Bidirectional signaling through ephrinA2-EphA2 enhances osteoclastogenesis and suppresses osteoblastogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Bone is remodeled constantly throughout life by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. To maintain bone volume and quality, differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts is tightly regulated through communication between and within these two cell lineages. Previously we reported that cell-cell interaction mediated by ephrinB2 ligand on osteoclasts and EphB4 receptor on osteoblasts generates bidirectional anti-osteoclastogenic and pro-osteoblastogenic signals into respective cells and presumably facilitates transition from bone resorption to bone formation. Here we show that bidirectional ephrinA2-EphA2 signaling regulates bone remodeling at the initiation phase. EphrinA2 expression was rapidly induced by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand in osteoclast precursors; this was dependent on the transcription factor c-Fos but independent of the c-Fos target gene product NFATc1. Receptor EphA2 was expressed in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts. Overexpression experiments revealed that both ephrinA2 and EphA2 in osteoclast precursors enhanced differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts and that phospholipase Cgamma2 may mediate ephrinA2 reverse signaling. Moreover, ephrinA2 on osteoclasts was cleaved by metalloproteinases, and ephrinA2 released in the culture medium enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Interestingly, differentiation of osteoblasts lacking EphA2 was enhanced along with alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, and Osterix expression, indicating that EphA2 on osteoblasts generates anti-osteoblastogenic signals presumably by up-regulating RhoA activity. Therefore, ephrinA2-EphA2 interaction facilitates the initiation phase of bone remodeling by enhancing osteoclast differentiation and suppressing osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:MicroRNAs have an important role in bone homeostasis. However, the detailed mechanism of microRNA-mediated intercellular communication between bone cells remains elusive. Here, we report that osteoclasts secrete microRNA-enriched exosomes, by which miR-214 is transferred into osteoblasts to inhibit their function. In a coculture system, inhibition of exosome formation and secretion prevented miR-214 transportation. Exosomes specifically recognized osteoblasts through the interaction between ephrinA2 and EphA2. In osteoclast-specific miR-214 transgenic mice, exosomes were secreted into the serum, and miR-214 and ephrinA2 levels were elevated. Therefore, these exosomes have an inhibitory role in osteoblast activity. miR-214 and ephrinA2 levels in serum exosomes from osteoporotic patients and mice were upregulated substantially. These exosomes may significantly inhibit osteoblast activity. Inhibition of exosome secretion via Rab27a small interfering RNA prevented ovariectomized-induced osteoblast dysfunction in vivo. Taken together, these findings suggest that exosome-mediated transfer of microRNA plays an important role in the regulation of osteoblast activity. Circulating miR-214 in exosomes not only represents a biomarker for bone loss but could selectively regulate osteoblast function.
Project description:Bone remodeling, a physiological process characterized by bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, is important for the maintenance of healthy bone in adult humans. Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone erosion and osteoporosis and are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated through differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) has been reported to induce osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we explored whether Gracilaria verrucosa extracts (GE) could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. GE significantly inhibited RANKL-activated osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting protein expression of c-fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), vital factors in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. In addition, GE attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. In summary, GE can prevent osteoclastogenesis and hormone-related bone loss via blockage of c-fos-NFATc1 signaling. Our results suggest that GE may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:The circadian clock regulates various physiological processes, including bone metabolism. The nuclear receptors Reverbs, comprising Rev-erb? and Rev-erb?, play a key role as transcriptional regulators of the circadian clock. In this study, we demonstrate that Rev-erbs negatively regulate differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The knockdown of Rev-erb? in osteoclast precursor cells enhanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, as well as expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The overexpression of Rev-erb? leads to attenuation of the NFATc1 expression via inhibition of recruitment of c-Fos to the NFATc1 promoter. The overexpression of Rev-erb? in osteoblast precursors attenuated the expression of osteoblast marker genes including Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OC). Rev-erb? interfered with the recruitment of Runx2 to the promoter region of the target genes. Conversely, knockdown of Reverb? in the osteoblast precursors enhanced the osteoblast differentiation and function. In addition, Rev-erb? negatively regulated osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation by suppressing the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of GSK4112, a Rev-erb agonist, protects RANKL-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation in vivo . Taken together, our results demonstrate a molecular mechanism of Rev-erbs in the bone remodeling, and provide a molecular basis for a potential therapeutic target for treatment of bone disease characterized by excessive bone resorption.
