Variants in KCNQ1 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the population of mainland China.
ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Two recent genome-wide association studies have identified several novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants in intron 15 of the KCNQ1 gene. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the variants in KCNQ1 on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits in the population of mainland China. METHODS: Three candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 1,912 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 2,041 normal controls using the ligase detection reaction method. RESULTS: We confirmed the association of KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in the population of mainland China. Allele frequency ORs of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were: rs2237892 (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.31, p = 3.0 x 10(-4)); rs2237895 (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32, p = 1.9 x 10(-4)); and rs2237897 (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.36, p = 3.9 x 10(-5)). We also found a significant difference in the distribution of the global haplotypes between the type 2 diabetes group and the normal control group (p = 2.6 x 10(-5)). In addition, in the control group SNP rs2237892 was marginally associated with increasing fasting plasma glucose and SNPs rs2237892 and rs2237897 were associated with HbA(1c). Furthermore, for all three variants, homozygous carriers of the diabetes-associated allele had significantly decreased BMI and waist circumferences. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our investigation confirmed the effects of KCNQ1 variants on type 2 diabetes risk in the Chinese population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) has been found through a genome-wide association study to be a strong candidate for conferring susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in East Asian and European populations. Our objective was to describe the association between polymorphisms at the KCNQ1 locus with insulin resistance, beta-cell function, and other type 2 diabetes-related traits in a sample of Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians living in Singapore. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the associations between four previously reported KCNQ1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with type 2 diabetes-related traits in 3,734 participants from the population-based 1998 Singapore National Health Survey cohort (2,520 Chinese, 693 Malay, and 521 Asian Indians). Insulin resistance was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose using the homeostasis model assessment method, whereas pancreatic beta-cell function was assessed using the corrected insulin response at 120 min (CIR(120)). RESULTS: SNPs rs2237897, rs2237892, and rs2283228 were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, P = 3 x 10(-4); OR 1.38, P = 0.002; OR 1.31, P = 0.012, respectively). Within the Chinese population, the risk alleles for rs2237897, rs2237892, and rs2283228 were significantly associated with higher fasting glucose levels (P = 0.014, 0.011, and 0.034, respectively) and reduced CIR(120)(P = 0.007, 0.013, and 0.014, respectively). A similar trend was observed among the Malay and Asian Indian minority groups, although this did not reach statistical significance because of limited sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk for type 2 diabetes associated with KCNQ1 is likely to be caused by a reduction in insulin secretion. Further studies will be useful to replicate these findings and to fully delineate the role of KCNQ1 and its related pathways in disease pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2237897, and rs2283228) in KCNQ1 are reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possibly caused by a reduction in insulin secretion and higher fasting glucose, but the results are inconsistent. We investigated whether these 4 genetic markers are associated with serum lipid metabolism in a middle-aged Chinese Han population. METHODS: We enrolled 398 consecutive patients, including 180 with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) (male < 55 years, female < 65 years) and 218 controls without documented CAD. All subjects were genotyped for 4 SNPs by using the ligase detection reaction method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) and plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1(apo A1), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were determined by standard biochemical methods. Main anthropometric and metabolic characteristics are analyzed among 3 genotypes at rs2283228, rs2237895, rs2237897, or rs2237892 in KCNQ1. RESULTS: The 3 genotypes AA, AC, and CC were present in rs2283228 and rs2237895, and the 3 genotypes CC, CT, and TT were present in rs2237897 and rs2237892. The minor genotypes CC at rs2283228 and TT at rs2237892 were associated with higher levels of TG (P = 0.007 and 0.026, respectively). Furthermore, subjects with the CC genotype at rs2283228 had lower levels of HDL-C and apo A1 than in the other 2 genotype groups (P = 0.052 and 0.055, respectively). No other associations were detected between these 4 SNPs and FBS or other lipid parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that rs2283228 and rs2237892 in KCNQ1 are associated with lipid metabolism in a middle-aged Chinese Han population.
