated, a process that results in APC/C reactivation when the SAC is silenced.
Project description:Two mechanisms safeguard the bipolar attachment of chromosomes in mitosis. A correction mechanism destabilizes erroneous attachments that do not generate tension across sister kinetochores . In response to unattached kinetochores, the mitotic checkpoint delays anaphase onset by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)) . Upon satisfaction of both pathways, the APC/C(Cdc20) elicits the degradation of securin and cyclin B . This liberates separase triggering sister chromatid disjunction and inactivates cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) causing mitotic exit. How eukaryotic cells avoid the engagement of attachment monitoring mechanisms when sister chromatids split and tension is lost at anaphase is poorly understood . Here we show that Cdk1 inactivation disables mitotic checkpoint surveillance at anaphase onset in human cells. Preventing cyclin B1 proteolysis at the time of sister chromatid disjunction destabilizes kinetochore-microtubule attachments and triggers the engagement of the mitotic checkpoint. As a consequence, mitotic checkpoint proteins accumulate at anaphase kinetochores, the APC/C(Cdc20) is inhibited, and securin reaccumulates. Conversely, acute pharmacological inhibition of Cdk1 abrogates the engagement and maintenance of the mitotic checkpoint upon microtubule depolymerization. We propose that the simultaneous destruction of securin and cyclin B elicited by the APC/C(Cdc20) couples chromosome segregation to the dissolution of attachment monitoring mechanisms during mitotic exit.
Project description:The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) ensures genomic stability by preventing sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are attached to the spindle. It catalyzes the production of the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC), which inhibits Cdc20 to inactivate the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). Here we show that two Cdc20-binding motifs in BubR1 of the recently identified ABBA motif class are crucial for the MCC to recognize active APC/C-Cdc20. Mutating these motifs eliminates MCC binding to the APC/C, thereby abolishing the SAC and preventing cells from arresting in response to microtubule poisons. These ABBA motifs flank a KEN box to form a cassette that is highly conserved through evolution, both in the arrangement and spacing of the ABBA-KEN-ABBA motifs, and association with the amino-terminal KEN box required to form the MCC. We propose that the ABBA-KEN-ABBA cassette holds the MCC onto the APC/C by binding the two Cdc20 molecules in the MCC-APC/C complex.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. APC/C is activated by Cdc20 and inhibited by the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which delays mitotic exit when the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is activated. We previously identified apcin as a small molecule ligand of Cdc20 that inhibits APC/CCdc20 and prolongs mitosis. Here we find that apcin paradoxically shortens mitosis when SAC activity is high. These opposing effects of apcin arise from targeting of a common binding site in Cdc20 required for both substrate ubiquitination and MCC-dependent APC/C inhibition. Furthermore, we found that apcin cooperates with p31comet to relieve MCC-dependent inhibition of APC/C. Apcin therefore causes either net APC/C inhibition, prolonging mitosis when SAC activity is low, or net APC/C activation, shortening mitosis when SAC activity is high, demonstrating that a small molecule can produce opposing biological effects depending on regulatory context.
Project description:Sister chromatid separation creates a sudden loss of tension on kinetochores, which could, in principle, re-activate the spindle checkpoint in anaphase. This so-called "anaphase problem" is probably avoided by timely inactivation of cyclin B1-Cdk1, which may prevent the spindle tension sensing Aurora B kinase from destabilizing kinetochore-microtubule interactions as they lose tension in anaphase. However, exactly how spindle checkpoint re-activation is prevented remains unclear. Here, we investigated how different degrees of cyclin B1 stabilization affected the spindle checkpoint in metaphase and anaphase. Cells expressing a strongly stabilized (R42A) mutant of cyclin B1 degraded APC/C(Cdc20) substrates normally, showing that checkpoint release was not inhibited by high cyclin B1-Cdk1 activity. However, after this initial wave of APC/C(Cdc20) activity, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells with uncohesed sister chromatids. Expression of a lysine mutant of cyclin B1 that is degraded only slightly inefficiently allowed a normal metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Strikingly, however, the spindle checkpoint returned in cells that had not degraded the cyclin B1 mutant 10-15 min after anaphase onset. When cyclin B1 remained in late anaphase, cytokinesis stalled, and translocation of INCENP from separated sister chromatids to the spindle midzone was blocked. This late anaphase arrest required the activity of Aurora B and Mps1. In conclusion, our results reveal that complete removal of cyclin B1 is essential to prevent the return of the spindle checkpoint following sister chromatid disjunction. Speculatively, increasing activity of APC/C(Cdc20) in late anaphase helps to keep cyclin B1 levels low.
Project description:During mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inhibits the Cdc20-activated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)), which promotes protein degradation, and delays anaphase onset to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, the SAC function in meiotic anaphase regulation is poorly understood. Here, we examined the SAC function in fission yeast meiosis. As in mitosis, a SAC factor, Mad2, delayed anaphase onset via Slp1 (fission yeast Cdc20) when chromosomes attach to the spindle improperly. However, when the SAC delayed anaphase I, the interval between meiosis I and II shortened. Furthermore, anaphase onset was advanced and the SAC effect was reduced at meiosis II. The advancement of anaphase onset depended on a meiosis-specific, Cdc20-related factor, Fzr1/Mfr1, which contributed to anaphase cyclin decline and anaphase onset and was inefficiently inhibited by the SAC. Our findings show that impacts of SAC activation are not confined to a single division at meiosis due to meiosis-specific APC/C regulation, which has probably been evolved for execution of two meiotic divisions.