Systems-level interactions between insulin-EGF networks amplify mitogenic signaling.
ABSTRACT: Crosstalk mechanisms have not been studied as thoroughly as individual signaling pathways. We exploit experimental and computational approaches to reveal how a concordant interplay between the insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling networks can potentiate mitogenic signaling. In HEK293 cells, insulin is a poor activator of the Ras/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) cascade, yet it enhances ERK activation by low EGF doses. We find that major crosstalk mechanisms that amplify ERK signaling are localized upstream of Ras and at the Ras/Raf level. Computational modeling unveils how critical network nodes, the adaptor proteins GAB1 and insulin receptor substrate (IRS), Src kinase, and phosphatase SHP2, convert insulin-induced increase in the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) concentration into enhanced Ras/ERK activity. The model predicts and experiments confirm that insulin-induced amplification of mitogenic signaling is abolished by disrupting PIP(3)-mediated positive feedback via GAB1 and IRS. We demonstrate that GAB1 behaves as a non-linear amplifier of mitogenic responses and insulin endows EGF signaling with robustness to GAB1 suppression. Our results show the feasibility of using computational models to identify key target combinations and predict complex cellular responses to a mixture of external cues.
Project description:described in: Systems-level interactions between insulin-EGF networks amplify mitogenic signaling.
Borisov N, Aksamitiene E, Kiyatkin A, Legewie S, Berkhout J, Maiwald T, Kaimachnikov NP, Timmer J, Hoek JB, Kholodenko BN.;Mol Syst Biol. 2009;5:256. Epub 2009 Apr 7. PMID:19357636; doi:10.1038/msb.2009.19
Crosstalk mechanisms have not been studied as thoroughly as individual signaling pathways. We exploit experimental and computational approaches to reveal how a concordant interplay between the insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling networks can potentiate mitogenic signaling. In HEK293 cells, insulin is a poor activator of the Ras/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) cascade, yet it enhances ERK activation by low EGF doses. We find that major crosstalk mechanisms that amplify ERK signaling are localized upstream of Ras and at the Ras/Raf level. Computational modeling unveils how critical network nodes, the adaptor proteins GAB1 and insulin receptor substrate (IRS), Src kinase, and phosphatase SHP2, convert insulin-induced increase in the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) concentration into enhanced Ras/ERK activity. The model predicts and experiments confirm that insulin-induced amplification of mitogenic signaling is abolished by disrupting PIP(3)-mediated positive feedback via GAB1 and IRS. We demonstrate that GAB1 behaves as a non-linear amplifier of mitogenic responses and insulin endows EGF signaling with robustness to GAB1 suppression. Our results show the feasibility of using computational models to identify key target combinations and predict complex cellular responses to a mixture of external cues.
An extracellular compartment with 34 times the volume of the cell was added and the association rate as well as the dissociation constants for Insulin and EGF binding were altered (kon'=34*kon, KD'=KD/34). This was done to allow using the concentrations for those species given in the article and retaining the same dynamics and Ligand depletion as in the matlab file the SBML file was exported from.
SBML model exported from PottersWheel on 2008-10-14 16:26:44.
This model originates from BioModels Database: A Database of Annotated Published Models (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels/). It is copyright (c) 2005-2011 The BioModels.net Team.
To cite BioModels Database, please use: Li C, Donizelli M, Rodriguez N, Dharuri H, Endler L, Chelliah V, Li L, He E, Henry A, Stefan MI, Snoep JL, Hucka M, Le Novère N, Laibe C (2010) BioModels Database: An enhanced, curated and annotated resource for published quantitative kinetic models. BMC Syst Biol., 4:92.
Project description:Grb2-associated binder 1 (GAB1) is a scaffold protein involved in numerous interactions that propagate signaling by growth factor and cytokine receptors. Here we explore in silico and validate in vivo the role of GAB1 in the control of mitogenic (Ras/MAPK) and survival (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt) signaling stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We built a comprehensive mechanistic model that allows for reliable predictions of temporal patterns of cellular responses to EGF under diverse perturbations, including different EGF doses, GAB1 suppression, expression of mutant proteins, and pharmacological inhibitors. We show that the temporal dynamics of GAB1 tyrosine phosphorylation is significantly controlled by positive GAB1-PI3K feedback and negative MAPK-GAB1 feedback. Our experimental and computational results demonstrate that the essential function of GAB1 is to enhance PI3K/Akt activation and extend the duration of Ras/MAPK signaling. By amplifying positive interactions between survival and mitogenic pathways, GAB1 plays the critical role in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Three members of Gab family docking proteins, Gab1, Gab2 and Gab3, have been identified in humans. Previous studies have found that the hepatocyte growth factor preferentially utilizes Gab1 for signalling, whereas Bcr-Abl selectively signals through Gab2. Gab1-SHP2 interaction has been shown to mediate ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) activation by EGF (epidermal growth factor). However, it was unclear whether EGF selectively utilizes Gab1 for signalling to ERK and whether Gab2 is dispensable in cells where Gab1 and Gab2 are co-expressed. Using T47D and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells that express endogenous Gab1 and Gab2, we examined the role of these docking proteins in EGF-induced ERK activation. It was found that EGF induced a similar amount of SHP2-Gab1 and SHP2-Gab2 complexes. Expression of either SHP2-binding defective Gab1 or Gab2 mutant blocked EGF-induced ERK activation. Down-regulation of either Gab1 or Gab2 by siRNAs (small interfering RNAs) effectively inhibited the EGF-stimulated ERK activation pathway and cell migration. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of Gab1 siRNA could be rescued not only by expression of an exogenous mouse Gab1 but also by an exogenous human Gab2 and vice versa, but not by IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1). These results reveal that Gab2 plays a pivotal role in the EGF-induced ERK activation pathway and that it can complement the function of Gab1 in the EGF signalling pathway. Furthermore, Gab1 and Gab2 are critical signalling threshold proteins for ERK activation by EGF.