Project description:Background:Previous studies have examined the role of the KQT-like subfamily Q member1 (KCNQ1) gene polymorphisms on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the findings are inconclusive. Objective:To examine the association between the KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms and the risk of T2DM using an updated meta-analysis with an almost tripled number of studies. Methods:Five electronic databases, such as PubMed and Embase, were searched thoroughly for relevant studies on the associations between seven most studied KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms, including rs2237892, rs2237897, rs2237895, rs2283228, rs231362, rs151290, and rs2074196, and T2DM risk up to September 14, 2019. The summary odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the strength of associations in the random-effects models. We used the trial sequential analysis (TSA) to measure the robustness of the evidence. Results:49 publications including 55 case-control studies (68,378 cases and 66,673 controls) were finally enrolled. In overall analyses, generally, increased T2DM risk was detected for rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2283228, rs151290, and rs2074196, but not for rs231362 under all genetic models. The ORs and 95% CIs for allelic comparison were 1.23 (1.14-1.33) for rs2237892, 1.21 (1.16-1.27) for rs2237895, 1.27 (1.11-1.46) for rs2237897, 1.25 (1.09-1.42) for rs2283228, 1.14 (1.03-1.27) for rs151290, 1.31 (1.23-1.39) for rs2074196, and 1.16 (0.83, 1.61) for rs231362. Stratified analyses showed that associations for rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2283228, and rs151290 were more evident among Asians than Caucasians. TSA demonstrated that the evidence was sufficient for all polymorphisms in this study. The genotypes of the three SNPs (rs2237892, rs2283228, and rs231362) were significantly correlated with altered KCNQ1 gene expression. Conclusion:This meta-analysis suggested that KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms (rs2237892, rs2283228, rs2237895, rs151290, and rs2074196) might be the susceptible factors for T2DM, especially among Asian population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes. This linkage appears to be mediated by altered beta-cell function. In an attempt to study underlying mechanisms, we examined the effect of four KCNQ1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on insulin secretion upon different stimuli. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We genotyped 1,578 nondiabetic subjects at increased risk of type 2 diabetes for rs151290, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide secretion was measured in 170 participants. In 519 participants, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed, in 314 participants an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and in 102 subjects a hyperglycemic clamp combined with GLP-1 and arginine stimuli. RESULTS:rs151290 was nominally associated with 30-min C-peptide levels during OGTT, first-phase insulin secretion, and insulinogenic index after adjustment in the dominant model (all P < or = 0.01). rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897 were nominally associated with OGTT-derived insulin secretion indexes (all P < 0.05). No SNPs were associated with beta-cell function during intravenous glucose or GLP-1 administration. However, rs151290 was associated with glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide and GLP-1 increase after adjustment in the dominant model (P = 0.0042 and P = 0.0198, respectively). No associations were detected between the other SNPs and basal or stimulated incretin levels (all P > or = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Common genetic variation in KCNQ1 is associated with insulin secretion upon oral glucose load in a German population at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The discrepancy between orally and intravenously administered glucose seems to be explained not by altered incretin signaling but most likely by changes in incretin secretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the potassium channel, voltage-gated, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) have recently been reported to associate with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the putative impact of these KCNQ1 polymorphisms (rs2283228, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897) on estimates of glucose stimulated insulin release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypes were examined for associations with serum insulin levels following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population-based sample of 6,039 middle-aged and treatment-naïve individuals. Insulin release indices estimated from the OGTT and the interplay between insulin sensitivity and insulin release were investigated using linear regression and Hotelling T2 analyses. Applying an additive genetic model the minor C-allele of rs2237895 was associated with reduced serum insulin levels 30 min (mean+/-SD: (CC) 277+/-160 vs. (AC) 280+/-164 vs. (AA) 299+/-200 pmol/l, p = 0.008) after an oral glucose load, insulinogenic index (29.6+/-17.4 vs. 30.2+/-18.7vs. 32.2+/-22.1, p = 0.007), incremental area under the insulin curve (20,477+/-12,491 vs. 20,503+/-12,386 vs. 21,810+/-14,685, p = 0.02) among the 4,568 individuals who were glucose tolerant. Adjustment for the degree of insulin sensitivity had no effect on the measures of reduced insulin release. The rs2237895 genotype had a similar impact in the total sample of treatment-naïve individuals. No association with measures of insulin release were identified for the less common diabetes risk alleles of rs2237892, rs2237897, or rs2283228. CONCLUSION: The minor C-allele of rs2237895 of KCNQ1, which has a prevalence of about 42% among Caucasians was associated with reduced measures of insulin release following an oral glucose load suggesting that the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, previously reported for this variant, likely is mediated through an impaired beta cell function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genome-wide association studies in Japanese populations recently identified common variants in the KCNQ1 gene to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We examined the association of these variants within KCNQ1 with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, investigated their effects on insulin secretion and metabolic traits and on the risk of developing complications in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODOLOGY:The KCNQ1 variants rs151290, rs2237892, and rs2237895 were genotyped in a total of 4620 type 2 diabetes patients and 5285 healthy controls from the Netherlands. Data on macrovascular complications, nephropathy and retinopathy were available in a subset of diabetic patients. Association between genotype and insulin secretion/action was assessed in the additional sample of 335 individuals who underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We found that all the genotyped KCNQ1 variants were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in our Dutch population, and the association of rs151290 was the strongest (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35, p = 0.002). The risk C-allele of rs151290 was nominally associated with reduced first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while the non-risk T-allele of rs2237892 was significantly correlated with increased second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.025 and 0.0016, respectively). In addition, the risk C-allele of rs2237892 was associated with higher LDL and total cholesterol levels (p = 0.015 and 0.003, respectively). We found no evidence for an association of KCNQ1 with diabetic complications. CONCLUSIONS:Common variants in the KCNQ1 gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population, which can be explained at least in part by an effect on insulin secretion. Furthermore, our data suggest that KCNQ1 is also associated with lipid metabolism.