Project description:Osteoblasts are the primary cells responsible for bone formation. They also support osteoclast formation from bone marrow precursors in response to osteotropic factors by inducing receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) expression and down-regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) production. In addition to the RANKL-RANK-OPG signaling axis, other factors produced by osteoblasts/stromal cells are involved in osteoclastogenesis. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of leucine-rich repeat-containing 17 (LRRc17), a member of the LRR superfamily that acts as a negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Osteoblasts showed high levels of LRRc17 expression, which was down-regulated in response to the pro-osteoclastogenic factor 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). Recombinant LRRc17 protein inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow precursors, whereas it did not affect the differentiation or activation of macrophages and dendritic cells. These results suggest that among the cell types derived from common myeloid precursors, LRRc17 specifically regulates osteoclasts. Further analysis revealed that LRRc17 attenuated RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1 by blocking phospholipase C-gamma signaling, which, in turn, inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, our results demonstrated a novel inhibitory activity of LRRc17 in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:Calcium signaling plays a central role in the regulation of bone cells, although uncertainty remains with regard to the channels involved. In previous studies, we determined that the calcium channel Orai1 was required for the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. To define the skeletal functions of calcium release-activated calcium currents, we compared the mice with targeted deletion of the calcium channel Orai1 to wild-type littermate controls, and examined differentiation and function of osteoblast and osteoclast precursors in vitro with and without Orai1 inhibition. Consistent with in vitro findings, Orai1(-/-) mice lacked multinucleated osteoclasts. Yet, they did not develop osteopetrosis. Mononuclear cells expressing osteoclast products were found in Orai1(-/-) mice, and in vitro studies showed significantly reduced, but not absent, mineral resorption by the mononuclear osteoclast-like cells that form in culture from peripheral blood monocytic cells when Orai1 is inhibited. More prominent in Orai1(-/-) mice was a decrease in bone with retention of fetal cartilage. Micro-computed tomography showed reduced cortical ossification and thinned trabeculae in Orai1(-/-) animals compared with controls; bone deposition was markedly decreased in the knockout mice. This suggested a previously unrecognized role for Orai1 within osteoblasts. Analysis of osteoblasts and precursors in Orai1(-/-) and control mice showed a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblasts. In vitro studies confirmed that inhibiting Orai1 activity impaired differentiation and function of human osteoblasts, supporting a critical function for Orai1 in osteoblasts, in addition to its role as a regulator of osteoclast formation.
Project description:CypA (Cyclophilin A) is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase previously shown to be required for chondrogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification. However, the effects of CypA on osteoclast activity and bone maintenance are entirely unknown. Here, we show that Ppia(-/-) mice demonstrate low bone mineral density, reduced osteoblast numbers, and increased osteoclast numbers. When isolated from the calvaria, Ppia(-/-) osteoblasts demonstrate decreased osteogenic differentiation, whereas Ppia(-/-) osteoclasts derived from the long bones showed increased osteoclastic activity. Overexpression and gene silencing of CypA verified osteogenic and anti-osteoclastic effects. In osteoblasts, CypA is necessary for BMP-2 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2)-induced Smad phosphorylation. In osteoclasts, loss of CypA activates BtK (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) and subsequently integrates with TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6) and/or c-fos signaling to induce NFATc1 (nuclear factors of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1). Collectively, CypA dually exerts pro-osteogenic and anti-osteoclastic effects. Thus, modulation of CypA may be useful in future efforts targeting osteoporosis.
Project description:Bone metabolism is a vital process that involves resorption by osteoclasts and formation by osteoblasts, which is closely regulated by immune cells. The neuronal guidance protein Netrin-1 regulates immune cell migration and inflammatory reactions, but its role in bone metabolism is unknown. During osteoclast differentiation, osteoclast precursors increase expression of Netrin-1 and its receptor Unc5b. Netrin-1 binds, in an autocrine and paracrine manner, to Unc5b to promote osteoclast differentiation in vitro, and absence of Netrin-1 or antibody-mediated blockade of Netrin-1 or Unc5b prevents osteoclast differentiation of both murine and human precursors. We confirmed the functional relationship of Netrin-1 in osteoclast differentiation in vivo using Netrin-1-deficient (Ntn1(-/-) ) or wild-type (WT) bone marrow transplanted mice. Notably, Ntn1(-/-) chimeras have markedly diminished osteoclasts, as well as increased cortical and trabecular bone density and volume compared with WT mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that Netrin-1 regulates osteoclast differentiation by altering cytoskeletal assembly. Netrin-1 increases regulator of Rho-GEF subfamily (LARG) and repulsive guidance molecule (RGMa) association with Unc5b, which increases expression and activation of cytoskeletal regulators RhoA and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Netrin-1 and its receptor Unc5b likely play a role in fusion of osteoclast precursors because Netrin-1 and DC-STAMP are tightly linked. These results identify Netrin-1 as a key regulator of osteoclast differentiation that may be a new target for bone therapies.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease with dysregulated coupling between bone resorption and bone formation, which results in decreased bone mineral density. The MEF2C locus, which encodes the transcription factor MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide C (MEF2C), is strongly associated with adult osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Although the role of MEF2C in bone and cartilage formation by osteoblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes has been studied, the role of MEF2C in osteoclasts, which mediate bone resorption, remains unclear. In this study, we identified MEF2C as a positive regulator of human and mouse osteoclast differentiation. While decreased MEF2C expression resulted in diminished osteoclastogenesis, ectopic expression of MEF2C enhanced osteoclast generation. Using transcriptomic and bioinformatic approaches, we found that MEF2C promotes the RANKL-mediated induction of the transcription factors c-FOS and NFATc1, which play a key role in osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, MEF2C binds to FOS regulatory regions to induce c-FOS expression, leading to the activation of NFATC1 and downstream osteoclastogenesis. Inducible deletion of Mef2c in mice resulted in increased bone mass under physiological conditions and protected mice from bone erosion by diminishing osteoclast formation in K/BxN serum induced arthritis, a murine model of inflammatory arthritis. Our findings reveal direct regulation of osteoclasts by MEF2C, thus adding osteoclasts as a cell type in which altered MEF2C expression or function can contribute to pathological bone remodeling.