Project description:In L6 muscle cells expressing wild-type human insulin receptors (L6hIR), insulin induced protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and beta activities. The expression of kinase-deficient IR mutants abolished insulin stimulation of these PKC isoforms, indicating that receptor kinase is necessary for PKC activation by insulin. In L6hIR cells, inhibition of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) expression caused a 90% decrease in insulin-induced PKCalpha and -beta activation and blocked insulin stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and DNA synthesis. Blocking PKCbeta with either antisense oligonucleotide or the specific inhibitor LY379196 decreased the effects of insulin on MAPK activity and DNA synthesis by >80% but did not affect epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and serum-stimulated mitogenesis. In contrast, blocking c-Ras with lovastatin or the use of the L61,S186 dominant negative Ras mutant inhibited insulin-stimulated MAPK activity and DNA synthesis by only about 30% but completely blocked the effect of EGF. PKCbeta block did not affect Ras activity but almost completely inhibited insulin-induced Raf kinase activation and coprecipitation with PKCbeta. Finally, blocking PKCalpha expression by antisense oligonucleotide constitutively increased MAPK activity and DNA synthesis, with little effect on their insulin sensitivity. We make the following conclusions. (i) The tyrosine kinase activity of the IR is necessary for insulin activation of PKCalpha and -beta. (ii) IRS-1 phosphorylation is necessary for insulin activation of these PKCs in the L6 cells. (iii) In these cells, PKCbeta plays a unique Ras-independent role in mediating insulin but not EGF or other growth factor mitogenic signals.
Project description:Shp2, an ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, is essential for regulation of Ras/ERK signaling pathway and tumorigenesis. Here we report that Shp2 is modified by SUMO1 at lysine residue 590 (K590) in its C-terminus, which is reduced by SUMO1-specific protease SENP1. Analysis of wild-type Shp2 and SUMOylation-defective Shp2(K590R) mutant reveals that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes EGF-stimulated ERK signaling pathway and increases anchorage-independent cell growth and xenografted tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Furthermore, we find that mutant Shp2(K590R) reduces its binding with the scaffolding protein Gab1, and consistent with this, knockdown of SENP1 increased the interaction between Shp2 and Gab1. More surprisingly, we show that human Shp2 (hShp2) and mouse Shp2 (mShp2) have differential effects on ERK activation as a result of different SUMOylation level, which is due to the event of K590 at hShp2 substituted by R594 at mShp2. In summary, our data demonstrate that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes ERK activation via facilitating the formation of Shp2-Gab1 complex and thereby accelerates HCC cell and tumor growth, which presents a novel regulatory mechanism underlying Shp2 in regulation of HCC development.
Project description:In epidermis, Ras can influence proliferation and differentiation; however, regulators of epidermal Ras function are not fully characterized, and Ras effects on growth and differentiation are controversial. EGF induced Ras activation in epidermal cells along with phosphorylation of the multisubstrate docking protein Gab1 and its binding to SHP-2. Expression of mutant Gab1Y627F deficient in SHP-2 binding or dominant-negative SHP-2C459S reduced basal levels of active Ras and downstream MAPK proteins and initiated differentiation. Differentiation triggered by both Gab1Y627F and SHP-2C459S could be blocked by coexpression of active Ras, consistent with Gab1 and SHP-2 action upstream of Ras in this process. To study the role of Gab1 and SHP-2 in tissue, we generated human epidermis overexpressing active Gab1 and SHP-2. Both proteins stimulated proliferation. In contrast, Gab1Y627F and SHP-2C459S inhibited epidermal proliferation and enhanced differentiation. Consistent with a role for Gab1 and SHP-2 in sustaining epidermal Ras/MAPK activity, Gab1-/- murine epidermis displayed lower levels of active Ras and MAPK with postnatal Gab1-/- epidermis, demonstrating the hypoplasia and enhanced differentiation seen previously with transgenic epidermal Ras blockade. These data provide support for a Ras role in promoting epidermal proliferation and opposing differentiation and indicate that Gab1 and SHP-2 promote the undifferentiated epidermal cell state by facilitating Ras/MAPK signaling.