Project description:Epidemiological and physiological similarities among Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) suggest that both diseases, share a common genetic background. T2D risk variants have been associated to GDM susceptibility. However, the genetic architecture of GDM is not yet completely understood. We analyzed 176 SNPs for 115 loci previously associated to T2D, GDM and body mass index (BMI), as well as a set of 118 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs), in 750 pregnant Mexican women. Association with GDM was found for two of the most frequently replicated T2D loci: a TCF7L2 haplotype (CTTC: rs7901695, rs4506565, rs7903146, rs12243326; P=2.16 x 10(-06); OR=2.95) and a KCNQ1 haplotype (TTT: rs2237892, rs163184, rs2237897; P=1.98 x 10(-05); OR=0.55). In addition, we found two loci associated to glycemic traits: CENTD2 (60' OGTT glycemia: rs1552224, P=0.03727) and MTNR1B (HOMA B: rs1387153, P=0.05358). Remarkably, a major susceptibility SLC16A11 locus for T2D in Mexicans was not shown to play a role in GDM risk. The fact that two of the main T2D associated loci also contribute to the risk of developing GDM in Mexicans, confirm that both diseases share a common genetic background. However, lack of association with a Native American contribution T2D risk haplotype, SLC16A11, suggests that other genetic mechanisms may be in play for GDM.
Project description:Parent-of-origin effects were observed in an Icelandic population for several genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes, including those in KLF14 (rs4731702), MOB2 (rs2334499), and KCNQ1 (rs2237892, rs231362). We analyzed parent-of-origin effects for these variants, along with two others in KCNQ1 identified in previous genome-wide association studies (rs2237895, rs2299620), in 7,351 Pima Indians from 4,549 nuclear families; 34% of participants had diabetes. In a subset of 287 normoglycemic individuals, acute insulin secretion was measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) parent-of-origin effects were seen for association with type 2 diabetes for all variants. The strongest effect was seen at rs2299620 in KCNQ1; the C allele was associated with increased diabetes when maternally derived (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; P = 4.1 × 10(-12)), but not when paternally derived (OR, 0.93; P = 0.47; P = 9.9 × 10(-6) for difference in maternal and paternal effects). A maternally derived C allele also was associated with a 28% decrease in insulin secretion (P = 0.002). This study confirms parent-of-origin effects in the association with type 2 diabetes for variants in KLF14, MOB2, and KCNQ1. In Pima Indians, the effect of maternally derived KCNQ1 variants appears to be mediated through decreased insulin secretion and is particularly strong, accounting for 4% of the variance in liability to diabetes.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Malaysian Chinese subjects. The KCNQ1 SNPs rs2237892, rs2283228 and rs2237895 were genotyped in 300 T2D patients and 230 control subjects without diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Two logistic regression models of analysis were applied, the first adjusted for age and gender while the second adjusted for age, gender and body mass index. The additive genetic analysis showed that adjusting for body mass index (BMI) even strengthened association of rs2237892, rs2283228 and rs2237895 with T2D (OR = 2.0, P = 5.1 × 10(-5); OR = 1.9, P = 5.2 × 10(-5); OR = 1.9, P = 7.8 × 10(-5), respectively). The haplotype TCA containing the allele of rs2237892 (T), rs2283228 (C) and rs2237895 (A) was highly protective against T2D (Second model; OR = 0.17, P = 3.7 × 10(-11)). The KCNQ1 rs2237892 (TT), and the protective haplotype (TCA) were associated with higher beta-cell function (HOMA-B) in normal subjects (P = 0.0002; 0.014, respectively). This study found that KCNQ1 SNPs was associated with T2D susceptibility in Malaysian Chinese subjects. In addition, certain KCNQ1 haplotypes were strongly associated with T2D.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is up to twice as prevalent among African Americans as Caucasians. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common genetic risk variants for T2D; however, none of these studies were conducted exclusively among subjects of African ancestry. Investigating these known loci in other populations would be an expedient way to evaluate the generalizability of the current findings. The authors evaluated 29 known T2D loci in a large southeastern US cohort study including 4,288 African Americans (1,554 cases and 2,734 controls) enrolled during 2002-2009. Seven of the 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) examined were found to be associated with T2D risk at P ? 0.05, including rs6769511 (IGF2BP2), 2 SNPs in the WFS1 gene (rs4689388 and rs1801214), rs7903146 (TCF7L2), and 3 SNPs in the KCNQ1 gene (rs231362, rs2237892, and rs2237897). Notably, the association for rs7903146 reached the GWAS significance level (P = 3.6 × 10(-8)), with an odds ratio per T allele of 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.46). Regional analyses using GWAS data from Vanderbilt University's BioVU DNA biobank showed significant associations (P < 0.05) with 9 loci, though no association was observed for the index SNPs reported in European- or Asian-ancestry populations. These results extend some of the recent GWAS findings to African Americans and may guide future efforts to identify causal variants for T2D.