Project description:TGF-? Inducible Early Gene-1 (TIEG1) is a Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF10) that was originally cloned from human osteoblasts as an early response gene to TGF-? treatment. As reported previously, TIEG1(-/-) mice have decreased cortical bone thickness and vertebral bone volume and have increased spacing between the trabeculae in the femoral head relative to wildtype controls. Here, we have investigated the role of TIEG1 in osteoclasts to further determine their potential role in mediating this phenotype. We have found that TIEG1(-/-) osteoclast precursors differentiated more slowly compared to wildtype precursors in vitro and high RANKL doses are able to overcome this defect. We also discovered that TIEG1(-/-) precursors exhibit defective RANKL-induced phosphorylation and accumulation of NFATc1 and the NFATc1 target gene DC-STAMP. Higher RANKL concentrations reversed defective NFATc1 signaling and restored differentiation. After differentiation, wildtype osteoclasts underwent apoptosis more quickly than TIEG1(-/-) osteoclasts. We observed increased AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathway activation in TIEG1(-/-) osteoclasts, consistent with the roles of these kinases in promoting osteoclast survival. Adenoviral delivery of TIEG1 (AdTIEG1) to TIEG1(-/-) cells reversed the RANKL-induced NFATc1 signaling defect in TIEG1(-/-) precursors and eliminated the differentiation and apoptosis defects. Suppression of TIEG1 with siRNA in wildtype cells reduced differentiation and NFATc1 activation. Together, these data provide evidence that TIEG1 controls osteoclast differentiation by reducing NFATc1 pathway activation and reduces osteoclast survival by suppressing AKT and MEK/ERK signaling.
Project description:Collagen triple helix repeat-containing1 (Cthrc1) has previously been implicated in osteogenic differentiation and positive regulation of bone mass, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we characterized the bone phenotype of a novel Cthrc1 null mouse strain using bone histomorphometry, ?CT analysis and functional readouts for bone strength. In male Cthrc1 null mice both trabecular bone as well as cortical bone formation was impaired, whereas in female Cthrc1 null mice only trabecular bone parameters were altered. Novel and highly specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that CTHRC1 is expressed by osteocytes and osteoblasts, but not osteoclasts. Furthermore, Cthrc1 null mice exhibited increased bone resorption with increased number of osteoclast and increased osteoclast activity together with enhanced expression of osteoclastogenic genes such as c-Fos, Rankl, Trap, and Nfatc1. Differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes isolated from Cthrc1 null mice differentiated into osteoclasts as effectively as those from wildtype mice. In the presence of CTHRC1 osteoclastogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes was dramatically inhibited as was functional bone resorption by osteoclasts. This process was accompanied by downregulation of osteoclastogenic marker genes, indicating that extrinsically derived CTHRC1 is required for such activity. In vitro, CTHRC1 had no effect on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, however, calvarial osteoblasts from Cthrc1 null mice exhibited reduced osteogenic differentiation compared to osteoblasts from wildtypes. In a collagen antibody-induced arthritis model Cthrc1 null mice suffered significantly more severe inflammation and joint destruction than wildtypes, suggesting that CTHRC1 expressed by the activated synoviocytes has anti-inflammatory effects. Mechanistically, we found that CTHRC1 inhibited NF?B activation by preventing I?B? degradation while also inhibiting ERK1/2 activation. Collectively our studies demonstrate that CTHRC1 secreted from osteocytes and osteoblasts functions as an inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation via inhibition of NF?B-dependent signaling. Furthermore, our data suggest that CTHRC1 has potent anti-inflammatory properties that limit arthritic joint destruction.