Project description:Mutations in RAS signaling pathway components cause diverse neurodevelopmental disorders, collectively called RASopathies. Previous studies have suggested that dysregulation in RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is restricted to distinct cell types in different RASopathies. Some cases of Noonan syndrome (NS) are associated with gain-of-function mutations in the phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11); however, SHP2 is abundant in multiple cell types, so it is unclear which cell type(s) contribute to NS phenotypes. Here, we found that expressing the NS-associated mutant SHP2D61G in excitatory, but not inhibitory, hippocampal neurons increased ERK signaling and impaired both long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in mice, although endogenous SHP2 was expressed in both neuronal types. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the genes encoding SHP2-interacting proteins that are critical for ERK activation, such as GAB1 and GRB2, were enriched in excitatory neurons. Accordingly, expressing a dominant-negative mutant of GAB1, which reduced its interaction with SHP2D61G, selectively in excitatory neurons, reversed SHP2D61G-mediated deficits. Moreover, ectopic expression of GAB1 and GRB2 together with SHP2D61G in inhibitory neurons resulted in ERK activation. These results demonstrate that RAS-ERK signaling networks are notably different between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, accounting for the cell type-specific pathophysiology of NS and perhaps other RASopathies.
Project description:Communication between different signaling pathways enables cells to coordinate the responses to diverse environmental signals. Activation of the transmembrane growth factor precursors plays a critical role in this communication and often involves metalloprotease-mediated proteolysis. Stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) transactivates the EGF receptors (EGFRs), which occurs via a metalloprotease-dependent cleavage of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF). However, the metalloprotease mediating the transactivation remains elusive. We show that the integral membrane metalloprotease Kuzbanian (KUZ; ADAM10), which controls Notch signaling in Drosophila, stimulates GPCR transactivation of EGFR. Upon stimulation of the bombesin receptors, KUZ increases the docking and activation of adaptors Src homology 2 domain-containing protein and Gab1 on the EGFR, and activation of Ras and Erk. In contrast, transfection of a protease domain-deleted KUZ, or blocking endogenous KUZ by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, suppresses the transactivation. The effect of KUZ on shedding of HB-EGF and consequent transactivation of the EGFR depends on its metalloprotease activity. GPCR activation enhances the association of KUZ and its substrate HB-EGF with tetraspanin CD9. Thus, KUZ regulates the relay between the GPCR and EGFR signaling pathways.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Ras mitogenic signal transduction pathways are frequently activated in breast carcinoma and inhibit mammary differentiation and apoptosis. HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells, which differentiate and synthesize beta-casein following growth to confluency and stimulation with lactogenic hormones, were used to study EGF-dependent signaling during differentiation. Blocking Mek-Erk or phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3 kinase) signaling with specific chemical inhibitors enhanced beta-casein promotor-driven luciferase activity. Because EGF stimulation of HC11 cells resulted in the activation of Ras, the effect of activated Ras (RasV12) or dominant negative (DNRasN17) on lactogen induced differentiation was examined. HC11 cell lines expressing RasV12 or DNRasN17 under the control of a tetracycline (tet)-responsive promotor were constructed. Activated RasV12 expression resulted in reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 and a delay in beta-casein expression in response to prolactin. However, the expression of tet-regulated DNRasN17 and adenovirus-encoded DNRasN17 enhanced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation, Stat5 DNA binding, and beta-casein transcription. The expression of DNRasN17 blocked the activation of the Mek-Erk pathway by EGF but did not prevent the phosphorylation of AKT, a measure of activation of the PI-3-kinase pathway. Moreover, the expression of DNRasN17 prevented the block to lactogenic differentiation induced by EGF. Stimulation of HC11 cells with prolactin resulted in the association of the SHP2 phosphatase with Stat5, and this association was prevented by DNRasN17 expression. These results demonstrate that in HC11 cells DNRas inhibits the Mek-Erk pathway and enhances lactogenic hormone-induced differentiation. This occurs, in part, by inhibiting the association of the SHP2 phosphatase with Stat5.
Project description:Shp2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) related to adult acute myelogenous leukemia and human solid tumors. In this report, we describe identification of a potent Shp2 inhibitor, Fumosorinone (Fumos) from entomogenous fungi, which shows selective inhibition of Shp2 over other tested PTPs. Using a surface plasmon resonance analysis, we further confirmed the physical interaction between Shp2 and Fumos. Fumos inhibits Shp2-dependent activation of the Ras/ERK signal pathway downstream of EGFR, and interrupts EGF-induced Gab1-Shp2 association. As expected, Fumos shows little effects on the Shp2-independent ERK1/2 activation induced by PMA or oncogenic Ras. Furthermore, Fumos down-regulates Src activation, inhibits phosphorylation of Paxillin and prevents tumor cell invasion. These results suggest that Fumos can inhibit Shp2-dependent cell signaling in human cells and has a potential for treatment of Shp2-associated diseases.